rss_2.0Frigid Zone Medicine FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Frigid Zone Medicine Zone Medicine 's Cover of intermittent cold-exposure on culprit plaque morphology in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients: a retrospective study based on optical coherence tomography<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>Present study aimed to explore the effects of intermittent cold-exposure (ICE) on culprit plaque morphology in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in frigid zone.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>Totally 848 STEMI patients with plaque rupture (<italic>N</italic> = 637) or plaque erosion (<italic>N</italic> = 211) were enrolled consecutively according to optical coherence tomography imaging. Data on the changes of outdoor air temperature corresponding to 24 solar terms were collected. Patients were divided into different groups according to 24 solar terms and the number of days with indoor central heating. Imaging data were measured and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Statistical analysis was conducted to elucidate the possible association of the STEMI patients of different groups with plaque morphology of culprit vessel with alterations of ambient temperature.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The incidence of both plaque rupture and plaque erosion presented trough in summer. The incidence of plaque rupture reached a peak value in early winter when outdoor air temperature dropped below 0 °C and declined with supply of central heating. Persistent cold exposure in early winter was positively and significantly associated with plaque rupture. The incidence of plaque erosion presented a peak in severe winter with outdoor air temperature dropping below −20°C and steady supply of central heating. ICE in severe winter was positively and significantly associated with plaque with intact intima, especially in aged male or current smoking patients. The positive correlation of cold exposure with lipid size in culprit plaque in winter weakened with central heating.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>ICE resulted from switching staying in between outdoor cold environment and indoor warm temperature with central heating in severe winter changed culprit plaque morphology in STEMI. Plaque rupture decreased whereas plaque erosion increased impacted by ICE. The effect of ICE on the transformation of plaque morphology might be explained by reduced lipid deposition.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of cold on knee osteoarthritis: Recent research status<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Osteoarthritis is a common chronic irreversible joint disease characterized by degenerative changes of articular cartilage and secondary hyper osteogeny. Knee osteoarthritis(KOA) affects not only the articular cartilage, but also the entire joint, including subchondral bone, joint capsule, synovial membrane, meniscus, ligaments, periarticular muscles, and tendons. The primary aim of treatment is to relieve symptoms, delay joint degeneration, and maximally maintain patient's quality of life. There are many risk factors contributing to the development of KOA, including climate. This review will discuss the relationship between climate in cold region and KOA and the possibility of modifying risk factors such as the environment for the prevention and treatment of KOA.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Cryptotanshinone increases the sensitivity of liver cancer to sorafenib by inhibiting the STAT3/Snail/epithelial mesenchymal transition pathway<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>Sorafenib resistance has been a major factor limiting its clinical use as a targeted drug in liver cancer. The present study aimed to investigate whether cryptotanshinone can enhance the sensitivity of liver cancer and reduce the resistance to sorafenib.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>Sorafenib-resistant cells were established based on HepG2 and Huh7 cell lines. And the anti-tumor effect of sorafenib combined with cryptotanshinone on the sorafenib-resistant cells was verified by MTT, colony formation, transwell assays and tumor growth xenograft model. Moreover, the effects of the combined treatment on the expression of phosphorylated (p)-STAT3, as well as epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and apoptosis related proteins of cells were evaluated by western blot analysis.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>It was identified that cryptotanshinone inhibited the viability of both HepG2 and Huh7 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and decreased p-STAT3 expression rather than total STAT3 expression at a concentration of 40 μmol/L. In the sorafenib-resistant cells, sorafenib in combination with cryptotanshinone markedly inhibited cell viability, invasion and migration compared with sorafenib alone. In contrast, increased p-STAT3 level by colivelin led to the inhibition of the synergistic effect of cryptotanshinone and sorafenib not only on cell viability, but also on EMT and apoptosis, suggesting that cryptotanshinone and sorafenib may act by downregulating STAT3 signaling. Further, the inhibition of carcinogenicity effect was also verified in xenografted tumor models.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The present results indicated that cryptotanshinone could synergize with sorafenib to inhibit the proliferative, invasive, and migratory abilities of sorafenib-resistant cells by downregulating STAT3 signaling.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Challenges and improvement in management of neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 in China<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>China was the first country suffering from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and one of the countries with stringent mother-neonate isolation measure implemented. Now increasing evidence suggests that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) should not be taken as an indication for formula feeding or isolation of the infant from the mother.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>We conducted a retrospective cohort study in 44 hospitals from 14 provinces in China to investigate the management of neonates whose mothers have confirmed or suspected COVID-19. In addition, 65 members of Chinese Neonatologist Association (CNA) were invited to give their comments and suggestions on the clinical management guidelines for high-risk neonates.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>There were 121 neonates born to 118 mothers suspected with COVID-19 including 42 mothers with SARS-CoV-2 positive results and 76 mothers with SARS-CoV-2 negative results. All neonates were born by caesarean section, isolated from their mothers immediately after birth and were formula-fed. Five neonates were positive for SARS-CoV-2 at initial testing between 36 and 46 h after birth. Regarding the confusion on the clinical management guidelines, 58.78% of the newborns were put into isolation, 32.22% were subject to PCR tests, and 5.16% and 2.75% received breastfeeding and vaccination, respectively.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The clinical symptoms of neonates born to mothers with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 were mild, though five neonates might have been infected in utero or during delivery. Given the favorable outcomes of neonates born to COVID-confirmed mothers, full isolation may not be warranted. Rather, separation of the mother and her newborn should be assessed on a case-by-case basis, considering local facilities and risk factors for adverse outcomes, such as prematurity and fetal distress.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-20T00:00:00.000+00:00A randomized retrospective clinical study on the choice between endodontic surgery and immediate implantation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Periapical endodontic surgery (PES) for root amputation and tooth replacement by immediate implant placement are two possible treatment options for bone lesions in the root apex of a tooth that has previously undergone endodontic treatment. Treatment methods are performed when the effectiveness of orthograde canal revision is questionable or when such treatment cannot be performed. The effectiveness of these methods varies from study to study.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>clinical evaluation of the efficacy of periapical endodontic surgery for root amputation and immediate implant placement with simultaneous tooth extraction in the proximate and long-term treatment.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>The study included 183 patients between the ages of 24 and 63. Patients were divided into 2 groups; group I - endodontic surgery was performed to resect the apex of the tooth root (108 patients) and group II - an operation to install an implant with simultaneous tooth extraction (75 patients). In group I, in 36 cases, PES was performed in the area of the first molars and premolars, and 72 cases in the area of incisors and canines. In group II, 75 patients received 231 implants.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>In all 108 patients of group I in the postoperative period and within 1 month, the wounds healed without complications. In none of the 36 operated premolars and molars, there was no definitive elimination of the radiographic bone loss (Rude grade 2 and 3) after 12 months. In the area of incisors and canines, complete healing was observed only in 37.5% of cases (I class according to Rud). In group II, out of 184 implants installed immediately after tooth extraction, one was removed one month after implantation. In other cases, all implants were successfully integrated with the subsequent fabrication of prosthetic construction.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The complex “implant (installed in the socket of the tooth immediately after its removal) - bone - soft tissues - prosthetic construction” is stable over time in terms of functional and aesthetic parameters, preservation of bone tissue, and mucous membrane.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Altered expression profile of long non-coding RNAs during heart aging in mice<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in regulating the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of lncRNAs in heart aging remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify differentially expressed lncRNAs in the heart of aging mice and elucidate the relevant regulatory pathways of cardiac aging.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>Echocardiography was used to detect the cardiac function of 18-months (aged) and 3-months (young) old C57BL/6 mice. Microarray analysis was performed to unravel the expression profiles of lncRNAs and mRNAs, and qRT-PCR to verify the highly dysregulated lncRNAs.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Our results demonstrated that the heart function in aged mice was impaired relative to young ones. Microarray results showed that 155 lncRNAs were upregulated and 37 were downregulated, and 170 mRNAs were significantly upregulated and 44 were remarkably downregulated in aging hearts. Gene ontology analysis indicated that differentially expressed genes are mainly related to immune function, cell proliferation, copper ion response, and cellular cation homeostasis. KEGG pathway analysis showed that the differentially expressed mRNAs are related to cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, and the NF-kappa B signaling pathway.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>These results imply that the differentially expressed lncRNAs may regulate the development of heart aging. This study provides a new perspective on the potential effects and mechanisms of lncRNAs in heart aging.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Nortriterpenoids from the fruit stalk of (Turcz.) Baill.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>The fruit stalk of <italic>Schisandra chinensis</italic> (Turcz.) Baill. (<italic>S. chinensis</italic>) has been found to contain bioactive components similar to the fruit of <italic>S. chinensis</italic>. Here, we report a recent discovery about new nortriterpenoids with a novel skeleton and anti-gastric cancer activity, which were isolated from the fruit stalk of <italic>S. chinensis</italic>.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>The chemical components of ethyl acetate extract from 70% ethanol extract from <italic>S. chinensis</italic> fruit stalk were separated, purified, and identified by liquid chromatography methods (silica gel, ODS, HPLC) and extensive spectroscopic analyses (NMR, IR, UV, MS, CD).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Two new nortriterpenoids, schilancitrilactone M and 25-hydroxyl schindilactone D (1 and 2), along with ten known nortriterpenoids (3–12) were isolated from the fruit stalk of <italic>S. chinensis</italic>. The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxic activities against MGC-803 cells, and the results showed that compounds 6–8 possessed significant activities with IC<sub>50</sub> of 9.01, 11.77, and 2.74 μmol/L, respectively.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Twelve nortriterpenoids including two new compounds were isolated from the fruit stalk of <italic>S. chinensis</italic> for the first time. Among them, compounds 6–8 showed significant anti-gastric cancer activities. We postulated that the fruit stalk of <italic>S. chinensis</italic> could be used as an anti-gastric cancer drug.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Dissecting pathophysiology of a human dominantly inherited disease, familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy, by using genetically engineered mice<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is a type of systemic amyloidosis characterized by peripheral and autonomic neuropathy. Although FAP is a typical autosomal dominant disorder caused by a point mutation in the TTR gene, the average age at onset varies significantly among different countries. This discrepancy clearly suggests that a combination of intrinsic factors as well as extrinsic (environmental) factors shapes the development of FAP. However, these factors are difficult to analyze in humans, because detailed pathologic tissue analysis is only possible at autopsy. Thus, mouse models have been produced and used to disentangle these factors. This review covers the mouse models produced thus far and how these models are applied to analyze intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved in disease development and to test drug efficacy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Robot-assisted radical cystectomy for bladder cancer: single-center experience<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>Radical cystectomy remains the most effective treatment for patients with localized, invasive bladder cancer and recurrent noninvasive disease. Recently some surgeons have begun to describe outcomes associated with less invasive surgical approaches to this disease, such as laparoscopic or robotic assisted techniques. We report our maturing experience with 100 consecutive cases of robotic assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy regarding perioperative results, pathological outcomes, and surgical complications.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>A total of 100 consecutive patients (73 male and 27 female) underwent robotic radical cystectomy with intracorporeal urinary diversion at our institution from February 2018 to February 2021 for clinically localized bladder cancer. Outcome measures evaluated included operative variables, hospital recovery, pathological outcomes, and complication rate.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The mean age of this cohort was 60.4 years (range 38 to 82). Ninety-five patients underwent ileal conduit diversion, 5 received a neobladder). The mean operating room time for all patients was 184 min (min time was 160 min) and mean surgical blood loss was 286 ml. On surgical pathology, 2% of the cases were pT1, 35% were pT2, 51+12% were pT3/T4 disease and 17% were node positive. The mean number of lymph nodes removed was 16 (range 10 to 40). In no case was there a positive surgical margin. The mean days to flatus were 2.6, bowel movement 2.8 and discharge home 8.2. There were 21 postoperative complications in 20 patients with 4% having a major complication (Clavien grade 3 or higher) and 15% being readmitted within 30 days after surgery. At a mean follow-up of 12 months 3 patients had disease recurrence and died 4 of disease.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>We report a relatively large cohort and maturing experience with robotic radical cystectomy for the treatment of bladder cancer, providing acceptable surgical and pathological outcomes. These results support continued efforts to refine the surgical management of muscle-invasive bladder cancer.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Apelin aggravates the migration and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer cells via YAP1<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Apelin, an endogenous ligand of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), is a secreted peptide involved in the development of various tumors. However, the relationship between apelin and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is not quite clear. This study was designed to investigate the effect and mechanism of apelin on cell proliferation, migration and invasion of NSCLC cells.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>Twelve NSCLC specimens were collected for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemistry analyses. Cell proliferation was examined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and cell migration and invasion were assessed using wound-healing and transwell assays. The subcellular location of yes associated protein 1 (YAP1) in A549 cells was determined by immunofluorescence. The mRNA and protein levels in NSCLC tissues and cell lines were measured by qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Apelin was upregulated in tumor tissues compared with the adjacent tissues. Apelin promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion of A549 and H460 cells, which was reversed by competitive apelin receptor (APJ) antagonist ML221. Additionally, apelin upregulated YAP1 expression, whereas silence of YAP1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) attenuated apelin-induced cell proliferation, migration and invasion and suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition progression.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Apelin promotes NSCLC cells proliferation, migration, and invasion by modulating YAP1 and might be a potential therapeutic target for NSCLC treatment.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in East Asian patients with acute coronary syndrome: A meta-analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>There exist conflicting data on the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor and clopidogrel in East Asian patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate whether ticagrelor or clopidogrel produces better outcomes for East Asian patients with ACS.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>We searched for randomized controlled trials reporting associations between ticagrelor and clopidogrel in East Asian patients with acute coronary syndrome in PubMed, EMBASE, web of science and Cochrane central register of controlled trials.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Ten studies involving 3 715 participants were qualified for our analysis. The major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were significantly decreased in patients with ticagrelor treatment compared to those with clopidogrel (risk ratio [RR]: 0.61; 95% confidence interval [<italic>CI</italic>]: 0.38–0.98; <italic>P</italic> = 0.042). There was no significant difference in all-cause death (RR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.61–1.29; <italic>P</italic> = 0.540), cardiovascular death (RR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.58–1.27; <italic>P</italic> = 0.451), myocardial infarction (RR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.65–1.27; <italic>P</italic> = 0.575) and stroke (RR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.44–1.36; <italic>P</italic> = 0.372) between ticagrelor and clopidogrel. Ticagrelor was associated with a significantly higher risk of bleeding compared to clopidogrel (RR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.37–2.13; <italic>P</italic> = 0.000).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The present meta-analysis demonstrates that ticagrelor reduced the incidence of MACE in ACS patients from East Asia compared with clopidogrel. However, it increased the risk of bleeding.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Study of the incidence of hyperuricemia in young males’ population with rapid entry into the plateau of 4 500m<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>To study the incidence and risk factors of hyperuricemia in young males who rapid entered into the plateau of 4 500 m.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>The study contained 390 males aged 18–35 years (21.6 ± 2.5 years), who rapidly entered the plateau with an altitude of 4 500 m. According to their basic level of uric acid (UA), they were divided into two groups, high uric acid (HUA) group and normal uric acid (NUA) group. The characteristics and physiological index, such as the body weight and the height, of them were recorded. For the test of the biochemical indicators, the venous blood samples were collected at the altitude of 4 500 m in the morning. The count of blood cells, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCR), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL) and indirect bilirubin (IDBIL) were compared between the two groups.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The incidence of hyperuricemia was 65.1% (254/390) at 4 500 m. At the altitude of 4 500 m, the mean hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) of red blood cells in the HUA group was significantly lower than that in the NUA group. Hemoglobin (HGB), mean red blood cell volume (MCV), TBIL, IDBIL, BUN, SCR and LDH in the HUA group were significantly higher than those in the NUA group, though without statistically significant differences in the other variables. Meanwhile, multivariate analysis showed at the altitude of 4 500 m, the risk of HUA increased by 0.982, 1.038 and 1.045 times when MCHC decreased by one unit and TBIL and SCR increased by one unit, respectively.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The incidence of hyperuricemia was high of 65.1% rush entry into the plateau of young male. Decreased MCHC and elevated TBIL and SCR were independent risk factors for hyperuricemia when rapid enter into 4 500 m.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Therapeutic potential of gasotransmitters for cold stress-related cardiovascular disease<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Growing evidence has shown that exposure to low ambient temperature poses a huge challenge to human health globally. Actually, cold stress is closely associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in winter or in cold regions. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying cardiovascular complications in response to cold exposure have yet to be fully clarified. Considering that cold exposure is an important risk of cardiovascular complications, it is necessary to clarify the molecular mechanism of cold stress-induced cardiovascular diseases and to develop effective intervention strategies. Hydrogen sulfide (H<sub>2</sub>S), nitric oxide (NO), and carbon monoxide (CO) are well-known gasotransmitters that are endogenously produced in many biological systems. Accumulating studies have demonstrated that these gasotransmitters play a critical role in a wide spectrum of physiological and/or pathophysiological processes by regulating numerous signaling pathways. These gas signal molecules are emerging as important players in cardiovascular homeostasis, and disruption of these gasotransmitters is critically implicated in cardiovascular anomalies, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemia, heart failure, and stroke. Also, evidence is emerging that H<sub>2</sub>S, NO, and CO may be involved in the pathologies of cold stress-induced cardiovascular ailments. In this review, we aim to highlight and discuss the recent advances towards the development of gasotransmitters-based therapeutics for cold stress-related cardiovascular pathogenesis. We believe that the effects of H<sub>2</sub>S, NO, and CO on cardiovascular regulation under cold environment will attract tremendous interest in the near future as they serve as novel regulators of cardiovascular biology in cold environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Advances on pathogenesis of migraine in cold regions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Migraine is a common primary headache which seriously affects the quality of patients’ life due to the high prevalence and disability rate. Recent years a large number of studies have found that temperature is directly bound to migraine and migraine patients in cold regions have higher prevalence, different manifestations and poor response to the conventional therapy. We propose in this review article a new concept of migraine in cold regions on the basis of geography and summarize the research advances on the pathogenesis of migraine in cold regions to provide conceptual basis for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of this disease entity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Advances in the research field of osteoporosis in cold areas<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>While osteoporosis is a chronic disease caused by multiple factors, it is also a risk factor for fractures. At present, numerous risk factors for osteoporosis and secondary fractures have been identified, including sunlight, physical fitness, gender, age, trauma, dietary habits, tobacco, alcohol, drugs, air quality, and genetics. Despite that factors such as long winters, short daylight hours, less daily physical activity, air pollution, low calcium and high salt diet, and sedentary lifestyle could negatively impact the bones of residents in the alpine regions of northern China, the direct effect of low-temperature stimulation on bone growth and development remains unclear. In this study, by reviewing current research progress related to osteoporosis and fracture risk in northern China, we proposed appropriate preventive measures for different risk factors to reduce the occurrence of osteoporosis and fracture in cold areas of northern China.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Changes of calcitonin gene-related peptide and other serological indicators in vestibular migraine patients<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>It aims to evaluate the diagnostic ability of CGRP and other blood indicators in vestibular migraine (VM) patients, and to explain the potential pathological effects of these biomarkers. The hypothesis of VM being a variant of migraine was examined.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>A total of 32 VM patients, 35 migraine patients, and 30 healthy control subjects (HC) were selected for this cross-sectional study. Detailed statistics on demographic data, clinical manifestations, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and common clinical laboratory indicators were measured within 24 hours from the onset of the conditions. Receptor operating characteristic (ROC) curve and area under the curve (AUC) were analyzed for biomarkers. The risk factors of VM and migraine were determined through univariate and multivariate analyses.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Compared with HC, serum CGRP levels (p (VM) = 0.012, <italic>p</italic> (Migraine) = 0.028) increased and Mg<sup>2+</sup> levels (<italic>p</italic> (VM) &lt; 0.001, <italic>p</italic> (Migraine) &lt; 0.001) deceased in VM patients and migraine patients. In multiple logistic regression, VM was correlated with CGRP [odds ratio (<italic>OR</italic>) = 1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02–1.12; <italic>P</italic> = 0.01] and Mg<sup>2+</sup> [odds ratio (<italic>OR</italic>) = 0.03; 95% CI, 0.07–0.15; <italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.001)]. Migraine was correlated with CGRP [odds ratio (<italic>OR</italic>) = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02–1.12; <italic>P</italic> = 0.01] and Mg<sup>2+</sup> [odd ratio (<italic>OR</italic> = 0.01; 95% CI, 0–0.02; <italic>P</italic> &lt;0.001)]. Mg<sup>2+</sup> discriminated good differentiation between VM and migraine groups, with AUC of 0.649 (95% CI, 0.518 to 0.780). The optimal threshold for Mg<sup>2+</sup> to diagnose VM was 0.805.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>This study demonstrated that CGRP and Mg<sup>2+</sup> may be promising laboratory indicators to discriminate HC from VM/migraine, while Mg<sup>2+</sup> may be uded as a discriminator between VM and migraine.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Overexpression of microRNA-135b-5p attenuates acute myocardial infarction injury through its anti-oxidant and anti-apptotic properties<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality due partly to the limited regenerative capacity of cardiomyocytes to replace cardiomyocyte lost due to apoptosis. Inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis is recognized as an effective therapeutic approach for MI. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs), which regulate target genes at the post-transcriptional level, play a significant role in the regulation of cardiovascular diseases such as MI. MicroRNA-135b (miR-135b) has a protective effect on cardiomyocytes. However, the role of miR-135b in cardiomyocyte apoptosis in infarct myocardium needs further clarification.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>We generated α-MHC-miR-135b transgenic mice to investigate the role of miR-135b in myocardial injury after MI. MiR-135b mimic and negative control (NC) were transfected into H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-induced cardiomyocytes to evaluate the effect of overexpression of miR-135b on the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Our results showed that overexpression of miR-135b had protective effect on cardiomyocyte injury both in vivo and in vitro. MiR-135b inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis and ROS generation, downregulated proapoptosis proteins (cleaved-caspase-3 and Bax), and increased anti-apoptosis protein (Bcl-2). Moreover, miR-135b showed an inhibitory effect on apoptosis-related protein target transient receptor potential vanilloid-type 4 (TRPV4) cation channel.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>MiR-135b might be considered a new molecular target for potential replacement therapy as antiapoptotic cardioprotection in the setting of MI.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Direct evidence of VEGF-mediated neuroregulation and afferent explanation of blood pressure dysregulation during angiogenic therapy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>Oncocardiology is increasingly hot research field/topic in the clinical management of cancer with anti-angiogenic therapy of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that may cause cardiovascular toxicity, such as hypertension via vascular dysfunction and attenuation of eNOS/NO signaling in the baroreflex afferent pathway. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential roles of VEGF/VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) expressed in the baroreflex afferent pathway in autonomic control of blood pressure (BP) regulation.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>The distribution and expression of VEGF/VEGFRs were detected in the nodose ganglia (NG) and nucleus of tractus solitary (NTS) using immunostaining and molecular approaches. The direct role of VEGF was tested by NG microinjection under physiological and hypertensive conditions.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Immunostaining data showed that either VEGF or VEGFR2/VEGFR3 was clearly detected in the NG and NTS of adult male rats. Microinjection of VEGF directly into the NG reduced the mean blood pressure (MBP) dose-dependently, which was less dramatic in renovascular hypertension (RVH) rats, suggesting the VEGF-mediated depressor response by direct activation of the 1st-order baroreceptor neurons in the NG under both normal and disease conditions. Notably, this reduced depressor response in RVH rats was directly caused by the downregulation of VEGFR2, which compensated the up regulation of VEGF/VEGFR3 in the NG during the development of hypertension.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>It demonstrated for the first time that the BP-lowering property of VEGF/VEGFRs signaling via the activation of baroreflex afferent function may be a common target/pathway leading to BP dysregulation in anti-angiogenic therapy.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Ibuprofen treatment for patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants: a retrospective cohort study in a leading Chinese center<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>There is a dilemma of ibuprofen treatment with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) as to how and when to treat. We aimed to clarify this issue in very preterm infants (VPIs; &lt; 32 weeks).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>This retrospective study included 1 659 VPIs who were diagnosed with PDA according to echocardiographic examinations and cardiovascular dysfunction scoring system (the CVD scoring). The VPIs were classified into six groups (A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, and B3) based on CVD scores (A, &lt; 3, and B, ≥ 3), and treatment with ibuprofen for PDA (1, conservational management; 2, early ibuprofen treatment; and 3, late ibuprofen treatment). Treatment was stopped when PDA was closed, CVD score was zero or PDA needed ligation.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>VPIs with CVD scores &lt; 3 had most PDA closure without surgery, and early ibuprofen treatment did not significantly affect PDA closure. VPIs with CVD scores ≥ 3 had some PDA closure after 2 courses of treatment, but closure rates decreased linearly with ibuprofen course (1<sup>st</sup> 75.2%, 2<sup>nd</sup> 62.3%, 3<sup>rd</sup> 50.0%, <italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.0001), and early ibuprofen treatment (group B2) did not increase PDA closure compared to late ibuprofen treatment (group B3). In these same infants, the longer they were in CVD scores ≥ 3, the more the complications of preterm were increased (retinopathy of prematurity ROP 1<sup>st</sup> 16.5%, 2<sup>nd</sup> 23.8%, 3<sup>rd</sup> 29.6%, <italic>P</italic> = 0.016; bronchopulmonary dysplasia BPD 1<sup>st</sup> 15.5%, 2<sup>nd</sup> 26.7%, 3<sup>rd</sup> 33.8%, <italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.0001; intraventricular hemorrhage IVH 1<sup>st</sup> 20.4%, 2<sup>nd</sup> 32.4%, 3<sup>rd</sup> 23.8%, <italic>P</italic> = 0.015).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Ibuprofen is suggested for PDA closure when the PDA reopens or has developed into the stage when the CVD score ≥ 3.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Chinese herbal medicines with beneficial effects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Among the vast resources of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal species, only a handful of Chinese herbs are growing in frigid regions or extreme environment but they have a unique property. The most recognizable TCM herb falling in this category is Panax ginseng, which is widely considered the representative tonic herb with oceans of beneficial effects on human health. In this article, we will introduce several typical Chinese herbal medicines with beneficial effects aiming to arouse broader attention from the scientific community to expand the exploration and exploitation on this for their potential applications to meet the increasingly demanding medical needs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-11T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1