rss_2.0European Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation FeedSciendo RSS Feed for European Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation Feed case study for a transformational festival creation in Lourinhã, Portugal<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research aims to evaluate, select, and validate strategic alternatives for implementing a transformational festival proposal in the municipality of Lourinhã, Portugal. The methodological model investigates the historical context, the classical festival themes, and the transformational festival’s characterisation through literature review and an exploratory interview with a major British stakeholder; the market potential through randomised inquiries representative of the Portuguese population; the contextual strategic assessment through a focus group with local stakeholders; and verifying the possibility of validating the concept of a festival design based upon these premises, through an interview with a major national stakeholder and three short interviews. As a result, we characterised transformational festivals, confirmed consumer profile key indicators, and validated a concept design with a hybrid strategic approach, essential to developing a disruptive, attractive, and marketable concept. The originality of the research is related to the return to the origins that these festivals highlight, as opposed to digital trends. The discrepancy between the paradigmatic importance of transformational festivals and their acceptance was highlighted. The research was limited by the lack of stakeholders’ acceptance of participation in the qualitative research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Relationship Between Environmental Sensitivity, Ecological Attitude, and the Ecological Product purchasing Behaviour of Tourists<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research was conducted to determine the relationship between environmental sensitivity, ecological attitude, and ecological product purchasing behaviour of tourists. Within the scope of the research, a survey was conducted on foreign tourists who visited Manavgat, Turkey. The Smart PLS program was used to determine the relationships among the variables. According to the results of the research, it has been determined that tourists’ environmental sensitivity has a strong effect on their ecological attitude and their behaviour in purchasing ecological products. Moreover, ecological attitude plays a mediating role in the relationship between environmental sensitivity and ecological product purchasing behaviour. Many suggestions are offered to the academicians, business managers in the sector, and destination management organisations at the end of the study.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Cuisine in a Tourist City: Food Identity in Sarajevo Restaurant Menus as a Source of Destination Marketing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Food conveys the sense of a place, and it encapsulates both the natural and cultural meanings that locals attach to their culinary heritages. Food tourism contributes to the sustainable development of destinations because food-based activities are part of sustainable tourism practices. Sarajevo is becoming an increasingly popular gastronomic destination. The purpose of this research is to analyse the food image of the city of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, as a relevant issue for food tourism sustainable development in urban environments. To achieve it, this resear ch understands restaurants as a food tourism attraction. To analyse how a destination promotes food identity, this article draws from a content analysis of 16 menus from restaurants located in the four municipalities of the city of Sarajevo. Results rev eal to what extent local restaurants offer menus based on local foods and drinks that represent Bosnian-Herzegovinian cuisine. In particul ar, the research contributes to understanding food tourism in cities, and how restaurants can be crucial in developing and promoting sustainable tourism.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue They Manage in a Sustainable Way? The Role of International Destination Awards in Beach Management<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to reveal the perceptions of local beach destination managers about the level of sustainability in their management practices. This research puts into practice a comparative study assessing two beach destinations: Muğla, located in Turkey, which won the World Travel Award, and Algarve, located in Portugal, which is a member state of the European Union (EU) that has also repeatedly won the same award. In this context, in-depth interviews were held with tourism offices in selected destinations and qualitative data were obtained through semistructured interviews that were carried out between February and April 2020. As a study outcome, two hypotheses were elected and analysed: “the two regions’ sustainable managerial practices differ” and “no difference exists between the regions.” Both regions won the same award, but the EU Algarve destination is still winning the award, whereas the non-EU Muğla destination is not. The findings can be shared with beach destination managers to create or increase their sustainability awareness. No studies were found that compared the sustainable management of award-winning EU and non-EU beach destinations. Because of this gap in the literature, this study will add value to the literature about this topic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Opportunities for the Accommodation Industry: Evidence from European Countries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article focuses on the current trends in accommodation industry development in European countries through the study of satisfaction with tourists’ increasing demand for accommodation. The total number of tourist nights spent at accommodation establishments continues to increase. Nevertheless, the growth of this indicator is significantly different across both regions and accommodation activity types. Moreover, the decrease in the number of tourist nights spent due to the impact of crises and destructive factors also varies. Based on the results of a data analysis of the Eurostat online database, we found that the number of beds at the accommodation establishments is not a key factor that determines the number of tourist nights spent. This finding represents the importance for the development strategy of considering not only the capacity of accommodation establishments, but also the variety of accommodation activity types. The data analysis of some countries’ cases points out that even a less robust accommodation industry has opportunities to develop in a difficult and uncertain period. This study result has practical applications in an effective development strategy particularly in a time of crisis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Dynamics Between Tourism Receipts, Economic Growth, and Real Exchange Rate in Algeria’s Economy Between 1990 and 2019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to clarify the relationship between economic growth and tourism revenue in the Algerian economy. It focused on the relationship between economic growth, real exchange rate, and tourism receipts. This investigation is intended to fill a gap in the empirical literature on the tourism sector in developing countries. It used the autoregressive distributed lag model adopted from 1990 through 2019. The relationship between economic growth, tourism receipts, and real exchange rate in Algeria is a unidirectional causality relationship; and the tourism receipts and the real exchange rate affect the economy in the short and long term. In terms of long-term equilibrium, there was a positive but nonsignificant impact of tourism receipts on economic growth. At the same time, there was no significant effect of the real exchange rate on economic growth. In the short term, there was a positive and significant impact of tourism receipts lag on economic growth. A positive and significant impact of the second difference lag of the real exchange rate was found. Algerian decision-makers can benefit from these findings when developing the tourism sector. This is the first examination of the effect of these variables in Algeria during the period between 1990 and 2019.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Are the Domestic Creative Tourists in Slovakia? Implications from a Cluster-Based Demand Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years, creative tourism has become one of the most dynamically developing tourism products in global tourism. Its role in Slovakia is also important, although it has not been deeply explored. Recognising this research gap, the authors aimed to understand better the place and role of creative tourism in Slovakia. After elaborating the primary results of a demand-based questionnaire survey, the study presents a cluster-based creative tourist characterisation approach where the authors make an attempt to establish the characteristic segments of creative tourism demand in Slovakia from the point of view of domestic consumers. The primary and consumer segmentation results demonstrate that the place and role of creative tourism as a tourism product should be considered important in terms of the tourism supply of the country and also from the point of view of consumer attitudes and habits. However, the development of this product is very limited and further progress is needed to enhance the opportunities surrounding this complex tourism product. The authors believe that cluster-based consumer segmentation provides an opportunity and an approach to realise the most important market segments for creative tourism. Product development efforts can thus be optimised around this new knowledge as well.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Effect of Value Co-Creation on Behavioural Intention and Satisfaction with Tourism Resources in Lagos State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to investigate the sociodemographic characteristics, travel characteristics and the effect of value co-creation on behavioural intention and satisfaction of visitors in Lagos state, Nigeria. Data was obtained by administering a questionnaire to 384 visitors; data was analysed and presented descriptively using tables and inferentially using Spearman correlation, logistic regression, T-test and ANOVA. Results revealed that there were more males and youthful visitors at the sites who were first-time visitors and who travelled primarily with their family. Furthermore, there were more active participants in site activities at the site and their involvement in value co-creation had an impact on their behavioural intention and satisfaction with tourism resources at the site. Value co-creation activities that would encourage visitors’ active participation at tourism destinations should be provided to improve visitors’ satisfaction, as visitors now tend to be part-producer in their experience rather than mere consumers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Importance of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Local Olive Oil Attributes for Tourists: Evidence from a Mediterranean Destination<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper focuses on tourists’ local olive oil purchasing behaviour in a tourist destination, providing evidence of consumer segments based on the importance of olive oil attributes for purchasing decisions. The research was conducted in Croatia, a famous tourist destination in the Mediterranean, recognised for its traditional food products, including olive oil. A survey conducted on 471 tourists shows that the main predictors of a tourist’s purchase of olive oil are the number of previous visits to the destination and the tourist’s country of origin. The relative importance of extrinsic and intrinsic olive oil attributes differed between tourists, and the present research identifies four market segments. The results of this study may help olive oil producers develop and implement more successful marketing strategies directed towards tourists in the destination.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Quality Management Systems adoption in the hotel industry: A case study of hotels in Zimbabwe<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article is the construction of a model of quality management system (QMS) adoption in the hotel industry grounded on a case study of multiple hotels in Zimbabwe. QMSs in the hotel industry are adopted to guarantee that certain levels of quality required by customers are achieved. Achievement of certain levels of quality can result in better customer satisfaction, which is important to ensure sustainable operations for hotels. The study was concerned with the late adoption of QMSs in the hotel industry due to a number of internal and external factors. This study is an extract from a PhD project, which investigates external and internal factors affecting QMS adoption in hotel industry. To attain the objectives, interviews were conducted with hotel managers and key stakeholders, while focus groups were conducted with hotel staff to outline the factors affecting the adoption of QMSs and to get general enablers for adopting these systems. Directed content analysis and NVivo 12 were used to analyse data. The Eisenhardt's Model of developing theory from case studies was used. The study draws upon QMSs from 1970s to 2020s. The main factors affecting adoption of QMSs were established and their interrelatedness established. The BASERA-MWENJE model of QMS adoption was developed. The model has not been tested, besides some parts of it, during work. Model differences and similarities were identified from literature to fortify the BASERA-MWENJE model of QMSs adoption. This model will be offered to the hotel industry and other industries in general to simplify and improve the adoption of QMSs under Zimbabwe's National Development Strategy 1 (NDS) to realise Vision 2030 ‘Towards a Prosperous and Empowered Upper Middle-Income Society’.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Induction in Education During COVID-19 is Recreation or a Curse?: Integration of Technological and Behavioral Factors from the Students’ Perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current study attempts to identify and measure the role of technology induction during the COVID-19 pandemic as either recreation or curse in students’ learning. By integrating the technology acceptance model (TAM) and innovation diffusion theory (IDT) the study tries to measure the student’s online learning experience as recreation or curse. Data was collected from 387 students through purposive sampling. The findings of the study confirm that introduction of technology in online learning plays a recreational and significant role in student’s online learning. However, computer self-efficacy and relative advantage were found to be a curse in online learning during the pandemic. The overall findings of the study imply that the shift of student’s learning from traditional to online learning has been through introduction of new technology and innovations, although the diffusion of innovation and technology among Pakistani students has been challenging because of a comparatively lower computer literacy level. The usefulness and ease of online learning have been the strongest predictive and recreational aspects in students’ online learning. Institutes and higher education commissions should further invest in enhancing the quality and effectiveness of these factors to improve the overall learning outcome of students through recreational technological induction in education.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Destination Attractiveness in Cape Coast<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Destination attractiveness has received much attention in tourism literature and has been identified as crucial in terms of visitors’ perceived value. The aim of this paper was to assess the attributes that make Cape Coast an attractive destination. Focusing on the supply side perspective, the push and pull theory serves as the basis for the study. The study employed a cross-sectional survey and sampled 294 tourists with the help of a questionnaire using a convenience-sampling technique. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics, in which means scores and standard deviations were used to measure the dimensions of destination attractiveness. The results showed that natural, cultural and man-made resources and amenities were the major attributes that make Cape Coast an attractive destination. It is recommended that natural resources and cultural heritage should be well preserved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) together with Ghana Tourism Authority to ensure its sustainability. It is therefore of utmost importance that Ghana Tourism Authority will ensure that the attractions are constantly improved and expanded in accordance with the new trends and developments of tourism in the marketplace.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Tourism, Legislation Gaps, and Implementation Challenges: A Study in Amhara Region<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Tourism is a multispectrum and interagency puzzle, due to the impact many sectors have on this industry. As a result, laws are important to promote effective governance and policy approaches that help overcome sectorial gaps. But legislation might fail to meet its objectives and poor implementation can lead to long-term adverse consequences for the society and economy of the destination. This study analysed the major legislative gaps and implementation challenges. The study employed a descriptive study design with a cross-sectional research approach. Primary data was collected from 153 respondents through a questionnaire survey. The result from the study indicates that Ethiopian tourism legislation has acceptability, suitability and feasibility shortcomings. Concerning the challenges for effective implementation of tourism laws, the study found that there are stakeholder support–related challenges, economic challenges, coordination/bureaucracy–related challenges, and awareness-related challenges as well as ambiguity. The study also forwarded all the required recommendations for every stakeholder to ease legislative problems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Impact Dimensions, Residents’ Quality of Life and Support for Tourism in Hunza Valley, Pakistan<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Tourism is one of the substantially growing economic sectors in the Hunza valley of Pakistan. This tourism growth is attributable to factors that not only shape residents’ quality of life but also their tourism support. This paper posits that residents’ perception of tourism impact dimensions (social, economic, environmental, and cultural) influences residents’ quality of life, which in turn affects their support for tourism in the valley. The empirical analysis of data collected from 561 respondents shows social, economic, and cultural dimensions of tourism as significant positive predictors of residents’ quality of life. In turn, quality of life partially mediates tourism impact (economic, social, and cultural) on residents’ support for tourism. The paper also discusses practical implications and research limitations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, drinking and travelling for fun. Backward to ‘Tourism and Gastronomy’ and forward to the Covidocene<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Tourism and Gastronomy</italic> (T&amp;G) was published in 2002. Even today, this book is an indispensable reference for researchers from different disciplinary perspectives who study how food and beverage are linked to leisure mobility. At that time, the contributors witnessed a major shift in consumer behaviour, which would soon turn the act of eating and drinking into a first-order driver of this sector of activity. The objective of the editors was to map the evolution of this new trend and predict the future of gastronomy and culinary heritage in tourism. This paper will revisit T&amp;G to fully understand how, in only twenty years, what was before just a ‘non-optional’ part of the package became a prosperous niche, and later a primary component of recreational travels. The ‘throw-back’ approach adopted here will enable us to reflect on how the COVID-19 crisis impacts holidaymakers’ choices, which could help in the design of more efficient recovery plans.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of COVID-19 on Tourism in Serbia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>At a time when tourism in Serbia represents a major segment of its economic development, COVID-19 has hit the tourism industry hard both locally and globally, and thus has affected the country’s economic condition and its development prospects. The government of the Republic of Serbia has taken a number of measures to combat the epidemic and to recover tourism. In order to assess whether these measures have been effective and to what extent they have contributed to the sustainability of tourism as an important economic contributor, field research was conducted on 110 owners of catering and tourist facilities in attractive tourist destinations in Serbia. Statistical analysis provided precise data on the decline in the number of tourists during the epidemic, as well as whether and to what extent these consequences were mitigated by a set of measures adopted by the government of the Republic of Serbia. It was concluded that, in the first five months of 2020, the influx of tourists decreased by almost 50% compared to the same period of the previous year (2019). According to the survey, the recovery of the tourism sector will take at least twelve months, so the measures that are being implemented must have long-term effects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Green Travel: Application of Principles of Ecological Tourism in the Russian Glamping Market<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article investigates the extent and peculiarities of the application of the principles of ecological tourism in the Russian glamping market. The main research question is whether Russian glamping can be considered a type of ecological tourism. The current state of the Russian glamping market is described, and the basic principles of ecological tourism are identified by the author. Ten Russian glamping sites were selected at random for analysis, and structured face-to-face and telephone interviews with managers of Russian glamping sites and glamping tourists were used as the primary data collection method. The author concludes that the principles of ecological tourism are widely used in Russian glamping sites, and that Russian glamping can, with some caveats, be considered a type of ecological tourism. As the main peculiarity of the application of the principles of ecological tourism in the Russian glamping market, significant lack of both an educational component and cultural benefits to the local area and population has been identified. Nevertheless, the Russian glamping market is moving towards ecological compatibility and green travel. It is suggested that the further development of glamping can contribute to the development of ecological tourism in Russia and, consequently, to the sustainable development of tourist destinations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Carrying Capacity in Island Destinations: Interpreting Visitors’ Opinions in Madeira Island<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Social carrying capacity is an additional dimension of tourism carrying capacity. This paper aims to provide further understanding beyond physical values describing carrying capacity for a touristic site on an island destination, namely, the Laurisilva of Madeira. This UNESCO site is the major tourist attraction on the island. The component of social carrying capacity was added to assess satisfaction levels registered in 481 completed questionnaires and find relevant factors reflecting social values and enjoyment while visiting the site. Nonparametric tests were performed to study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and satisfaction measurements. Statistically, cleanliness and natural conditions, trail amenities, trail conditions, environmental conditions, and pollution levels were the five dimensions relevant to gauging satisfaction related to visiting the natural heritage site. Social carrying capacity showed an average satisfaction of 71%, but mean scores concluded visitors to be only slightly satisfied and differences in satisfaction levels regarding the education level of respondents. These are essential dimensions for good site management and for planning management actions for the island destination. This method of analysis is feasible for site management and is complementary to the corresponding physical thresholds.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Quick Service Restaurants (QSRs): A Future Perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The rationale of this study is to investigate the impact of innovative practices (product and service innovation) on customer satisfaction. Further study also tends to approach the impact of customer satisfaction on customer loyalty in quick service restaurants. The study has been conducted on potential customers of QSRs such as McDonald's, Dominos, Pizza Hut and KFC in Jammu city (J&amp;K). A total of 256 samples were analyzed in the study. EFA and regression analysis have been used to identify the various factors and to test the relationship between the constructs, respectively. The study finds that innovative practices in QSRs positively influence customer satisfaction. Furthermore, the study also verified that customer satisfaction positively influences customer loyalty in selected QSRs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Attitude, Anxiety, and Mental Well-Being in Turkey: The Case of COVID-19<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Evidence suggests that individuals’ leisure attitudes affect mental well-being positively and their anxiety negatively. In addition, there is no evidence of which of the dimensions of leisure attitude is more instrumental for mental well-being. A structural model is proposed to examine the effects of individuals’ leisure attitude and anxiety on mental well-being in the COVID-19 process. Data were randomly collected from people staying at home due to the curfew during the COVID-19 process. Model results showed that leisure attitude has a significant positive effect on mental well-being. The behavioural component of leisure attitude dimensions is relatively more effective in affecting well-being than others. Furthermore, anxiety negatively affects mental well-being. The obtained results provided important data regarding the effect of individuals’ leisure time and perception of anxiety on their mental well-being, especially during the pandemic period. In the light of the findings, the limitations and results of the research are discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue