rss_2.0Journal of Social and Economic Statistics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Social and Economic Statistics of Social and Economic Statistics Feed the AI Landscape: Navigating Global Insights from Leading AI Indexes<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study develops a scorecard validation model for evaluating key Artificial Intelligence (AI) indexes, aiming to provide a comprehensive framework for assessing the multifaceted nature of AI development. Focusing on four significant AI indexes and one AI report from 2021 to 2023, the research employs both expert judgment and advanced text mining techniques, including k-means clustering. This dual approach facilitates a detailed examination of AI indexes, highlighting their strengths, weaknesses, and overall market comprehensiveness. The findings contribute to understanding the AI sector’s evolution, offering critical insights for policy formulation and strategic decision-making in AI. Acknowledging the inherent subjectivity in the evaluation process and potential data biases, the paper suggests future research avenues, including cross-sectoral and regional analyses of AI trends and a deeper exploration of ethical considerations in AI. This study serves as a valuable resource for stakeholders navigating the complex AI landscape, providing a structured method for comparing and understanding AI advancements.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Connections: Examining the Role of Remittances in Economic development<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article surveys the main effects of remittances on economic development. The focus is to emphasise how the money sent back by emigrants in their home countries impacts factors such as imports or foreign direct investment that can influence the economy’s evolution. All countries from European Union countries were included in the analysis, but we have been focusing on the post-communist EU countries, which were the focus of this article. The econometric model used is the multiple regression with the fixed-effect model (FEM) and the random effect model (REM) based on panel data. Our findings underline that remittances have a solid and significant influence on the economic development of emigration countries, especially among former communist countries. Finally, the research strengthens the current literature on remittances and economic development through an empirical analysis that focuses on recent data.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Parameter Space of Simulated Lotteries<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study presents an econophysics based approach to the study of lotteries. By treating lotteries as complex systems we analyse the guiding dynamics of real-world lotteries. We found that the growth of the jackpot, that can be won, between two successive draws is proportional to its preceding value. This growth is best described as a linear function with two parameters a and b reflecting foundational player pool sales and the excitement generated by the current jackpot respectively. A computer simulation considering additional parameters (such as the price of a ticket: s, and the format of the lottery: p) is used to study the statistical features of simulated lotteries covering a vast parameter space. This approach enables us to construct a detailed map of how various parameters influence lottery behaviour by examining the statistical characteristics of the simulated lotteries. The findings emphasize the need for thoughtful pricing strategies in real-world lotteries and suggest that simulations can assist organizers in making informed decisions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Smart Urban Development: A Comparative Studies Between Cities of Romania, Canada and Denmark<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to the fact that the planet’s resources are limited and human exploitation has led to unprecedented environmental pollution, sustainability has become a concept of great importance in recent years, especially in the context of very rapid and large-scale urban development. The green city is a form of sustainable city focused mainly on the creation of green spaces, which helps, among other things, to reduce pollution, to combat climate change and to create a more favorable environment for people. Green infrastructure is the main element that characterizes this type of sustainable city, the dynamics of the use of the term in specialized studies showing an upward trend. Interest in the notion of green city has seen a major increase in the last 8 years, highlighting the need to create a more nature-friendly way of urban development. The country that stands out regarding its contribution in terms of studies carried out on the theme of green city is China, while Romania is one of the countries where this subject is very little researched. A cluster analysis of cities in Romania, Denmark and Canada provides a valuable perspective, namely that Romanian cities are the most polluted and have very few green spaces per capita, suggesting the existence of problems with government policies to transform the cities into ones that respect the environment more.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Organizational Performance Through The Fuzzy Dematel Method<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In today’s dynamic and interconnected business landscape, organizational performance optimization is imperative for sustained success. To achieve this, it is essential to discern and address the complex cause-and-effect relationships within an organization. This article introduces the Fuzzy Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (Fuzzy DEMATEL) method as a powerful tool for evaluating and enhancing organizational performance. The Fuzzy DEMATEL method, an extension of the traditional DEMATEL approach, accommodates the inherent ambiguity and uncertainty in real-world data, offering a more robust and accurate analysis. This method enables decision-makers to identify causal relationships among various factors impacting organizational performance, classify these factors as cause or effect, and quantify the degree of their influence using fuzzy logic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Harm in Learning – A Balanced High Reliability Organisation (HRO) Approach in Healthcare<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This multi-site study measures different aspects of patient safety culture within selected secondary and tertiary care NHS hospitals by applying High Reliability Organisations (HRO) principles. We propose a new balanced definition of HRO within health setting with a new maturity grid, and use an instrument to survey various staff across hospitals. An electronic online questionnaire surveyed all staff grades across three NHS hospital trusts. The sample consisted of 1,243 randomly selected staff. We used a high reliability organisation (HRO) framework consisting of five dimensions to estimate maturity levels linked to patient safety culture to create a measurable and replicable process for benchmarking and improvement. The proposed maturity grid provides a clear and concise road map to support senior managers in formulating a patient safety strategy based on a higher level in maturity with respect to HRO five principles. The proposed methodology can also predict the likely direction of improvement, or deterioration, if no action is taken with respect to each of the HRO principles. Although healthcare leaders consider the principles of high reliability organisations (HROs) as a guide for strategy to improve patient safety, there is evidence that these principles are underused in the measurement and subsequent analysis of their impact on patient safety culture. Our approach provides a structured methodology that aims to contribute to streamlining implementation and monitoring of HRO principles towards improving safety and resilience.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Determinants of Birth Rate in Romania. A Spatial Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this article is to determine the factors influencing the birth rate in Romania, by incorporating explicitly the spatial factor in the proposed models. The study is justified by the dramatic fall of the birth rate over the past three decades. With a negative natural population growth and an increasing number of emigrants, the population will become older and there will be a few million less in the next decades. To achieve the objective, various spatial modelling methods were used, such as Spatial AutoRegressive Model (SAR), Spatial Error Model (SEM), Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) and a spatial panel data model. The data granularity is at the county level for the year 2020. Results show that GDP per capita and the amount of financial support received by families for raising a child have a significant effect on the birth rate. Using a spatial approach for modelling the birth rate, we reveal demographic problems that may exist in certain areas and identify the regions that would require a policy to stimulate birth rates.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Impact of the Standard of Living on Digital Performance in the European Union<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Digital Economy and Society Index can be considered a complex indicator that measures the digital performance of the European Union. This indicator has undergone some methodological changes, precisely to be permanently aligned with the European Union’s development strategies but especially with technological development. The aim of the paper is to highlight the impact of the standard of living and its components on digital performance at the level of the European Union. Moreover, the paper will analyse the current state of digital performance at the level of the European Union. The results can serve as a policymaking tool to facilitate the implementation of the digitalisation project at the European level.</p> <p>In this article, hierarchical clustering was used to define groups of countries from the perspective of digitalisation. Ward’s algorithm determined four homogeneous clusters that were presented in the analysis. This approach serves as a hypothesis to test the correlation between digital performance and living standards. Thus, with the help of the linear correlation coefficient, a strong positive relationship was identified between the Human Development Index and the Digital Economy and Society Index. Moreover, at the level of the Human Development Index components, it was identified that individual well-being and education correlate linearly with the Digital Economy and Society Index; therefore, the analysis was completed with a multiple regression to verify this dependence. The last part of the case study is represented by the classic linear regression model, which confirms the hypothesis that living standards influence digital performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Assessment of the Russo-Ukrainian Conflict on the European Cereal Exports Using Network Theory<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cereal grains are basic nutrients in the human diet. Given the production capacity gap between countries, food security is subject to global challenges. The Russian invasion of Ukraine from February 2022 has inevitably raised concerns on the resilience of the agro-food system. In this paper, we use network theory to examine the export flows of the European producers of wheat, maize, and barley. Based on annual data from the United Nations Comtrade database, we build specific weighted and directed networks to comparatively assess the dynamics of cereal exporting patterns. We employ centrality metrics for network statistics and modularity for community detection. The central hub for all three cereals remained unchanged. Our results show the following core countries Russia for wheat, France for barley and Ukraine for maize. Their main export destination is also the same, from Russia to Türkiye, France to China and Ukraine to China respectively. Compared to the previous year, several destinations including low-income countries worldwide did not appear as recipients of the Ukrainian exports, but additional countries located in Europe and interconnected by land emerged as partners. This study provides a general assessment of the European exports to support a better understanding of the community structure under the Russo-Ukrainian conflict setting.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Board Gender Diversity Really Improve Financial Performance and Default Risk? Evidence from Romanian Companies Engaged in International Trade<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Currently, in the business world, important attempts are being made to assess the possibility of verifying the creditworthiness of companies by going beyond traditional financial data and incorporating alternative data as well. Does the fact that the board of a company has a certain structure influence the financial health of that company? The paper’s objective is to ascertain if there is a correlation between the board of directors’ gender diversity, financial performance, and the probability of default for that respective company. The empirical study examined a sample of Romanian companies engaged in international trade. Using natural language processing techniques, I predicted the gender of the respective director by his/her first name. The second step of the research was the analysis of the correlation between the percentage of women on the board and traditional financial indicators such as profit or turnover, and the correlation between the percentage of women on the board and that company’s probability of default. The results show that there is generally not a strong correlation between the percentage of women on the board of the company and the other financial and risk indicators at the entire population level, but there is a strong correlation for some specific industries such as education, meaning that there are industries were the presence of women in board really impacts the performance of the business.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Religiosity: A Bibliometric Coverage and Quantitative Assesemnt of Internal and External Dimensions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to its complex character, the evaluation of the way an individual is religious involves multidimensional approaches, which includes both aspects of creeds and effective manifestation. The exhaustive bibliometric analysis reveals eight main research themes of interest, at the interaction of religiosity and youth. In the context of assessing religiosity, the paper further provides an analysis of the religious phenomenon among Romanian adolescents and young adults. It employs an exploratory factor analysis for identifying the specific religiosity dimensions, and principal components analysis for reducing dimensionality and for a more in-depth analysis. Both adolescents and young adults exhibit a relatively strong level of internal religiosity, which pertains to personal beliefs and faith. Additionally, both groups demonstrate a moderate level of external religiosity, which refers to religious practices and behaviours.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Triggers Poverty of Young Nationals and Young Migrants? A Comparative Macroeconomic Approach<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Identifying the macro-economic determinants of poverty is a key concern for developing poverty reduction policies. Since young people and young migrants in particular are more exposed to poverty, establishing the factors that trigger poverty among these social categories has even more relevance. A preliminary analysis shows that significant differences exist between at-risk-of poverty or social exclusion rate of young migrants and young nationals across European countries. For a more thorough study of the reasons behind these differences in poverty rates between young migrants and young nationals, two panel data regression models are estimated on a cross-section of 23 countries over the period 2010 – 2018 (one model for young migrants, the other for young nationals). Results confirm the main theories in the specialty literature: unemployment and inequality (measured by the Gini index) are the main triggers of poverty or social exclusion both for young nationals and young migrants. However, the income is significant for reducing poverty only for young nationals, but not for the young migrants. This result reinforces the necessity of better integration policies for young migrants in richer Member States.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Classes of Estimators for Population Mean, Ratio and Product Using Rank of Auxiliary Character Under Double Sampling the Non-Respondents<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In the present study, generalized classes of estimators for estimating population mean, ratio and product of two population means using rank of auxiliary character in presence of non-response are proposed. The bias and mean square error of proposed classes of estimators are obtained and their performances examined. Specific conditions under which the members of proposed classes of estimators attain minimum mean square error are obtained. Comparative study of the proposed classes of estimators with the relevant estimators is carried out. An empirical study is given to justify the efficiency of the proposed classes of estimators.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue MSMEs Growth Through Rosca Involvement Using Paired t-Test and One Sample Proportion Test<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In this research work, rotating savings and credit association (ROSCA) effect on the growth of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) and identification of a factor supporting the continuity of ROSCAs is studied. A well-designed questionnaire with a reliability value of 0.957 was distributed to 400 entrepreneurs in Wukari through snowball sampling technique. After validity check, 368 valid questionnaires were used for the research. Firstly, a paired t-test was applied to know if entrepreneurs achieve significant positive growth in their business before and after 5 years of joining ROSCAs. At 5% level of significance, entrepreneurs achieved significant positive growth in their businesses 5 years and above of joining ROSCAs. Secondly, a one sample proportion Z-score test was used to identify the major factor responsible for ROSCAs continuity. At 5% significance level, flexibility was identified as the major factor responsible for ROSCAs. It was concluded based on the results obtained that ROSCAs has a significant positive effect on the growth of MSMEs and ROSCAs continuity towards MSMEs growth is due to its flexibility factor in terms of operations, disbursement, seeking loans and interest rate.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Young Consumers to Participate to Collaborative Consumption<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Collaborative consumption is currently an exciting topic of interest for many debates and controversies being perceived as a fast-growing social phenomenon. Considering the contemporary development processes via sharing economy, there is an interest to prove that the segment of young consumers practices changed from traditional buying and owning behaviour to collaborative consumption stratagems. Thus, the central objective of the present study is to explore the potential young consumer behaviour adjustments and to discuss the motivations behind those changes by considering the emergence of collaborative consumption.</p><p>The primary hypothesis of the present article states that intrinsic and extrinsic motivations influence teenager’s attitudes and behavioural intentions regarding participation in collaborative consumption.</p><p>Regarding the methodology, the author’s performed confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The objective was to determine if previously exposed motivational factors influence positively the young consumer’s behavioural intention and their attitude towards a supposed adherence to collaborative consumption schemes.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Effects of Highly-Educated Immigrants on Innovation in Three Developed European Countries<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In the current globalized world, migration represents a topic of great interest, generating advantages and downsides as well, both for the people and the communities implicated. Highly-educated migrants represent a key factor in fostering innovation, productivity and economic growth, and promote knowledge diffusion/distribution in both directions, from origin to destination country and vice versa. This research investigates the effects of highly-educated immigrants on the number of patents (a good proxy for measuring innovation activities), in the case of Austria, Finland and Sweden, between 2011 and 2017. For the empirical analysis of the study case, we used panel data and developed a multiple linear regression model estimated through the ordinary least squares method (OLS), at the country-level. In line with the vast existing literature, the main finding of this paper is that highly-educated immigrants, representing external factors of innovation, have a positive and significant impact on the number of patent applications in all three receiving countries. Moreover, financial support in R&amp;D (in different sectors) and investments in human capital (from diverse fields) serve as internal factors of innovation and also contribute vastly to the enhancement of innovation.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Relationship Between Sustainable Development Goals and Migration. An EU-28 Perspective<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study approaches migration from the perspective of an effect of the attainment of Sustainable Development Goals. In order to analyse this relationship, several indicators used to measure the SDGs attainment level were employed. These indicators are also the ones related to migration. The results show that most indicators that are used to measure the achievement of SDGs have an impact on the migration flow. Consequently, GDP per capita and unemployment rate, as main indicators used to measure the Goal 8 (Sustainable economic growth, productive employment and decent work for all), have significant impact on migration, being main factors of immigration.</p><p>The main conclusion is that there is a bilateral relationship between migration and SDGs. Not only that migration can influence the achievement of sustainable development, but, at the same time, it is itself influenced by how well the Sustainable Development Goals are attained.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Recent Romanian Migration: A Modified Gravity Model with Panel Data<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The present paper contributes to studies on Romanian emigration from a demographic, spatial, and temporal perspective. The purpose of this paper is to assess the selected economic and demographic variables’ impact on the volume of Romanian emigration to the European Union (EU) during 2010-2017. The analysis was done using a gravity model. The models used in this study are the fixed effect model (FEM) and the random effect model (REM), both applied to panel data. The results show that the economic and demographic factors have a significant influence on the emigration’s destination, and the socio-economic and demographic situation in the host country determines the flow migration from Romania. The paper strengthens the literature through an empirical analysis of the economic and demographic determinants of Romanian emigration to the EU from the perspective of the country of origin.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Characteristics of Migrant Physicians from Romania<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>An important part of migration represents the brain drain, especially the migration of physicians. Romania has a health system in continuous reform, facing for over 3 decades a shortage of employees. Moreover, employed specialists and young physicians migrated, the health care system registering a medium efficiency. The number of migrant physicians from Romania followed an ascending trend, and this had negative consequences on Romanian population health. The main objective of this paper is identifying the profile and the dynamics of the migrant physician from Romania. Other objective is highlighting the Romanian counties where most physicians migrated from and the preferred destination countries.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Youth Unemployment Through International Mobility<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Youth unemployment is a challenge in many European countries – especially since the financial crises. Young people face difficulties in the transition from education into employment. This article focuses on young mobile Europeans from six countries (Germany, Hungary, Luxembourg, Norway, Romania and Spain). The research question is whether and to which extent international mobility has an impact on employability and therefore reduces youth unemployment. By using a cluster analysis of personal adaptability, social and human capital and career identity, the importance of mobility experiences for employability is analysed in a recent dataset of 5,272 young (formerly) mobile respondents. Youth mobility is established as a strong characteristic for the employability cluster. Mobility is however not the long-term aim of most of the mobile young people, since most of the mobiles choose to return to their home countries after one or more stays abroad.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue