rss_2.0Miscellanea Geographica FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Miscellanea Geographica Geographica Feed insights into deglaciation of Polish Lowlands and Highlands border for geotourism<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents five sites located in the marginal zone of the Wartanian stadial within the Odranian Glaciation (MIS6a) on the border of the Central Polish Uplands and Lowlands, representing different glacial forms and geological structures: terminal moraine hill, undulating moraine hill, sedimentary margin of the ice sheet, kame hill, and outwash plain. This differentiation is also reflected in the petrographic composition of the gravels and the interesting surface microstructures of the Scandinavian erratic boulders. This small study area, with its high geodiversity, which we have identified and investigated, has considerable potential for sustainable development. Geotourism is a tool for this development in a peripheral tourist region, providing both economic benefits for the local population and conservation services for the geoecosystem.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue to reconstruct the signal observed by the GRACE mission based on AMSR-E microwave data<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study delves into the synergy between remote sensing and satellite gravimetry, focusing on the utilization of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) data for modeling delta Total Water Storage (ΔTWS) values derived from the GRACE mission. Various machine learning algorithms were employed to investigate the concordance between Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and AMSR-E observations. Despite the limited correlation in circumpolar permafrost areas, ΔTWS was successfully modeled with an accuracy of a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 3.5 cm. The Amazon region exhibited a notable model error, attributed to significant ΔTWS amplitude; the overall model quality was affirmed by Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) metrics. Importantly, the effectiveness of AMSR-E Soil Moisture (SM) data, encompassing C (frequency of 4–8 GHz) and X (frequency of 8–12 GHz) ranges (~0.04 m and ~0.03 m wavelength, respectively) in modeling ΔTWS, even in heavily forested equatorial regions, was demonstrated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Poland’s rural areas<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this article, we introduce a new dataset to complement the existing evidence on economic inequalities in Poland’s rural areas. This important dataset uses annual information on the beneficiaries of income support, which is paid to farmers within the European Common Agricultural Policy and covers the period 2014–2021. The data can be used to analyse the changing distribution of this support at municipality level using conventional inequality measures. Since part of the support is granted per eligible hectare, our data can also serve as a good approximation of land use distribution, and thus allow researchers to scrutinise the changes in the distribution of an important component of the wealth of many people living in rural areas. The paper presents selected findings on the distribution of income support granted to land users in the studied period and suggests potential research areas, for which the presented dataset can provide useful insights.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study is to assess the importance of geotourism before, during and after the eruption of the Tajogaite Volcano (September to December 2021) on La Palma, Spain. The methodology applied consisted of identifying the geotourism products on the island before the eruption, the importance of the volcano for geotourism – by means of a survey – and the geotourism products developed after the eruption. The findings show that, before the eruption, La Palma's tourism products (hiking, archaeology, stargazing and volcano tourism) were closely related to its volcanic heritage. During the eruption, Tajogaite became a tourist attraction for the island, drawing thousands of visitors and scientists. Lastly, now that the eruption has ended, geotourism is playing a key role in the various island recovery plans through the evaluation of sites of geotourism interest and the design of geotrails in natural and urban areas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of map printing using copperplates – examples from the Czech Republic and Malta collections<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper provides a comprehensive description of preserved copper plates used for map printing in order to enrich the existing knowledge and, at the same time, contribute with new knowledge on the topic of the engraving of old maps. The dimensions, thickness, and weight of individual printing plates were measured. Qualitative indicators of the material were also examined. Printing plates originating from countries north of the Alps (former Czech lands) and from Mediterranean regions (Malta and Italy) are represented. For the purpose of the study, the term printing plate refers to a copperplate on which the engraving was made using the burin or line etching technique. These are some of the oldest reproduction techniques used for printing old maps. The period studied covers the 18th century, approximately. Studies dealing with a large set of printing plates and their classification are rather an exception (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_mgrsd-2023-0028_ref_014">Hameleers 1989</xref>). The issue of the qualitative properties of printing plates has not yet been comprehensively addressed in the literature focusing on the history of cartography.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue formed by present-day and palaeofloods against the background of floodplain geomorphology and lithofacies exposed in channel cut banks (in the Vistula River valley between Warsaw and Płock, Poland)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>On the floodplain of a sandy, braided river in the Central European Lowland, we studied the sedimentary texture of two crevasse splays, which were: (1) formed due to a levee breach in the 2010 flood, and widely documented by hydrological, bathymetric and LIDAR data, (2) developed under natural conditions when the channel was not embanked by artificial levees (dikes). We compare the sedimentological results with a geomorphological map, a model of the floodplain geomorphology showing different facies of fluvial deposition derived from a meandering river, and deposits in cut banks of the river channel. The statistical parameters of the grain size composition and geomorphic features of the splay, shaped by overbank flow through the broken embankment, are similar to the natural landform. Most of the cut banks (60% of alluvial deposits were mapped there) consist of lithofacies representing proximal floodplain; 30% were distal floodplain (muds), and 10% channel (coarse sand with gravel, pebbles and cobbles). We speculate about the palaeogeography of the Lower Vistula, and the origin of muds and coarse deposits in the banks of the channel. We link these unusual sediments with avulsion, deposition in side arms during ice-jam conditions, and dredging of the channel bottom by suction excavator, which reached the fluvioglacial, suballuvial layer on the bedrock protrusion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and bottom sediments chemistry of Sulejów Reservoir in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Sulejów reservoir is one of the largest reservoirs in Poland and is exposed to a large flux of nutrients from both point and diffuse sources, which leads to an excessive amount of eutrophication and cyanobacteria bloom. The underlying inspiration for this paper was to use a 1D HEC-RAS hydrodynamic model to improve the knowledge of sedimentation conditions and the chemistry of bottom sediments in the context of reservoir eutrophication and algae bloom. Field sampling was performed, and chemical concentrations of Total Organic Carbon, Total Phosphorus, and Cadmium were measured in samples from bottom sediments. The deepest parts of the reservoir and the presence of sediment traps coincide with the highest concentrations of organic carbon, nutrients, and heavy metals. The paper has shown that reservoir hydrodynamic modelling and precise bathymetry maps provide very valuable information that can be used for the interpretation of bottom sediment chemistry patterns and for understanding the conditions of sedimentation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Impact on Gully Erosion Recorded in Fan Sediments: A Case Study of the Vilnius area, Lithuania<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Geomorphological and sedimentological research carried out in the vicinity of Vilnius (SW Lithuania) aimed to determine the age and stages of development of gullies in relation to climatic conditions and human activity. Two gullies located on the northern slope of the Vilnia river valley were examined in detail. The sedimentological features of the sediments which form fans at the mouths of the gullies were analysed. Three main lithological units were distinguished. On the basis of radiocarbon datings, the beginning of gully erosion was determined to be in the Middle Ages. This process began with intensive settlement in this area. Further stages of a cutting which were distinguished include early modern times and the period from the seventeenth century to the present day.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in the Sudetes Mountains and their foreland in relation to the circulation conditions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Progressing climate change is often reflected in changing biometeorological conditions. The Sudetes Mountains, located in the Polish–Czech border area, are concerned by this phenomenon. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the influence of atmospheric circulation on multiannual changes in biothermal conditions using the UTCI index. In the analysis, data for 1991–2020, from both Polish and Czech meteorological stations, was considered, while the circulation factor was evaluated using the Lityński classification. The research indicated a positive tendency of UTCI values for the majority of circulation types, which consequently contributed to a decrease in the frequency of cold stress categories. In the summits, a decline in the number of days with extreme cold stress was the most characteristic feature, especially under anticyclonic and northern circulation. Tendencies of heat stress occurrence were in most cases statistically insignificant, except for cyclonic and transitional circulation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue perspectives for increased use of Earth observation satellite data<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents an assessment of Poland's participation in Earth observation programmes within its 10 years of membership in the European Space Agency (ESA). A diagnosis of the current state of affairs makes it possible to assess the actions taken to date by policy-makers and to indicate the directions which should be taken in the future so that satellite data on the Earth's surface is more widely utilised and available.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in the functional context of extensive city ventilation routes using the example of Bródnowski Ventilation Corridor in Warsaw, Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ventilation corridors are critical for regulating the appropriate flow of urban air streams. Details on how they function, especially in a specific location, can be found in local eco-physiographic studies. Such analyses are designed during conceptual work on the conditions and directions of the development of a studied area. Such documentation includes advanced research on the impact of natural conditions on the area's growth and evolution. In Warsaw, Poland, such a study makes it possible to define various natural areas that are essential for the appropriate functioning of the city and increase its inhabitants’ well-being. This provides an initial basis for further analysis and motivates researchers to investigate the distribution of natural sites. It inspired the authors to assess the land-use structure in the context of the location of ventilation corridors. Thus, land use and land cover (LULC) modifications were examined in the context of their tendency to aid in the ventilation of the city. The object of the study is the Bródnowski Ventilation Corridor (BVC) – one of several designated for Warsaw in the spatial planning concepts of the 1980s and 1990s. In the research encompassing the years 1982–2020, the authors analysed the land use and roughness determined by the development characteristics and vegetation cover. References were made to current and archival planning documents, aerial photographs, satellite images, and the Topographic Objects Database BDOT10k. The research was prompted by the municipality's intention to urbanize the study area, which will undoubtedly eliminate the ventilation function of the southern part of the corridor and significantly reduce its remaining territory. Analysis of changes in the land cover of the south part of the corridor confirms its marginal importance for the city's ventilation. In this area, ongoing modifications proceed slowly, and urbanization – mainly low-rise and less intensive buildings – is limited. This zone has largely retained and is likely to maintain its favourable features from the point of view of ventilation and air regeneration.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of a village in Northern Masovia, Poland: An example of the possible old wood effect<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Anthropogenic activity changes the processes of erosion on slopes. The deforestation process is connected with the deposition of material at the foot of the slope. During this process, macro-charcoals from anthropogenic-induced fires are trapped in the sediments. This paper provides an analysis of charcoal counts and sediment characteristics and is supported by historical data analysis. During this study, a discrepancy between radiocarbon dating and historical data was revealed; a probable explanation is presented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, based on remote sensing analysis, using artificially enhanced satellite data<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to identify areas that present similar spectral characteristics to collected rock samples through the use of satellite imagery and spectral analysis. The results indicate that pixels marked in the satellite images exhibit similarities to the spectral characteristics of the samples. Misclassified objects or areas may be included in the results due to mixed pixels and spatial resolution limitations. The similarities identified could result from the region’s mineral composition of building materials, bare land, or dry vegetation. The averaged spectral curve patterns of the samples show similarity overall, but they are not identical, as reflected by the tenth quantile of the similarity coefficient. This research provides a valuable support tool for preliminary geological assessment, and information relating to vast and challenging-to-access parts of prospective areas for further investigation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue – the assessment of the conversation with ChatGPT<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>ChatGPT, along with its applications, possibilities, limitations and future development, is currently one of the most often discussed topics worldwide. One of the issues raised in those discussions is its ethically questionable role in science and education.</p> <p>The goal of this paper is to assess the accuracy and correctness of the responses given by ChatGPT, using climate change in Poland as an example. Eight questions related to this topic were posed to ChatGPT, and each answer was subsequently verified and assigned a grade on a scale of 0–10. The overall grade obtained was 3.8, indicating that only 30–40% of the information provided by ChatGPT was accurate. This poor result can be attributed to fake references, inaccurate data, overgeneralizations and simplification. Nevertheless, with proper training and development, ChatGPT has tremendous potential to serve as a valuable tool for ethically sound applications in the field of science.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of peasant communities: an analysis of two rural areas in the department of Boyacá, Colombia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The analysis of the livelihoods and the empowerment of rural communities has become one of the main strategies for characterising and studying rural communities, even more so when, in different parts of the world, these communities are strongly affected by the dynamics of politics and economics. The research aims to analyse the livelihoods and empowerment of two rural communities in the department of Boyacá in Colombia. To this purpose, two communities were chosen, one each from the municipalities of Ventaquemada and Jericó. A case study method was applied, with information being collected through semi-structured interviews with 24 family units. The results allowed significant differences to be found in the progress of the development of livelihoods, which was mainly associated with natural capital. In addition, it was also possible to distinguish differential features between the two study areas, which were associated with the social, economic, and physical environment, and therefore determined the degree of empowerment of family unit members in following a productive vocation in the rural sector.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue impact craters on Earth<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Impact craters are formed by collisions of cosmic bodies moving with hypervelocity. The formation of these features is not restricted to the distant geological past; new structures are constantly being created and at least 13 confirmed impact craters and crater fields have formed during the Holocene alone. This short review paper: (1) introduces the basics of the impact cratering process to physical geographers and Quaternary geologists; (2) provides a short description of representative examples of such features (Morasko, Kaali, Kamil, Ilumetsa); and (3) discusses the similarities and differences among very small craters, and contrasts these with larger impact structures. This manuscript may be useful to researchers planning to test whether a small Quaternary depression in the ground may be of impact origin.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue The Dependence of European Economies on Imports of Fuels from Russia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>International relations (including those revolving around economic cooperation between states, or the economic dependence of one state on another) actually entail the development of a concept of power and its efficacy, interlinkage, and a systemic configuration. Geography’s input is, then, to place these issues within the space of economic activity and life, linking these to an analysis of resources. Geography also provides for the construction of models for the spatial relations between different actors. In turn, analysis from a geopolitical point of view, inter alia, involves itself in the study of dependency and power through reference to relations which entail domination, the exerting of influence, independence or mutual dependence, territorial integrity, development, political and social stability, and security (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_mgrsd-2023-0014_ref_004">Dallanegra Pedraza 2010</xref>). Then there are the issues concerning the use of natural resources, as these affect relations between states, thus representing research topics for geography. Through the analysis of the interactions between variables which recall the aforesaid relations, it has here proved possible to construct models describing, or helping to account for, present-day world relations, characterised by dependence on fossil fuels (as raw materials supplying energy) which originate in Russia. This process makes use of available statistical data and reports, including ENERDATA 2021 and Key World Energy Statistics 2021, from the US Energy Information Administration (EIA).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Poland based on SYNOP reports and PERUN lightning detection system<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The research presents a comparison between two methods which are used to identify days on which there are thunderstorms (TDs) in Poland. SYNOP and PERUN lightning network data from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW-PIB) for the period 2002–2020 were used to determine and compare the changes in the number of TDs. To determine the number of TDs using the PERUN data, an appropriate method needed to be created which would allow for the closest possible reference to human perception in relation to lightning. A buffer with a radius of 15 km was used, and TDs were counted when there was at least one flash within the buffer circle. Measurements performed by observers are sometimes not homogeneous and are prone to errors, and thus underestimate the actual number of TDs. As a result of the analysis, the average number of TDs in Poland was found to be 26 (SYNOP) and 30 (PERUN) per year.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue logics and gender inequalities through the financialization of housing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to examine the current knowledge about the relationships between financialization, housing issues, patriarchal logic, and gender inequalities to identify gaps in knowledge, which, in turn, can be considered as topics of scientific interest for future research. To this end, the study provides an exhaustive review of current academic debate regarding the abovementioned topics from the perspectives of critical urban geography, urban political economy, sociology, and gender and feminist studies. This study points out that the patriarchal roots of the financialization of housing originate from the exclusion of housing from the social provision and from its conversion to a financial asset, subordinating its use value to its exchange value. This logic strengthens gender inequalities in the form of women facing a higher debt burden to pay for housing, an increase in their unpaid reproductive labor and salaried labor, and the reinforcement of the gendered division of labor.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis of Generation Z’s social awareness of sustainable development in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nowadays, the pace of social and economic development is constantly growing, which has led to many negative effects. In order to stop this negative impact, reference should be made to the assumptions of sustainable development (SD), and young people – Generation Z – should be considered its main promoters. The main objective of this article is to present Generation Z’s perception of sustainable development in Poland. A Computer-assisted web interviewing survey (CAWI, N=1172) was conducted to understand the basic demographics, general issues, SD in a daily context, and SD-related knowledge in 936 cities of Poland. The results have shown that Generation Z in Poland recognises the social and inclusive role of SD. Cost of commodities, social disparities and conflict, and disrupted economic growth were identified as the emerging challenges for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Polish cities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue