rss_2.0Studia Historiae Oeconomicae FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Studia Historiae Oeconomicae Historiae Oeconomicae 's Cover State Railways in 1945–1989 – A Research Contribution<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the history of Poland after 1945, the functioning of the railway was one of the most important elements of everyday life – great migrations, modernity, commuting to work or holidays, military or employment. The largest transport in history was recorded by the state carrier at the end of the seventies. In reality, however, the activity of PKP was paid for by numerous compromises – outdated rolling stock, organizational structure and network in fact reflecting the beginning of the 20th century, the pursuit of electrification of almost all sections with a limited degree of motorization, mass transport and the abandonment of many potential customers. The aim of the article is to summarize the state of research and indicate questions that will allow to answer the question posed in the title. The inspiration came from the thesis of M. Jarząbek, expressed a few years ago, that the railway in this epoch from a symbol of modernity became an unwanted choice out of necessity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Development of Transport as a Factor of the Economic Miracle (Wirtschaftswunder) of West Germany<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The post-war economic policy of West Germany (FRG) is largely associated with the so-called economic miracle (German: Wirtschaftswunder) and therefore its causes are the subject of many different analyzes. They include the correlation between the rate of economic growth in Germany and the development and transport potential of transport, including rail and road-car transport. This position prompted the author to try to search for long-term interdependencies and thus verify the thesis using the analysis of time series (1950–1989) available for West Germany and using original econometric methods in this field, e.g. unit root test to determine the stationarity and the Engle-Granger cointegration test.</p> <p>In addition to the introduction, the article consists of three parts and conclusions. The broadest one includes the description of the assumptions and stages of the research procedure and its results, both on the empirical and methodological level. It is based on synthetic theoretical foundations presented on the basis of a review of international literature on the subject and review of the essence of the German economic miracle and the main trends in changes in the field of economic growth and transport development in Germany after World War II. The research presented in this way fits into the principles of the <italic>new economic history</italic> paradigm, which is still not very popular in Europe.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The Ideological Background of Japanese Expansionism, C. 1900<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper examines the ideologies informing the expansion of Japanese rule at c. 1900. The core feature discussed is the idea of <italic>tenka</italic> (天下; literally translated: all under heaven), constituting the group of ruled in terms of a universalist indigenat (<italic>kokumin</italic> 国民), which allowed its expansion beyond the Japanese archipelago at government discretion. The concept of the universalist indigenat, having been tied to the Confucian perception of the world as a well-ordered and change-absorbing entity, conflicted with the European concept of the nation as a particularistically conceived type of group, tied to the perception of the world as a dynamic and largely unruly entity. During the latter third of the nineteenth and the early years of the twentieth century, some Japanese intellectuals came to appreciate the dynamism enshrined in the European perception of the world and worked it into established universalism. The fusion produced a powerful ideology of colonial expansion targeted primarily at East and Southeast Asia as well as the South Pacific. By contrast, European military strategists and political theorists, unaware of the Japanese strategic conceptions, expected that solely Russia formed the target of Japanese military expansion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Wroclaw Electronic Works: Wrocławskie Zakłady Elektroniczne „Elwro” 1959–2000<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Based on the research potential of the Wrocław higher education center and its achievements in mathematics and automation, Wrocławskie Zakłady Elektroniczne “Elwro” was launched in the capital of Lower Silesia, in the late 1950s. Starting with the production of relatively simple electrotechnical devices, the company transformed in just a few years into a manufacturer of digital machines of its own design, “Odra”. They have found wide application in science, administration, communication and industry − both in Poland and abroad, mainly in the Comecon member states. The 1970s were the period of the peak development of WZE “Elwro”, in which apart from devices of its own design, computers belonging to the so-called Uniform System of Digital Electronic Machines of Comecon countries, were also being produced. The effects of the economic crisis of the 1980s abruptly reduced the orders for computers produced in “Elwro”, and their development and production was slowed down by problems with obtaining materials that were scarce in the country and foreign currency for foreign purchases. The technological distance between the “Elwro” offer and the equipment manufactured in the leading countries of the West was growing. After the start of the system transformation in the country, the management of “Elwro” attempted to carry out radical organizational transformations and grant the company the status of a joint-stock company. However, they were held back for too long by both the lack of government support and the concerns of the works council. Meanwhile, deteriorating economic results forced the management of “Elwro” to reduce employment and sell more and more assets. Ultimately, in 1993, the plants were transformed into a sole-shareholder company of the State Treasury, and then sold to the German concern “Siemens”. For the new owner, the only thing that mattered was the access to the Polish telecommunications market obtained in this way. He did not use the still existing human resources and production potential of “Elwro” and, shortly after the purchase, practically liquidated the company. In 2000, its remains were sold to the American telecommunications company “Teletec Holding”, which changed the name of the company to “Teletec Polska” S.A.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00No Chance of Success. State Agrarian Real Estate 1946–1949. A Contribution to the Research on the History of the State Agricultural Sector in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The years of activity of the PNZ (Państwowe Nieruchomości Ziemskie – State Agrarian Real Estate) fell into the period of post-war agricultural reconstruction and management of Recovered Territories. Initially, their main task was to prepare for the parceling out of large landed estates, which was important for the settlement campaign. The target task was to run specialized farms that would supply the entire agriculture with seed and breeding material. After the escape of S. Mikołajczyk, the communists changed the priorities of PNZ activity, which from then on were to deal with large-scale production, and above all, manage about 1,200 hectares of agricultural land. The vast majority of the area used by PNZ was located in the western and northern regions of the country. The best conditions existed in those areas for establishing a state sector in agriculture. In spite of many achievements, PNZ was liquidated because the communists wanted to get rid of the prewar staff of specialists, mostly landowners, from the enterprise. This decision was political in nature. State farms were then created to replace PNZ.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Expectations of a Post-Wwii Depression<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The forecast of a Post-WWII depression is contrasted against the vigorous growth that actually happened. Economists called for continued control over the economy to prevent the feared depression. But, in spite of the warning, returning soldiers were rapidly demobilized and the economy decontrolled. While economists dismissed indications toward the end of the war of pent-up demand as unsustainable, pent-up demand played an important role in the smooth transition from a wartime to a peacetime economy. Indicators of pent-up demand included buying plans and the accumulation of liquid assets. This study tracks expectations of a post-war depression of the general public, business and economists during this period. It shows that, in 1947, all three groups expected a recession, if not a depression. Yet, no such thing occurred. In the case of the general public, a time series of expectations is extracted from heterogeneous survey data.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Cocoa Production in Ghana (1879-1976)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cocoa production has been a major source of income and revenue to many citizens and the governor of Ghana respectively through time. Historically, although attributed to Tetteh Quarshie, records have shown that prior to Tetteh Quarshie’s achievement, the Dutch and Basel Missionaries had experimented with the crop in the Gold Coast. Since its introduction in the country, cocoa production has expanded and spread across all the regions in Ghana. The production of cocoa has affected every facet of development in the country since its inception and has once led Ghana to be world’s major exporter of the beans. Cocoa production in Ghana has gone beyond its agricultural and economic significance with its impacts felt across socio-cultural, religious and political life of Ghanaians. That notwithstanding, scholars have made partial effort at addressing the impact of cocoa production among Ghanaians between 1879 and 1976. Using a qualitative approach rooted in both primary and secondary sources, the current study sought to address the gap aforementioned by tracing the relationship between cocoa production and economics, politics and social-religious practices among Ghanaian between 1879 and 1976. Findings from the discourse revealed that though an agricultural product, cocoa can no longer be said to belong to that sphere alone. The product and its associated gains have permeated the entire life of Ghanaians since its inception.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00‘Kapitalisten’ and ‘Prywaciarze’. A Comparison of Nationalisation Campaigns in the GDR and Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper compares nationalisation campaigns in the German Democratic Republic and socialist Poland, with particular focus on industry. It is based on secondary literature as well as material from both the German and Polish statistical offices. The main finding is a surprising lack of simultaneity in the nationalisation campaigns in the two countries, which possibly had a significant impact on the course of economic transformation in East Germany and in Poland.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Instant Gloss: Promoting Paint in 1840s Paris. The Example of Louis Viard’s Chromo-Duro-Phane Varnish<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>While often operating the margins of propriety, advertisers and marketers are constrained by the social mores of their times. During the early nineteenth century, product promotion opportunities were limited to a mix of newspapers, hoardings and pamphlets. Some enterprising entrepreneurs and innovative individuals pushed the envelope of the acceptable, effectively creating new standards. This paper presents the first case study where the advertising and marketing strategies of a single French entrepreneur are being examined in depth.</p> <p>To successfully promote his products, the small-scale paint manufacturer Louis Viard employed a range of strategies. These ranged from the true and tried media of newspaper advertisements, product packaging and advertising cards to more innovative modes of promotion, such as mobile advertising on delivery carts as well as flamboyant street processions, to clever and engaging use of billboards and product placement in plays. In addition, he maintained a workforce of loudly attired roaming painters, who combined promotion and marketing at the same time.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Reviews: Women’s Everyday Life and Their Life Stories in the Time of Communism: A Comparative Study Between Poland, Romania, and the Former German Democratic Republic (GDR) Wołowski and His Contribution to the French Credit Revolution of the 19th Century<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ludwik Wołowski was a Polish November emigrant in France. There, he gained recognition as an outstanding economist, banker and republican politician. The article focuses on the issue of mortgage loan, which is extremely important for Wołowski. It presents both the theoretical concepts of the Pole from 1834, his political activity in the years 1848–1851 aimed at changing the provisions of the mortgage law in France, and finally the moment of co-creation by Wołowski Crédit Foncier, the first modern mortgage bank in France, and the further history of the bank managed by Wołowski, in the board of which he sat until his death in 1876. In the first part, the text presents not only the criticism of the French mortgage system by Wołowski (primarily the so-called secret mortgages), but also his draft changes and the loan and mortgage model proposed by him and the companies that may grant it. In the second, it shows the parliamentary activity of Wołowski, an attempt to force through appropriate changes in the banking law and the reasons for its defeat. In the third, the most extensive, the article describes not only the very moment of establishing Crédit Foncier and the two-year period of management by Wołowski, but also the further, controversial operation of the bank until the second half of the 1870s. All this against the backdrop of the changing French Monarchy of July, the Second Republic and the Second Empire.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Economic Policy from the Perspective of Contemporary Challenges in Economic History – Hopes, Concerns and Dilemmas<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article, written on the basis of a critical review of the latest Polish and foreign-language literature, materials from websites and the author’s experience gained from previous research, is treated as a voice in the discussion on new challenges and the need for historical research on economic policy in its various dimensions and contexts, and on the possibilities in this field. The premises which determined the title, nature and scope of the study were highlighted in the introduction. The following three parts attempt to answer the following questions in sub-headings: why is the turn to the problems of economic policy particularly desirable now? What premises justify and enable intensification of historical research on economic policy problems? How to study the past of economic policy to participate in managing the present and creating the future?</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Migration Policy in the Area of Border Control and Migration of the Population in OECD Countries –Theoretical and Practical Aspects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study is to present the phenomenon of population migration and migration policy as part of the state’s economic policy based on the example of OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, with particular emphasis on the area of migration policy, which is border control and related illegal migration. The temporal scope of the empirical analysis covers the period 1990-2016. The article consists of four main parts. The discussion began with a presentation of the balance of migration, the scale and dynamics of population immigration in OECD countries. Furthermore, the significance, areas and process of shaping migration policy as a part of the economic policy of the country are presented. Then, it focused on the migration policy in the area of border control in OECD countries. The discussion was crowned with the conclusions that followed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00What was the Direction of the Reform of the PRL (Polish People’s Republic) Economy in the Eighties?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the 1980s, the communist authorities of Poland, forced by the dire economic and social situation, undertook a number of attempts to reform the centrally managed economy. By deciding on limited liberalization, they simultaneously secured the economic foundations of the government, which was dominated by the public sector. The Polish version of perestroika was, thus, implemented in order to balance the economy. However, like the Soviet model, it was a tactical move, essentially to consolidate the centrally managed economy. The economic hybrid that emerged from the partial reforms, contrary to the intentions of its creators, did not weaken, but rather strengthened deep crisis phenomena. Their inhibition became the main goal of the democratic government formed in 1989 and the radical economic reforms associated with the name of Leszek Balcerowicz. The departure from the reforms of the centrally managed economy and the undertaking of consistent market transformation resulted in measurable economic successes. They were particularly visible against the background of the economy of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, whose authorities had abandoned comprehensive and consistent market reforms.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Women’s Employment Support Activities By Labor Offices Under the “AZ” Program in Years 1947-1950<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper deals with mechanisms used for reducing unemployment among women in Poland after the World War II, the so-called “women productivisation.” I discussed women’s attitude to employment and the state’s standpoint as far as the problem of women’s unemployment is concerned, and analyzed women’s unemployment figures in the introductory part. Employment policy in the early days of the Polish People’s Republic was a combination of many factors, among which the most important were ideology, pre-war tradition, and war-related experiences. Women found employment in the industry since the beginning of industrialization of the Polish lands in 19th century. In the interwar period and the early days of the Polish People’s Republic, employment increased mainly out of economic reasons (necessity to support family and oneself). It was in keeping with the Marxist ideology in place after the World War II. The “new woman” was to be free from capitalist exploitation and on par with a man in terms of professional career. The role model of the woman was in particular a female-worker employed in industry. After the war, in 1940s, the number of women registered at labor offices was rising. According to labor offices’ figures, the number of job offers for women was insufficient or these were unattractive. Hence, the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy (Ministerstwo Pracy i Opieki Społecznej) conceived the idea of developing short-term training for women and employing them in the cottage industry - action “AZ”. It lasted from 1947 to 1950; it was evolved due to changing regulations. Undoubtedly, the action “AZ” contributed to the development of “female” cooperatives, but with time it was considered as ineffective and its scope was limited. My fundamental goal was to discuss the ‘AZ’ program, including its course, scope, and scale, as well as its evaluation. The subject matter in question has not been discussed in detail to date but only briefly addressed in the literature listed below.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Between Progress and Backwardness. A Look at the Housing Policy of the Period of the People’s Republic of Poland from the Social and Economic Perspective After 1989<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article deals with the issue of the place, role and significance of the achievements of the housing policy of the Polish People’s Republic (PRL) and in the economy before and after 1989, observed from the contemporary social and economic point of view. In the period of systemic transformation, expert and opinion-makers were, in majority, critical of the achievements of the housing policy of the prior period. This led to the creation and subsequent consolidation in public discourse of the negative image of the housing construction of the PRL period. 30 years after the collapse of communism, during which time the free market economy developed and Poland became a member of EU, this topic requires a more objective look and a more focused approach to the range of socio-demographic and economic changes that took place during that period. The current perception of the problem is also influenced by the lack of solutions to the housing issue by successive governments of the Third Republic of Poland.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00100 Years of Poznań Economic History Land Policies in the Gold Coast and Her Relations with Asante<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Colonization successfully advanced various reforms in Africa that affected several practices on the continent. The various customs that have been affected include the land tenure system of British colonies in particular. An abundance of laws and policies were adopted with the sole aim of conserving the environment. These policies often clashed with indigenous interests and witnessed counter attacks as a result. Despite this, there is little information in the literature concerning how British land policies shaped their relations with the indigenous people, particularly the Asante. Based on a qualitative research approach, the current study uses Asante as a focal point of discourse in order to historically trace British land policies and how they, the British engaged with the people of Asante. From the discourse, it should be established that the colonial administration passed ordinances to mobilize revenue and not necessarily for the protection of the environment. In addition, the findings indicated that the boom in cash crops, such as cocoa and rubber, prompted Britain to reform the land tenure system. With the land policies, individuals and private organizations could acquire lands from local authorities for the cultivation of cash crops. We conclude that the quest to control land distribution caused the British to further annex Asante.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Economic Content in the Narratives of Władysław I the Elbow-High’s Diplomas – Clichéd Form Records or a Symptom of Awareness of the Medieval Ruler?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article analyzes the economic content that appeared in the narratives of Władysław I the Elbow-high’s documents. References to the economic sphere occurring there were divided into two types. The first one contained information on the economic condition of an area, first and foremost about the destruction or war devastation that hit a given region or town. The second type justified ruler’s decisions, a desire to reform or to increase the benefits of the monarchy and his subjects. On the basis of the data obtained, an attempt was made to comment on the economic awareness of the ruler.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Congresses of Mining Industrialists of the South of Russia and the Kingdom of Poland as a form of Representing Entrepreneur’s Interests (End of the 19th – Beginning of the 20th Century)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article analyzes the process of creating and functioning of two representative organizations of entrepreneurs – the Congress of Mining Industrialists of the South of Russia (1874, Kharkiv) and the Congress of Mining Industrialists of the Kingdom of Poland (1882, Warsaw). Both institutions were a form of activity of the regional economic elites and represented their socio-economic interests. After a comparative analysis of associations of mining industrialists in Ukrainian and Polish territories, the article highlights common features, their structure, forms of activity and representative powers. Based on the research, it was found that, despite strict government control, they played an important role in defending local interests and developing the industry they represent, and the fruitful cooperation of the Miners’ Congresses of the South of Russia and the Kingdom of Poland allowed for the implementation of the agreed and, above all, effective pressure on the state authorities of the Russian Empire.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1