rss_2.0Journal of Landscape Ecology FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Landscape Ecology of Landscape Ecology Feed Spatial and Geometrical Patterns of Tiruchirappalli and Tier-Urban Centers Using Spatial Metrics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Understanding spatial and geometrical patterns of urbanization is crucial in tackling associated problems. As urbanization progresses through various stages of development, it reflects different forms, patterns, and interactions based on its physical and functional aspects. Spatial metrics is a well-acclaimed technique for quantifying urban morphological characteristics. The current study was conducted for Tiruchirappalli and six tier-urban centers located within a 40-kilometers radius to comprehend the comparative growth and spatial patterns. The urban centers are divided into eight zones based on direction for more precise quantification. The study employed Landsat 5 and 8 satellite images to classify land use/cover for the periods 1996, 2008, and 2020. FRAGSTAT is the software application used to analyze spatial metrics, at patch, class, and landscape levels. The study generated a significant amount of data about spatial and geometric patterns of growth. Area, edge, and aggregation metrics indicated that zones in Manachanallur, Manapparai, Musiri, Thiruverumbur, and Thuraiyur had protrusive urban growth during the study period. Transport networks have been the instrumental factor for such growth. Diversity metrics revealed Tiruchirappalli and Thiruverumbur have abundant patches of various classes in many of their zones since they retain patches like open, vegetation, and water bodies extensively. Shape metrics across all urban centers during the period 1996-2008 were more irregular in shape; it has become significantly smooth during 2008-2020 due to infill developments on the fringe areas. The period 1996-2008 recorded a huge transition of open areas into built-ups, attributing to infill development, especially inside the urban centers; similarly, during the period 2008-2020, edge expansion has been recorded widely across the urban centers. The current study is a significant contribution to urban research in understanding relative spatial and geometric patterns of urbanization.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Concept: Landscape Level Parameters and Application<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Zonal concept is a traditional approach in land assessment. Although its principles have been known for over a hundred years, they have not yet been thoroughly evaluated using modern analytical approaches. Assessing the empirically established parameters for characterising a zonal site, establishing threshold values of significant environmental factors, along with assessing the applicability of the zonal concept, were the goals of this study. The data analysed were obtained from the robust and objective Czech National Forest Inventory database. Regression, indirect ordination, hierarchical clustering and spatial analyses of geo-information systems were used. The study revealed seven crucial environmental factors: Slope, Slope Height, Terrain Surface Texture, Negative Openness, Multi-Resolution Index of Valley Bottom Flatness, Soil Type and Soil Subtype. A graphical model of zonal/azonal sites was constructed based on calculated threshold values of the factors. This methodic approach introduces significant geomorphological information that are otherwise problematically detectable in field mapping. We suggest it is possible to use the zonal concept as a base layer for general landscape assessment. Zonal site classification can become a part of a precise land management practice, consisting of valuable empiricism of traditional landscape ecological classifications enriched by modelling in disturbance ecology and prediction of climate change effects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Yield Prediction of Castor Bean () Using Sentinel-2A Satellite Image in a Semi-Arid Region of India<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Castor bean (<italic>Ricinus communis</italic>) indigenous to the southeastern Mediterranean basin, eastern Africa and India is a crop having various industrial and medicinal applications. It is helpful in crop rotation and replenishing the soil nutrients due to less water consumption. The current study explores the utility of Sentinel-2A satellite image for mapping and yield prediction of castor beans. Several classification methods viz. migrating means clustering, maximum likelihood classifier, support vector machine and artificial neural network are used for the classification and mapping of different landscape categories. The overall classification accuracy was achieved to be highest for artificial neural network (85.81 %) subsequently support vector machine (80.12 %), maximum likelihood classifier (74.23 %) and migrating means clustering (73.03 %). The yield prediction is performed using Sentinel-2A-derived indices namely Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Enhanced Vegetation Index-2. Further, the cumulative values of these two indices are investigated for castor bean yield prediction using linear regression from July 2017 to April 2018 in different seasons (pre-monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter). The regression model provided (adj R2=0.75) value using EVI-2 compared to (adj R2=0.55) using NDVI for yield prediction of <italic>Ricinus communis</italic> crop in the winter season. The methodology adopted in this study can serve as an effective tool to map and predict the productivity of <italic>Ricinus communis</italic>. The adopted methodology may also be extended to a wider spatial level and for other significant crops grown in semi-arid regions of world.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue on Factors Affecting Early Survival of Tree /Shrub Seedlings and it’s Remedy in Restoration Sites of Ethiopia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Restoration activities in degraded and/or deforested forest landscapes are common and old occurrences around the world. Tree planting is common in most forest landscape restoration initiatives. In Ethiopia, eight seedling-based landscape restoration options are identified to alleviate land degradation and its consequences. The primary purpose of this work was to review factors affecting the early survival of tree and shrub seedlings and their remedies in the restoration sites of Ethiopia. Drought and moisture stress, low soil fertility, poor seedling quality, weak species site matching, termites, livestock grazing, and seasonal frost are the basic factors that hinder the survival and growth of seedlings in the field. In situ rainwater harvesting structures, fertilizer application, the use of quality seedlings, the right species site matching, and the exclusion of livestock and grazing animals from planted seedlings are the remedies that must be employed to increase the success of tree-based restoration practices. Thus, further investigation of the factors affecting the survival of seedlings in the out-planting sites and remediation accordingly is necessary to ensure the productivity and sustainability of restoration practices in Ethiopia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Corridor Potential Between Protected Areas in a Fragmented Landscape, Gunungkidul Regency, Indonesia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fragmentation impacts disconnecting protected areas in Gunungkidul Regency, namely Bunder Forest Park (BFP) and the Paliyan Wildlife Reserve (PWR). This also decreases the carrying capacity in PWR, degrading the Long-Tailed Macaque (LTM) habitat. Therefore, this research aims to analyze the landscape structure between Protected areas, the habitat suitability of LTM in Gunungkidul Regency, and determine connectivity potential as an environmental management strategy. applied for this research to investigates the structure and fragmentation using Fragstat 4.2 and ArcGIS 10.8 software. Meanwhile, scoring and weighting methods analyze the LTM habitat, while Least Cost Patch Analysis (LCPA) supported by ArcGIS 10.8 determine the corridor. The results showed that the research land cover changed from 1999-2021. Agriculture, scrubs, and settlements are the dominant land cover suspected to cause forest fragmentation. Based on the habitat suitability analysis using parameters such as land cover, vegetation density, slope, altitude, distance from the river, and sources of threats, most of the research area is intermediate habitat suitability class. These findings can be integrated to determine connectivity between protected areas as one of the environment management strategies. Good forest cover can be used to designate a corridor that has the greatest potential to be developed between BFP and PWR and should be maintained as a wildlife crossing.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Composition, Structure, and Regeneration Status of Woody Plant Species in Hurubu Natural Forest, North Shewa, Oromia Region, Ethiopia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ethiopia harbour the Eastern afromontane and Horn of Africa hotspots of biodiversity. The general objective of this study was to investigate the floristic composition and diversity of species, the structure and the regeneration status of the Hurubu forest. Three parallel transects lines with 1 km length were systematically laid across the forest with an interval of 500 m in south to north direction. Thirty sample quadrants of 20 m × 20 m were placed along transects at an interval of 200 m for mature trees and shrubs, while for the purpose of seedling and sapling inventory, four sub-quadrants of 1 m × 1 m were laid at each corner of the main quadrant. A total of 32 woody species representing 25 families were recorded consisting of trees and shrubs. The lower storey consisted of all woody plant species, except Ekebergia capensis tree species. The middle storey consisted about 14.41 % of the tree species while the upper storey involved only 2.35 % of the total individual trees in the forest. The total basal area of woody plants in Hurubu forest was 90 m<sup>2</sup> per ha. The three most important woody species with the highest IVI were Juniperus procera, Osyris quadripartite and Myrsine africana in decreasing order. The general regeneration status of the tree species of the study site was satisfactory at the community level showing a ‘fair’ regeneration status. Therefore, special conservation actions should be implemented for the poorly and not regenerating woody species of the forest.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Tourism Planning on Landscape Scale: Case Study from Slovakia (Central Europe)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The European cultural landscape and its traditional values represent a significant condition for recreation and tourism. However, we are aware of the negative consequences of human activity in the past years in rural areas and pay more attention to protecting these values. Modern rural recreation and tourism must be built on scientific background. That is why the presented contribution brings an innovative integrated approach to sustainable rural recreation and tourism model by applying landscape ecological planning methodology with a combination of ecological stability and landscape character assessment. It deals with the qualitative evaluation of the landscape potential of the foothill village of Podkonice in Slovakia and the possibilities of its use in sustainable rural tourism. Determining the potential in confrontation with different forms of tourism activities can help achieve a sustainable tourism concept. The main result of the presented research is the final optimal selection of activities and use of the landscape with regard to the development of tourism. Such a proposal can be used in spatial planning and strategic decision-making processes not only in the study area, but it can be applied in the European context.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Perception of Trees in the Landscape: The Connection Between Attitudes and Visual Preferences<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study presented in this paper uses a representative sample of the Czech population to analyse the relationships between attitudes to trees and preferences for landscapes with trees. We ask whether a positive assessment of the environmental benefits of trees in general and old and dead trees in particular leads to preferences for close-to-nature forms of the tree landscape. The results show that tree landscape preferences are primarily affected by attitudes attached to trees, rather than by sociodemographic factors. People who appreciate the environmental benefits of trees are more likely to prefer transparent and organized landscapes with trees, whereas the more specific environmental attitude appreciating old or dead trees is reflected in higher preferences for wilderness-like landscapes. The results of our research suggest that the perceived environmental benefits of trees are anthropocentric in nature, in a way utilitarian; trees serve people and their environment, and not nature as such.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Characterization Of Land Surface Temperature In Relation Landuse/Cover: A Spatial Autocorrelation Approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The land use and land cover (LULC) characteristics of Ghaziabad have experienced dynamic changes because of the city’s ongoing industrialization and urbanisation processes. These shifts can be directly attributed to human actions. These shifts can be directly attributed to human actions. Thermal variation in the study area necessitates LULC analysis. Landsat and Sentinel satellite data for 2011 and 2021 were used to map LULC, estimate land surface temperature (LST) and analysis spatial autocorrelation among the variables using ArcGIS software and the Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud platform. A sharp descent is observed in the cropland while built-up area has increased during the study period. With the increase in the built-up surface in the area, the ambient temperatures have also increased from 18.70 °C in 2011 to 21.81 °C in 2021 leading to urban heat island effect. At all spatial scales, spatial autocorrelation is a characteristic property of most ecological parameters. The spatial clustering of LST in an ecosystem can play a crucial role in determining the dynamics of LULC.The Moran’s, I show that there is a considerable level of spatial autocorrelation in the values of LST and highly clustered pattern for both the years. Monitoring and understanding the surface thermal environment is crucial to discerning the causes of climate change.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the CZ-Globio Model in Beskydy Protected Landscape Area<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Spatially oriented simulation models have not yet been applied to the territory of Beskydy Protected Landscape Area (PLA) to assess the state of biodiversity at a local scale. The CZ-GLOBIO model, which is adapted to the conditions of the Czech Republic, was used as a tool to assess habitat degradation using four selected drivers. The aim of the article is to apply the CZ-GLOBIO model for biodiversity status assessment in Beskydy PLA at the biotope level using detailed habitat data. The result of the application of the model is the evaluation of the state of biodiversity and the risk of its degradation using the Mean Species Abundance (MSA) index. Values are obtained for each segment as well as the average value for the entire territory. The results of biodiversity modelling are available by five maps and five tables with output Mean Species Abundance (MSA) values. Understanding the spatial distribution of the resulting MSA values contributes to the landscape-level habitat assessment of Beskydy PLA. This can serve as a basis for further policy decisions in the environmental field.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Pollution in the Ancient Roman Empire<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article describes select examples of waste management from the Roman Empire (27 BCE to 365 CE). Classical written sources and anthropological and archeological literature were studied. The central theme of this paper is ancient man’s relationship with waste and his responses to pollution.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Discussions on Impacts of Industrial Induced Factors on the Environment of Central Kazakhstan<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Many disturbances and changes in nature are caused by a number of human activities, such as mining engineering, town planning, and also by the influences of the activities connected to these indusries.</p><p>Central Kazakhstan is one of the regions of the Republic experiencing enormous pollution pressure caused by giant industry as the coal and metallurgical, mining and chemical and machine construction.</p><p>The article reviews main industrial induced factors that define the spatial distribution of negative processes in semi arid climate of Central Kazakhstan where the intensive mining works have been conducted since 1940s and have led to a change of relief formation, groundwater and soil contamination. The damaged areas occupy vast territories, significantly reducing the habitable space for the population of Central Kazakhstan.</p><p>The research examined two environmental components to assess and improve the ecological situation at the mining area: (a) land and water as economical component and (b) relief as main natural component.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Sensitive Landscape Case Study: Public Open Green Spaces in Naser City, Egypt<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The purpose of this paper is to reveal measures to lower water demand and consumption of public green spaces in arid environments such as Cairo city while maintaining a pleasant appearance. The Water Sensitive Urban Design approach is adopted to formulate a checklist in order to evaluate the extent to which public green spaces in “Naser City” district, participate in preserving water quality and quantity. After analyzing six case studies, the study concluded that the main problems are using high-quality water to irrigate green spaces, and the gardeners’ reckless irrigation and maintenance techniques. Short term solutions were proposed, such as utilizing low flow irrigation system, minimizing the lawn areas, integrating water meters, using mulching and incorporating a competent maintenance schedule. Long term solutions mainly focused on replacing potable water with treated wastewater, which is estimated to cover irrigation needs for all green areas in the district.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue to Improve Sustainability in Urban Landscape, Literature Review<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Decreasing green spaces is a significant concern in today’s compact cities while they provide various dimensions of sustainability; therefore, sustainable development has become the key idea to solve a series of environmental, economic and social problems. Because urban green space can be seen from different distinct disciplinary perspectives, this study reviews theories and material based on multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches. Urban development and renewal should be accompanied by a green vision, to insert more plantable spaces into the urban environment. Therefore, sustainable urban planning, design and management are needed to improve urban greening by innovative and creative strategies.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Contextuality, Complexity, and Integrity of the Development and Cognition of Landscape Ecology (Selected Theoretical and Meta-Scientific Aspects)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The view of the development and cognition of landscape ecology should not be an isolated one. In order to comprehend the connection, complexity and cohesion of natural and social nature which influence the genesis, development and function of landscape ecology should be studied in time-spatial and landscape-ecological contextuality, complexity and integrity. This paper is devoted to the topic of time-spatial contextuality, complexity, and integrity of landscape ecology as a science approached from two points of view: firstly, the potential development of landscape ecology reflecting its object and approach of research and secondly, cognition of landscape ecology by landscape ecologists, i.e. subject of landscape ecological research. The mission of this paper is to at least partially enlighten so far less studied meta-scientific research field by means of selected theoretical and meta-scientific aspects.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Woods and Pollard Trees in the Visual Arts<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The sprouting capacity of some broadleaves has been used for their regeneration since ancient times. Often concurrently with taking advantage of sprouting stools, the trees used to be shaped also by pruning their stems, namely on pasturelands and in grazing forests. The activity of woodcutters and shepherds was obviously rather common in warmer climates with broadleaved stands because coppice and pollard trees appear relatively often in the visual arts from ancient works through the period if the Italian and German Renaissance up to the romantic and realistic landscape painting of the 19<sup>th</sup> century overlapping into the 20<sup>th</sup> century. For centuries, most frequently illustrated in European and Czech paintings have been pollard willows (Salix spp.). Other coppice and pollard tree species identified in paintings are oaks (Quercus spp.), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus), European beech (Fagus sylvatica), European chestnut (Castanea sativa), and rarely other species, too. Artists apparently often used bizarrely shaped woods to increase the dramatic atmosphere of their landscape sceneries as well as figural compositions, and the coppice and pollard trees had certainly also a symbolic meaning in some of their works.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Indicator Vertebrate Species to Environmental Assessment in the Landscape: Danube – Oder – Elbe Water Canal in the Czech Republic<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The aim of the study is to assess potential impact of construction of the Danube - Oder - Elbe (DOL) water canal on populations of vertebrate species - amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals - and present using these species as bioindicators on landscape level. For analysis of the data, the canal route was divided into smaller sections which were assessed separately. The following criteria were analysed: 1) current occurrence of target vertebrate species, 2) identification of species affected by canal construction, including evaluation of their numbers, 3) identification of affected species protected by Czech legislation, 4) identification of affected species protected by EU legislation, 5) impact assessment of the DOL project on Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and Special Areas of Conservation (SACs), 6) data synthesis and impact assessment of the DOL vertebrates in the particular catchment areas. It is apparent that the most important negative impacts on vertebrate populations and their habitats in case of implementation of the DOL plan can be expected in the following sections of the Morava river: Hodonín - Břeclav, Kroměříž - Otrokovice, Veselí na Moravě - Hodonín, Troubky - Kroměříž, Doubravice - Střelice; of the Oder river: Jeseník nad Odrou - Ostrava, Ostrava - state border; and of the Elbe river: Česká Třebová - Pardubice. In case of construction of the DOL canal, disturbance, damage or loss of vertebrate habitats will occur at least at 6 out of 9 studied sections in the Morava catchment area, at 3 of 4 sections in the Oder catchment area and at 2 of 3 sections in the Elbe catchment area.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Condition Assessment Based on Economic Criteria<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The current concept of rangeland condition is faced with many problems that make it difficult for managers to apply. The concept is based on climax theory, which itself has been criticised by many scientists, as it also fails to reflect the real status of rangelands based on all the functions and benefits that they are able to provide. Considering the objectives of rangeland management, a new concept of rangeland condition based on ecological and economic criteria (ECEA) is suggested in this article. In this concept, rangeland condition is achieved as ‘the ratio of current benefits of a rangeland to the operation costs for its ecological restoration (to the extent that the most sustainable benefits provided). Furthermore, based on this new concept an equation is developed for quantitative measurement of the rangeland condition. We believe that this new concept can solve many problems around the existing concept of rangeland condition.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Holes in the Agrarian Landscape: Isolated and Ecological Unique Habitats for Carabid Beetles (Col.: Carabidae) and Spiders (Arach.: Araneae)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Kettle holes are small depressional wetlands and because of the high variability of site factors they are potential hotspots of biodiversity in the monotone arable land. We investigated eight kettle holes and two agrarian reference biotopes for carabid beetles and spiders. The animals were captured with pitfall traps from May to August 2005, along with surveys of the soil and vegetation. We asked whether each kettle hole has specific ecological properties which match with characteristic carabid beetle and spider coenoses and whether they represent isolated biotopes. Differences in the composition of ecological and functional groups of carabid beetles and spiders between the plots were tested with an ANOVA. The impact of the soil variables and vegetation structure on the distribution of species was analyzed with a Redundancy Analysis. The assemblage similarities between the kettle hole plots were calculated by the Wainstein-Index. Ecological groups and habitat preferences of carabid beetles had maximal expressions in seven different kettle holes whereas most of the ecological characteristics of the spiders had maximal expression in only two kettle holes. High assemblage similarity values of carabid beetle coenoses were observed only in a few cases whereas very similar spider coenoses were found between nearly all of the kettle holes. For carabid beetles, kettle holes represent much more isolated habitats than that for spiders. We concluded that kettle holes have specific ecological qualities which match with different ecological properties of carabid beetles and spiders and that isolation effects affect carabid beetles more than spiders.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Conservation: The Perspectives of Experts and Other Stakeholders<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The idea that landscape fulfils many different functions and provides multiple benefits for human society is gaining strength. This new vision of landscape changes both, the interests and the needs of the persons involved and the use and management of the landscape itself. The objective of this paper is to study landscape conservation in a particular mountainous area of Italy, which requires an institutional, non-generic approach. Using the contingent valuation method, we investigated whether there is a relationship between experts’ and casual observers’ evaluations of ten different scenarios in the Leno Valleys. Results show that direct knowledge of the site characteristics increases the awareness of the importance of the site, significantly impacting on conservation choices and strategies.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue