rss_2.0International Journal of Management and Economics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for International Journal of Management and Economics Journal of Management and Economics Feed and threats to shaping energy security in the conditions of development and use of new technologies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article aims to show the areas in which technological changes will take place to bring about energy security, and the prerequisites and costs. It has been assumed that technological progress will contribute to the development of energy markets and increase the level of energy security. Changes in energy markets are a necessity. Energy is a source of economic competitiveness. The ability to produce cheap energy and in quantities adequate to needs is a social and economic development factor. The opportunities for change will be the need for new energy sources, instability in the energy markets, as well as technological progress. New technological solutions allow for better energy demand and supply management and preparing forecasts for increases/decreases in the energy demand. The threats are high costs of introducing new technologies and the necessity of implementing many investments at the same time, which require changes in entire systems. Investments require a long period of time and anticipation of trends.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue’ organizational resilience in post-COVID times<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper is theoretical and empirical. Its basic purpose is to examine the resilience of organizational startups during the post-COVID-19 pandemic. The basic research method used in the study was CAWI. The group of surveyed companies consisted of startups operating in Zachodniopomorskie, Wielkopolskie, and Lubuskie voivodeships. The survey covered 62 enterprises in 2022. The research revealed that owing to their organizational resilience the startups were able to adapt to the changes in the market. Thus, on the one hand, they were able to quickly tailor their offer to the current needs of customers, and on the other hand, they could modify the processes taking place inside the company. As a result of these measures, the startups increased their revenues, which may directly determine the future competitiveness of the surveyed companies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in income taxation: are taxes converging in Central and Eastern European countries?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper examines the convergence of tax systems in Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs) over the period 1995–2018. Due to the increasing impact of tax competition, we have focused on income taxes, in particular, corporate ones. We have identified the factors that influence the taxation system and trends in income taxation in the CEECs by adapting the hidden Markov model approach. We find that many CEECs have reduced income taxation in the analysis period, mainly by lowering tax rates. Corporate income taxes have also decreased in many CEECs in the same period; however, the reverse has been observed too. Both convergence and divergence have been identified among the CEECs over the period considered. The speed of these processes based on the used variables varied depending on both exogenous and endogenous factors. These factors have been diagnosed as being specific to the periods of tax reforms, i.e., before and after accession to the European Union (EU) and the global financial crisis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue quality among high-share liquidity companies: evidence from Central and Eastern European firms<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Paper’s objectives</title> <p>The main aim of the paper is to analyze the earnings quality of high-share liquidity companies from Poland, Romania, and Hungary whose activities are outside the finance sector.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Methods applied</title> <p>Earnings quality, i.e., earnings persistence, predictability, and accruals quality, was assessed using the Kruskal–Wallis test, the <italic>U</italic> Mann–Whitney test, the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test, and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Findings</title> <p>The research demonstrates that companies listed in the Bucharest Stock Exchange tend to provide higher earnings quality than other firms in the CEEplus index. In the tested sample, there was a noticeable domination of managerial practices aimed at managing the earnings downward. This also happened in 2020, the period negatively affected by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Originality/value</title> <p>This study fills a gap in the literature regarding the quality of accounting data reported among listed companies from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) countries that are characterized by high liquidity of shares.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue ranking of economic growth toward sustainable growth with grey system theory: the case of small countries in advanced and emerging economies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article refers to the new Synthetic Efficiency Indicator for Economic Growth (SEI-EG) proposed in an earlier publication. Research from 2016–2018 in 11 EU countries revealed small nations were notably more effective at sustainable growth than their larger counterparts. This prompted the authors to ask about the differences between small countries with developed economies and small countries with lower levels of development joining the EU in 2004. The article aims to determine the relative efficiency of transforming growth inputs and debt into sustainability outcomes for small countries in the EU using the SEI-EG index over the period 2016–2020. The study group symmetrically includes six countries each from developed economies and six countries that joined the EU in 2004. The adopted indicator complements the expanded SDGs and aligns with the trend linking research inputs to sustainable development effects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue inequality among European households and their biological type<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the socioeconomic development of each country, income rates constitute a measure of the economic situation. They are also the principle factor influencing social stratification. When discussing the income of European households in a regional approach, one may analyze changes, regional development indicators, and the degree to which needs are satisfied. It is underlined in the relevant literature that the differences observed across macroeconomic and microeconomic indicators are reflected in the phenomenon of income inequality, and their levels are also differentiated by the biological type of households. In view of the above, this study analyzed the financial standing of households from the spatial standpoint (selected EU countries) and considered the fractions of households isolated based on their biological composition in the light of inequality indices: Gini, Atkinson, and Theil. Inequality rates were computed using the median net equivalized income. The material examined in this study consisted of secondary data collected and published in the Eurostat database.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue deterioration in rule of law per se create or destroy value?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We investigate the link between the rule of law and equity returns in post-transitional economies over the period January 2010–December 2020 by using panel data regressions. By applying several rule-of-law proxies for national legal frameworks and justice system quality as proxies for the rule-of-law principle, the data sets from the capital markets of Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia showed that country-level judicial system quality is an important driver of company market performance, and that post-transitional countries with lower rule-of-law measures exhibit higher returns on equity than those with better measures. Our results support the idea that since poor governance and country instability increase agency and transaction costs, in addition to decreasing growth prospects and profitable projects available to companies, the risk premium demanded by investors increases, leading to higher equity returns.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue hotel employees’ work engagement and its service outcomes: The critical role of intrinsic motivation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Purpose</title> <p>The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between intrinsic job-related motivators and hotel employees’ work engagement and to examine how it may correlate with important employees’ outcomes, such as the prescribed-role and extra-role customer service.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Design/methodology/approach</title> <p>The literature review and empirical research based on a survey method were employed.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Findings</title> <p>The findings revealed that there is a positive and significant correlation between intrinsic job-related motivators and hotel employees’ work engagement. It was also demonstrated that work engagement significantly and positively correlates with both the prescribed-role and extra-role customer service provided by employees.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Originality/value</title> <p>This study adds to the growing body of research on employees’ work motivation, particularly focusing on the intrinsic dimension that it has still not received enough empirical attention in the literature of both hotel management and marketing.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue security as a source of international competitiveness in new EU member states<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Energy security and international competitiveness are two of the most fiercely discussed topics – especially in the light of the European Union (EU)’s dependence on Russia’s gas, oil, and coal. Both mentioned concepts are of special importance for the so-called EU new member states (EU NMS), which are undergoing the energy diversification process. The main goal of this paper is to analyze how energy security influences the international competitiveness of these countries. The study uses trade theories related to productivity differentials (Ricardian hypothesis) and differences in factor endowments (Heckscher–Ohlin hypothesis) as a basis for our econometric modeling. The results show that relative energy supply as well as physical and human capital relative endowments have a statistically significant impact on international competitiveness of the studied economies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue coopetition pay off? Benefits of intra-organizational coopetition within business groups<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Coopetition has gained considerable attention in the management literature. Yet, the best recognized is inter-organizational coopetition. The intra-organizational coopetition is still under-researched and there is a gap in the comprehensive evaluation of the benefits of intra-organizational coopetition. This paper attempts to identify the main positive outcomes in the coopetition relationship between affiliates within business groups based on a survey questionnaire in the largest business groups listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The findings of the study reveal that coopetition at the intra-organizational level generates many benefits. The main ones are resource benefits and improved market and financial performance. The positive effects of intra-organizational coopetition are somewhat similar to the benefits of inter-organizational coopetition. However, some differences support the view on the specificity of coopetition at each level.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the COVID-19 pandemic on the transition of people on the Polish labor market – hidden threats<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article analyzes changes on the Polish labor market after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. It aims to assess the effect of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the transition of people on the labor market in Poland. The decided majority of research into the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the labor market was based exclusively on resource analysis, omitting stream analysis. This research fills this gap and provides analysis by quarter of the transition of people on the labor market between employment, unemployment, and professional inactivity. The COVID-19 pandemic caused a severe drop in the number of people in work in the second quarter of 2020, similar in level to an analogous increase in the number of people professionally inactive. The effects of the pandemic were much more severe for women than for men. Detailed analysis of transitions on the labor market shows that around 50% of jobs lost due to the outbreak of the pandemic were not regained. Many redundancies were permanent, which may translate into a weakening of the dynamic for the recovery of the labor market in the future.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue role of state aid for the food industry – Based on the example of dairies in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There is lack of research on the evaluation of state aid provided to food industry enterprises in Poland, within the framework of general principles of the European Union competition policy, taking into account structure of the industry. The aim of the study is to assess the scale of general public aid for dairies, taking into account the type of enterprises, their size and location. The statistical analysis is based on SUDOP data. The amount of aid granted in 2015–2021 increased as well as the number of beneficiaries of the aid. The highest value share involved subsidies for R&amp;D projects. The share of large dairies in funds is similar to their market share. We witness a significant concentration of aid regionally and among the beneficiaries. Dairy cooperatives accounted for a greater share of the employment of disabled persons and prisoners than other entities, which may be due to their bimodal nature.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of inheritance and gifts taxation in the European Union<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Inheritance and gift taxation vary widely among countries in both the design and tax burden. We analyze the impact of a series of factors, such as the country’s affluence, political preferences, preferences for equity, aging ratio, fiscal standing of the state, and the country’s size, on inheritance tax systems. The applied methods involve the random effects ordered logistic regression for tax design and tobit correlated-random effect models for tax revenues. We find that inheritance tax design is mainly determined by demographic factors while tax revenues depend on a broader group of factors including political orientation of a state, condition of an economy, and the size of a country. Higher preferences for equal distribution and commitment to democratic norms are associated with higher tax revenues. Good economic condition of the state boosts revenues, as does country’s higher population. The results shed some light on future evolution of inheritance taxation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue context of local government participation in the innovation networks: Evidence from Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Innovation networks help to create innovation ecosystems by strengthen interactions between government, academia, business, and special institutions. The purpose of the article is to identify the relationship between the local context, i.e., the conditions and environment in which the Local Government Unit operates and their participation in the innovation networks. The analysis is based on a survey of 184 local government authorities in Poland, Local Administrative Unit level 2. The present study examines the hypothesis that the more supportive the local context is in the Polish municipalities and cities on district rights, the greater the engagement of local government authorities in local or regional innovation networks. The supportive local context was defined by a set of institutional, economic, geographical, demographic, cultural, political, managerial, and administrative factors. The research findings indicate that the key factors that influence the engagement of local government in local or regional innovation networks are institutional factors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the war in Ukraine thwart the green agricultural transformation in the EU? Political economy considerations regarding the case of Germany<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The war in Ukraine threatens global food security. At the same time, the European Union (EU) plans to advance the green transformation of its agro-food sector, which implies lower agricultural output. Relying on the political economy literature, this study examines if the war can thwart the greening ambitions for EU’s agro-food sector. For this, it explores to what extent the war represents an external event that is large enough to change policy preferences and reviews the positions of major political actors who shape agricultural policy on the EU level and in member states regarding the case of Germany, where the ambition for the green transformation of the economy is particularly strong. It is shown that, for the time being, the war does not impede EU’s greening aspirations. Instead, the major political actors play for time, hoping to forward the green transformation after the end of the war.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of financial constraints and financial distress on cash holdings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study is to examine the impact of financial constraints and financial distress on cash holdings, both in normal and crisis times. We collected the 4,406 firm-year observations of companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE). Our research shows that companies maintain higher cash holdings during a crisis than in a normal period. However, in contrast to our expectations, companies with financial difficulties (constraints and distress) have lower cash holdings both in normal and crisis times. The originality of our research lies in realizing that different sources of difficulties might overlap at the same time (external with internal). We also analyze how cash holdings react to a combined impact of difficulties of different natures (external and internal). We believe that cash holdings have recently increased their meaning as we face the situation of constant and increasing uncertainty: still ongoing COVID-19 crisis prolonged with Russian aggression on Ukraine and outburst of inflation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue market effects of COVID-19 shocks<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We study the impact of several Covid-19 related supply shocks. We use a standard wage setting-price setting model of the labor market and analyze the transmission of the shocks to the natural rate of unemployment and production. In a first step, the shocks are analyzed in a general way, graphically and algebraically. In a second step, numerical examples illustrate the effects on the real wage and the labor market equilibrium as well as output. Our theoretical results indicate that the negative supply shocks related to the Covid-19 pandemic are associated with a decline in the natural level of output and employment. Our results are supported by empirical evidence across various countries. However, limitations of the theoretical model can be considerable.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue