rss_2.0Journal of Electrical Engineering FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Electrical Engineering of Electrical Engineering 's Cover controlled charging and vehicle-to-grid solution for voltage regulation in low voltage distribution systems<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper offers affordable controlled charging and a vehicle-to-grid solution that uses a non-smart power meter. Additional communication infrastructure in the low-voltage distribution network is not needed. Ladder logic control is developed to be easily implemented by any commercial programmable logic controller. The voltage values measured by the power meter and electric vehicle battery state of charge are the decision variables. A validity check based on the Monte Carlo method is conducted to test the effectiveness of the proposed solution. Electric vehicle charging requirements are simulated based on travel surveys. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The voltage level is kept within acceptable limits according to the power quality standard EN50160. One may argue that there is a mismatch between the rate of penetration of electric vehicles and the level of smart grid implementation, especially in developing countries with higher rates of wealth inequality. Therefore, the methodology presented in this paper can be seen as an affordable mid-way solution that will help distribution system operators in developing countries prepare for higher penetration levels of EVs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Study of subjective and objective quality assessment of infrared compressed images<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Given the lack of accessible infrared compressed images’ benchmarks annotated by human subjects, this work presents a new database with the aim of studying both subjective and objective image quality assessment (IQA) on compressed long wavelength infrared (LWIR) images. The database contains 20 reference (pristine) images and 200 distorted (degraded) images obtained by application of the most known compression algorithms used in multimedia and communication fields, namely: JPEG and JPEG-2000. Each compressed image is evaluated by 31 subjects having different levels of experience in LWIR images. Mean opinion scores (MOS) and natural scene statistics (NSS) of pristine and compressed images are elaborated to study the performance of the database. Five analyses are conducted on collected images and subjective scores, namely: analysis by compression type, analysis by file size, analysis by reference image, analysis by quality level and analysis by subject. Moreover, a wide set of objective IQA metrics is applied on the images and the obtained scores are compared with the collected subjective scores. Results show that objective IQA measures correlate with human subjective results with a degree of agreement up to 95 %, so this benchmark is promising to improve existing and develop new IQA measures for compressed LWIR images. Thanks to a real-world surveillance original images based on which we analyze how image compression and quality level affect the quality of compressed images, this database is primarily suitable for (military and civilian) surveillance applications. The database is accessible via the link: <ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href=""></ext-link>. As a follow-up to this work, an extension of the database is underway to study other types of distortion in addition to compression.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Multi-UAV integrated HetNet for maximum coverage in disaster management<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents a practical method for the 3D placement of a group of HetNet of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)-mounted base station (mBS) to offer maximum wireless connectivity and coverage for terrestrial users in a particular region. There are two ways to solve this issue. First, the ideal flying height for each UAV is determined based on the transmit power of the UAV, which offers the maximum ground coverage radius. Depending on their ideal flying altitudes and transmitting power, UAVs are divided into several categories. Given a collection of UAVs, the proposed approach identifies an optimum subset of the available UAVs and places them optimally in 3D to offer maximum coverage of the network for a particular area on the terrestrial ground while using the least amount of power. The results of the simulations show that the suggested approach is effective, and they also give important visions about the behavior of the HetNet supported UAVmBS cell subnetworks.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of temperature on detectable minimum rotation rate in i-FOGs using Er-doped SFSs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, an interferometric fiber optic gyroscope (I-FOG) model exploiting the double-pass backward (DPB) erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber source (SFS) with both thin-film filter (TFF) and fiber bragg grating (FBG) reflectors has been constructed and the effects of temperature variations on mean wavelength and detectable minimum rotation rate (DMRR) have been theoretically analyzed. the simulations corresponding with the relations between these parameters for temperature variations in the range of −60 °C to + 90 °C, have been performed using Matlab 2021b. DMRR variations have been found as 6.01 ppm/K and 3.83 ppm/K for the system with TFF, whilst they are 15.31 ppm/K and 1.58 ppm/K for the system with FBG.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Observability, controllability and stability of a nonlinear RLC circuit in form of a Duffing oscillator by means of theoretical mechanical approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this research article, observability, controllability and stability of a nonlinear RLC circuit with a nonlinear capacitor is investigated as a Duffing oscillator beginning with the dissipative equations of generalized motion using Lagrange-dissipative model ({L, D} -model briefly). The force related to the potential energy, equilibria, and their well known stability properties are given using state space approach. Prerequisite that the condition for a Legendre transform is fulfilled, for the same system, also Hamiltonian of the system is found. Using Hamiltonian and dissipation function, dissipative canonical equations are obtained. These equations are written in state space form. Then the equality to the same results obtained using the dissipative equations of generalized motion related equilibria and their stability was shown. Thus a Lyapunov function as residual energy function (REF) is justified in terms of stability of the overall system. As last step, different electrical and mechanical (physical) realization possibilities are discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of field free region formed by dual Halbach array for focused magnetic hyperthermia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the challenges with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is the limited control of magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) oscillations. To overcome this problem new approaches such as localization of MNP oscillations are being explored. In this study, we investigated the manipulation of field free region form by dual Halbach array displacements. We used finite element method simulation to examine gradient patterns in the workspace. Then, we created an experiment platform and took point probe measurements. As a result of the research, it was found that the field free region form can be manipulated by parametric distance changes of dual Halbach array. According to the findings, the field free region can expand and its shape can change from a point-like form to an ellipse-like surface by varying the distance between the arrays. The mapping of dual Halbach array generated gradient patterns for focused MFH was investigated for the first time in this study.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Probabilistic three-phase power flow in a distribution system applying the pseudo-inverse and cumulant method<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A new, analytical approach using the cumulant method is proposed for the three-phase probabilistic power-flow (PPF) analysis. The approach to forming the sensitivity matrix is based on quantifying the pseudo-inverse instead of the inverse jacobian matrix, since it is commonly singular in a distribution power network. The results are compared with those obtained using the point-estimate method (PEM) and the Monte Carlo (MC) method, which is a commonly used reference method for the PPF analysis in a distribution power network.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Spectral and energy efficiency trade-off in massive MIMO systems using multi-objective bat algorithm<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The rise in the usage of wireless communication increases the cellular communication by the same rate. With the continuation of this situation, the density in data traffic has the potential to cause problems in the near future. Coping with spectral efficiency-energy efficiency trade-off using massive MIMO systems is considered to be a reasonable solution to this problem. In this paper, cellular communication simulations were performed in cases with different number of users, number of antennas and transmission power of massive MIMO systems and then non-dominated solutions are determined. Multi-objective bat algorithm has been used to make this process much shorter. At last stage, performance of this algorithm is compared with various intelligent optimization algorithms and with ideal non-dominated solutions. When the algorithms are compared with each other, it is seen that multi-objective bat algorithm has the best performance among them.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00A novel principal component-based virtual sensor approach for efficient classification of gases/odors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>High-performance detection and estimation of gases/odors are challenging, especially in real-time gas sensing applications. Recently, efficient electronic noses (e-noses) are being developed using convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Further, CNNs perform better when they operate on a minimal size of vector response. In this paper, dimensions of the operational vectors have been augmented by using virtual sensor responses. These virtual responses are obtained from the principal components of the physical sensor responses. Accordingly, two sets of data are upscaled as a one-dimensional one. Another level of upscaling is further obtained by using the mirror mosaicking technique. Hence, with our proposed novel approach, the final vector size for CNN operations achieves a new dimension. With this upscaled hybrid dataset, consisting of physical and virtual sensor responses, a simpler CNN has achieved 100 percent correct classification in two different experimental settings. To the best of authors information, it is for the first time that an e-nose has been designed using a principal component-based hybrid, upscaled dataset and achieves 100 percent correct classification of the considered gases/odors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Smart DTC algorithm with automatic torque ripple adjustment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents a direct torque control method with possibilities of automatic algorithm modification in terms of torque ripple reduction. The algorithm is based on the conventional switching table with an arbitrary number of discretized voltage levels allowing higher space-voltage resolution and consequently lower torque ripple. The number of available voltage levels can be easily changed and subsequently torque ripple reduced without the need to modify the conventional switching table. Appropriate algorithm modifications leading to torque ripple reduction are automatized, making this kind of control method simple, effective, and suitable for upcoming smart drives in the rapidly growing industry 4.0. Selective back electromotive force compensation can also be part of automatization with the aim to improve the drive dynamics. Experimental validation presented in the paper confirms improvements in torque ripple reduction retaining the simple and time-effective control structure of the induction machine DTC drive.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Design and implementation of a nano magnetic logic barrel shifter using beyond-CMOS technology<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Bit manipulation plays a significant role in high-speed digital signal processing (DSP) and data computing systems, and shift and rotation operations are crucial functions in it. In general, barrel shifters are used to perform these operations effectively. Nano magnetic logic circuits are among the promising beyond-CMOS alternative technologies for the design of high-speed circuits. Most of the existing circuits that have been developed using nano magnets are combinational circuits. In this work, a barrel shifter is implemented and realised using in-plane nano magnetic logic. The proposed design is the first of its kind nano magnetic logic circuit. The nano magnetic logic circuit implementation, layout generation, simulation, and validation were performed using the ToPoliNano and ModelSim tools. The logical equivalent design was synthesised and evaluated using the Synopsys Design Compiler tool. The proposed barrel shifter was realised using majority logic has 1769037 nano magnets with a boxing area of 481 × 13104 <italic>µ</italic>m<sup>2</sup> and 3276 clock zones after optimisation with the Barycenter algorithm. The proposed barrel shifter realised using Boolean logic has 315276 nano magnets with a boxing area of 265 × 5028 <italic>µ</italic>m<sup>2</sup> and 1257 clock zones after optimisation with the Barycenter algorithm. The proposed design results demonstrate that complex systems can be developed using nano magnetic logic by combining combinational and sequential circuits.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Pressure and humidity detector based on textile integrated waveguide<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the paper, a pressure sensor and a humidity sensor are designed as supplementary components of a textile integrated waveguide (TIW) based on an artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) consisting of hexagonal elements. Thanks to AMC, sewing of electrically conductive side walls can be eliminated. Since operating in the stop-band of TIW, the sensors do not influence transmission parameters of TIW, and provide an additional functionality. For fabrication, a three-dimensional knitted fabric was used as a substrate and conductive surfaces were created from a self-adhesive copper foil. The sensors were simulated, manufactured and measured in the frequency range from 10 GHz to 12 GHz with a reasonable agreement. Since the designed components are sensitive on manufacturing tolerances, a higher measured insertion loss in TIW can be observed compared to simulations. Nevertheless, the insertion loss can be reduced when manufacturing accuracy is improved.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Basketball self training shooting posture recognition and trajectory estimation using computer vision and Kalman filter<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Self-shooting training is one of the fundamental criteria for success in basketball. Particularly, young players increase their performance with regular training. However, the training process becomes painful and time-consuming without a coach since the incorrect shooting posture causes missing shots, leading to reluctance. In this research, a self-shooting posture algorithm is developed to track the movement of basketball players and give them feedback about their position, angle, and basketball projectile trajectory information. The proposed algorithm uses computer vision techniques and Kalman filter to detect the best projectile trajectory using initial conditions such as acceleration due to gravity the initial velocity at the angle of launch having certain horizontal distance to the rim and the rim distance from the ground The acceleration of both gravity and air drag are altered by predefined parameters, including the drag coefficient basketball mass ball radius and silhouette area The proposed algorithm provides the shooting angle in real-time by placing the projectile angle on to the cropped image of the player posture and draws the projectile trajectory towards the basketball hoop According to the results, the players having a specified height can achieve the best shooting at the angle with air drag force. On the other hand, if there is no air resistance, the best shooting angle is deviated significantly. The other stats that are a total time of travel, maximum horizontal distance, maximum height and the time until the top are also given along with the results.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-12T00:00:00.000+00:00UWB-MIMO DGS loaded patch antenna with low profile for millimeter-wave applications<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna with a defective ground surface (DGS) is proposed for next-generation millimeter-wave communication. The designed antenna consists of a pair of mushroom shape radiating units with two square ring-loaded defected common ground plane. The antenna is printed on duroid-5880 high-frequency laminates (loss tangent 0.0009, relative permittivity 2.2). Significant bandwidth ranges from 31.6 GHz to 48.8 GHz (impedance bandwidth of 43.17%) is obtained during the investigation of the antenna. The introduced MIMO antenna exhibits a low mutual coupling (|<italic>S</italic>21|, |<italic>S</italic>12| <italic>&lt;</italic> −20) dB with the incorporation of DGS. The antenna performance parameters defined as return loss, radiation pattern, gain, the radiation efficiency is examined. Many diversity parameters are also discussed in terms of mutual coupling, envelop correlation coefficient (<italic>ECC &lt;</italic> 0.002), diversity gain (<italic>DG &gt;</italic> 9.995), and channel capacity loss (<italic>CCL &lt;</italic> 0.3 bits/sec/Hz) across the ultra-wide band (UWB) frequencies. Simulated results are verified by the measured results, and good agreement is observed between them. These distinguishable attributes with the simple configuration model the propound MIMO antenna suitable for millimeter-wave applications.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Phase shifter based on the substrate integrated waveguide technology<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology is widely known transmission line technology adapted for use in various types of microwave circuits. This article deals with the analysis and design of a phase shifter based on the SIW technology. With simulation and measurement results obtained from the phase shifter with using air holes inside the structure, a test circuit was designed and manufactured. Results show that a phase balance of less than 10° is achieved with the experimental setup. The return loss value is better than 15 dB for working frequency band 8.85 GHz − 9GHz. The main benefit of this work is the easy of implementation air holes inside the structure and also the easy of manufacture of the circuits for antenna arrays, where a certain number of identical circuits is usually needed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-12T00:00:00.000+00:00An improved control strategy based sliding mode approach for high-order systems with mismatched disturbances<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper develops an improved design of sliding mode control for high-order systems subjected to matched and mismatched disturbances. Unlike most of the literature implementations, that consider the mismatched disturbances as time vanishing disturbances with a known upper bound; the proposed approach works under time non-vanishing of both, the mismatched disturbances and their time derivatives. Furthermore, these disturbances and their time derivatives are bounded by an unknown constant. In contrast to the classical approaches that search for an approximation to the disturbance and then incorporates it into the controller to stabilise the system, the proposed scheme conducts the system output to achieve asymptotic convergence and this is without the need of any exact estimation of the disturbance. Two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Anti windup GPC speed controller for induction machine based on Youla parametrization<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the induction motor indirect vector control system, because of its physical limitations, the large step change in the speed command and/or load would eventually cause the so-called “integral windup phenomenon” which causes unexpected behavior of the system. To counteract this problem, an anti- windup generalized predictive speed control method is proposed by using the Youla parametrization. As first step, the design of an initial GPC controller based on its polynomial equivalent structure is required. Then, thanks to the Youla parametrization, this controller is retuned considering two specifications. The first is a frequency specification on the quadratic component of stator current response to the speed reference. And the second is a time domain constraint on the measured speed response to the speed reference. These constraints are formulated within a convex optimization framework. The simulation results proved the efficiency of the present design method.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-12T00:00:00.000+00:00A new electrohydrodynamic printing method for patterns fabrication with low viscosity fluid of silicone oil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Silicone oil is a type of fluid with low viscosity, but it is not easy to form stable cone jet for electrohydrodynamic printing. In this paper, we proposed a new electrohydrodynamic printing method for patterns fabrication with this kind of low viscosity fluid. Dots array was first printed on the substrate at higher direct current voltage. Then by controlling the moving speed of the platform, the dots were connected into lines according to the fluidity of the silicone oil and its low surface tension. With the proposed method, the patterns with silicone oil can be successfully formed by electrohydrodynamic printing. In the experiment, the influence of main parameters including applied voltage, moving speed of substrate, distance from needle to substrate, and axial length of droplet on the quality of printed lines was studied. Finally, by optimizing the printing parameters, the silicone oil lines with width of 73 <italic>µ</italic>m and low surface roughness were printed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Fabrication of PDMS chips by laser engraving for protein enrichments<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) chips are increasingly important for the application of fluorescence measurements due to their auto-fluorescence free, excellent transparency, and biocompatibility. However, the design of PDMS microfluidic chips requires to fabricate plenty of molds for structure optimization, resulting in high cost. In the present, PDMS chips with nafion membrane were fabricated by simple and low-cost method for bull serum albumin (BSA) enrichment. To optimize the laser cutting and bonding parameters, simulation models were established using Bilinear Kinematic and Mooney-Rivlin models, respectively. The influence of laser power and cutting speed on the width and depth of the micro-channels was investigated. And the effect of bonding pressure on the deformation of PDMS micro-channel and stress distribution near the micro-channels was also analyzed. The leakage test and BSA enrichment demonstrated the practicability and feasibility of the present fabrication method in this work.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Frequency diverse array radar with non-uniform array spacing based on sigmoid function<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As a widely recognized electronic beam steering concept, frequency diverse array (FDA) radar is an effective and feasible solution to provide beam scanning ability in both angle as well as range dimension as a function of time. However, the conventional FDA radar employing progressive incremental frequency offsets across the array elements generates an S-shaped and range-angle coupled beampattern. As such, the FDA beampattern can be decoupled into range-angle dimensions by employing non-linear frequency offsets or using non-uniform arrays. Frequency offsets design has been extensively researched in recent years, whereas non-uniform arrays were given little attention so far. In this paper, we propose a novel FDA radar with a unified configuration of non-uniform linear array, and non-linear frequency offsets to achieve a high-resolution dot-shaped range-angle dependent beampattern. More specifically, the non-uniform inter-element spacing is calculated using the sigmoid function, and non-linear frequency offsets are generated by logistic map, and triangular window function. Simulation results clearly demonstrate the performance advantages of the proposed FDA radar in terms of beam width and side lobe levels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-12T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1