rss_2.0Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology Feed Psychosocial Follow-up for Childhood Critical Illness Survivors: A Qualitative Interview Study on Health Professionals’ Perspectives<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Digital solutions have been reported to provide positive psychological and social outcomes to childhood critical illness survivors, a group with an increased risk for long-term adverse psychosocial effects.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>To explore health professionals’ perspectives on the potential of digital psychosocial follow-up for childhood critical illness survivors.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>Using a qualitative approach, expert interviews with six health professionals working at a Norwegian hospital were conducted. Transcribed interviews were analyzed using Braun and Clarke’s six-phase thematic analysis framework. Concurrent data collection and analysis using inductive coding was also employed, and a model of codes was constructed.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The interview yielded thirteen unique codes regarding the health professionals’ perspectives on the potential for digital psychosocial follow-up for childhood critical illness survivors, organized in a model comprising the two main themes: <italic>Affecting Factors</italic> and <italic>Digital Usage</italic>. Demographic factors (the child’s medical condition, age, gender, and residence) and environmental factors (the child’s family and health professionals) tended to affect the current psychosocial follow-up. Hospital limitations concerning a lack of digital solutions, worse relationship building with video communication, and children’s already high screen time reflected the current state of digital usage. However, ongoing digitalization, existing successful digital solutions, children’s good digital skills, and an ongoing process of creating an artifact are also seen as opportunities for digital usage in future psychosocial follow-up for childhood critical illness survivors.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Researchers can build further on these findings to investigate the potential of digital psychosocial follow-up for childhood critical illness survivors, and clinicians can use it as a starting point for improving psychosocial follow-up.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Critical Role of Attachment Theory in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Care Styles and Defense Mechanisms Mediate Associations Between Exposure to Adverse Childhood Experiences and CPTSD Symptoms in Faroese Adolescents<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>The experience of several adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) has been shown to be associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Disturbances in Self-Organization (DSO) symptoms among adolescents. Defense mechanisms and coping styles are psychological processes involved in the association of ACEs with PTSD and DSO symptoms. However, there is a lack of research on the joint association of these variables among Faroese adolescents.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Aim</title> <p>The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of exposure to ACEs on PTSD and DSO symptoms trough the indirect effect of defense mechanisms and coping styles in a sample of Faroese adolescents.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Method</title> <p>Six hundred and eighty-seven Faroese adolescents were recruited from 19 schools. Participants responded to validated self-report questionnaires. A multiple step mediation and a serial mediation methodology were conducted through structural equation modeling.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Exposure to ACEs was linked to PTSD and DSO symptoms through the indirect effect of immature defense mechanisms, emotional coping, and detachment coping. Exposure to ACEs was linked to PTSD symptoms through rational coping.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The results suggest a mutual relationship between defense mechanisms and coping styles in coping with multiple adversity among adolescents.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue life in families with health anxiety symptoms, parental perspectives<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>The covid-19 pandemic has influenced children and parents worldwide. The pandemic has also been suggested to especially affect and exacerbate health anxiety (HA) symptoms in children and adolescents. However, there is limited understanding of the potential mechanisms challenges of families where parents themselves experience mental health issues such as high degree of HA symptoms.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>The aim of this study was to explore parental experiences of pandemic life in families with continuously high levels of HA symptoms during the covid-19 pandemic.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Method</title> <p>Six parents, identified with high levels of HA symptoms, participated in qualitative individual semi-structured interviews. Interviews were analysed according to Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis principles.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Three main themes emerged. Theme 1) “Anxious children in a pandemic world” explores how pandemic – independent child factors including anxious temperament may have influenced the child pandemic experience. Theme 2) “Parental influences on child anxiety” describes parental reflections on their possible influence on child anxious thoughts. Theme 3) “Living with pandemic guidelines and restrictions” demonstrates the varying parental experiences of interventions and how these may affect HA thoughts.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Parents who themselves experience HA symptoms see their children, who also experience HA symptoms, to be particularly susceptible and vulnerable to both content and rhetoric of pandemic information. These children may however, experience school lockdown to be anxiety relieving. Parents who themselves have illness-related fears may not see themselves as perpetuating for their child's anxious thoughts.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Properties of the Parental Stress Scale in Swedish Parents of Children with and without Neurodevelopmental Conditions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Parents of children with neurodevelopmental conditions (NDC) are at risk of experiencing elevated levels of parental stress. Access to robust instruments to assess parental stress is important in both clinical and research contexts. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Parental Stress Scale (PSS), completed by parents of 3- to 17-year-old children, with and without NDCs.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Method</title> <p>Main analyses were conducted on data from three independent samples: a community sample (<italic>n</italic>=1018), a treatment-seeking sample of parents of children with various disabilities (<italic>n</italic>=653), and a sample of parents of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) who themselves reported varying ADHD symptom severities (<italic>n</italic>=562). Additional analyses were enabled by the use of data from a complementary test-retest sample (<italic>n</italic>=337).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The internal consistency of the PSS was good (Cronbach’s alpha, <italic>α</italic>=.87) and its test-retest reliability moderate (ICC=.66). The scale correlated in the expected direction with related constructs (<italic>r=</italic>.50–.56 in the community sample). An exploratory factor analysis found its internal structure to reflect two aspects of parental stress: Lack of Parental Rewards and Role Satisfaction (factor 1, <italic>α</italic>=.90) and Parental Stressors and Distress (factor 2, <italic>α</italic>=.85). The treatment-seeking parents of children with disabilities reported higher parental stress than community reference parents (<italic>p</italic>&lt;.001; Cohen’s <italic>d</italic>=1.17). Moreover, we found that parents with high ADHD symptom severity reported higher parental stress than parents with low ADHD symptom severity (<italic>p</italic>&lt;.001; <italic>d</italic>=0.39).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>In summary, we found evidence in support of the reliability and validity of the PSS, which overall was judged to be useful as a measure of parental stress in a Swedish context. In addition, our results underline the importance of considering parental stress and related needs in assessments and intervention planning involving families of children with NDCs.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue functioning in children with ADHD Investigating the cross-method correlations between performance tests and rating scales<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>Replicated evidence shows a weak or non-significant correlation between different methods of evaluating executive functions (EF). The current study investigates the association between rating scales and cognitive tests of EF in a sample of children with ADHD and executive dysfunction.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Method</title> <p>The sample included 139 children (aged 6–13) diagnosed with ADHD and executive dysfunctions. The children completed subtests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Children’s Organizational Skills Scale (COSS).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Analysis</title> <p>Pairwise Spearman correlations were calculated between the composite and separate subscales of cognitive tests and rating scales. In secondary analyses, pairwise Spearman correlations were conducted between all composite scales and subscales, stratified by child sex and child ADHD subtype.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The correlation analyses between composite scores yielded no significant correlations. The results when comparing CANTAB TO and BRIEF GE are r=−.095, p=.289, and r=.042, p=.643 when comparing CANTAB TO and COSS TO. The analyses between all composite scales and subscales found one significant negative correlation (r=−.25, p&lt;.01). There are significant cross-method differences when stratified by the ADHD-Inattentive subtype, showing significant negative correlations (moderate) between CANTAB and BRIEF composite (r=−.355, p=.014) and subscales.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Discussion</title> <p>It is possible that the different methods measure different underlying constructs of EF. It may be relevant to consider the effects of responder bias and differences in ecological validity in both measurement methods.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The results found no significant correlations. The expectation in research and clinical settings should not be to find the same results when comparing data from cognitive tests and rating scales. Future research might explore novel approaches to EF testing with a higher level of ecological validity, and designing EF rating scales that capture EF behaviors more so than EF cognition.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Stress Prevalence Among Adolescents in Scandinavia Change from 2000 to 2019? A literature review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Prolonged stress is a risk factor for developing mental illness and stress-related diseases. As there has been an increase in self-reported psychological symptoms and diagnosis of mental illness among Scandinavian adolescents, more knowledge of stress prevalence in this age group is needed.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Aim</title> <p>This literature review will investigate a possible increase in stress prevalence among Scandinavian adolescents, aged 13-18, between the years 2000 and 2019.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed and PsycInfo databases. In addition, a grey literature search was conducted to find relevant surveys and reports. Altogether, nine papers and nine surveys, and reports containing relevant data were identified, assessed for risk of bias, and included in the analysis.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The results show higher stress scores among the older participants in the age group 13-18 years and a gender difference, where girls score higher than boys. The literature neither supports nor rejects the hypothesis that stress levels have increased among adolescents in Scandinavia, from year 2000 to 2019. Only two of the included studies used a validated stress questionnaire and there was a substantial risk of non-response bias. Therefore, the existing literature is considered insufficient to determine if there has been an increase in stress over time. A majority of the papers, surveys, and reports had moderate risk of bias.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Further research using validated stress questionnaires in representative populations is needed to investigate changes in stress prevalence among Scandinavian adolescents. Also, the age and gender difference in stress prevalence among 13-18-year-olds may be of relevance for planning preventive interventions to reduce stress.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue years with Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology Violence against Children with Disabilities: A Danish National Birth Cohort Prospective Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Children with disabilities are at heightened risk of sexual violence compared to non-disabled peers.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>We aimed to examine the associations between ten childhood disabilities and sexual victimization.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>Data were drawn from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register, the Criminal Register, and other population-based registers. Children born between 1994 and 2001 (n=570,351) were followed until 18 years of age. Using logistic regression, the association between the disabilities and risk of sexual victimisation was estimated.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>We identified 8,860 cases of sexual victimization towards children and adolescents. In the fully adjusted models, children with a diagnosis of ADHD, speech disability and intellectual disability were at highest risk of sexual victimization. Children with comorbid disabilities were particularly vulnerable to sexual victimization.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>We found that children with certain types of disability have a higher risk of sexual victimization. Our findings indicate that educational institutions and health care professionals should be aware of and have specialized training in, recognizing and assessing sexual victimization among children with disabilities.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in three perspectives: Associations with depression and suicidal ideation in a clinical adolescent sample<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Adolescence is a critical period for mental development where the consequences of psychopathologies can be exceedingly harmful, and compassion has been identified as a protective factor for adolescents’ mental well-being.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Aim</title> <p>The aim of this study was to explore three perspectives of compassion – Self-compassion, Compassion for others, and Compassion from others – and their relationship with depression and suicidal ideation in adolescents.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Method</title> <p>This Swedish cross-sectional study included 259 psychiatric patients (ages 16–22). Participants completed a survey including the self-assessment scales “Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale – Second Edition” (RADS-2), “Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire – Junior Version” (SIQ-JR), and “Compassion Engagement and Action Scale – Youth” (CEAS-Y). Linear regression analyses were used to determine whether participants’ levels of compassion predicted depression and suicidal ideation.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Self-compassion and Compassion from others significantly predicted both depression and suicidal ideation. Girls, on average, reported higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation and lower levels of self-compassion compared to boys. The correlation between compassion and depressive symptoms, however, appeared to be stronger in boys. There was also a positive correlation between Compassion for others and suicidal ideation.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The results suggest that Self-compassion and Compassion from others may have a significant protective effect against depression and suicidal ideation, especially in boys. However, due to the relatively small sample of boys (n = 40), further research is needed before any solid conclusion can be drawn regarding possible gender differences. Additionally, the combination of low Self-compassion and higher levels of Compassion for others may be associated with suicidal ideation.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of a Modified-Release Dexamphetamine Sulfate Formulation Following Single and Multiple Dosing in Healthy Adults: Comparative Bioavailability with Immediate-Release Dexamphetamine Sulfate, between Strengths, Assessment of Food and Meal Composition Effects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>A modified-release dexamphetamine sulfate formulation (DEX-MR) is under development for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>We investigated the bioequivalence of once-daily DEX-MR to twice-daily immediate-release dexamphetamine sulfate (DEX-IR) after single and multiple dosing and between strengths, and effects of food and meal types.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Method</title> <p>Three randomized, open-label, crossover studies in healthy males were conducted. In the single-dose study, participants received DEX-MR 20 mg, DEX-MR 10 mg (20 mg dose), and twice-daily DEX-IR 10 mg under fasted conditions and after a high-fat, high-calorie breakfast. In the breakfast study, participants received DEX-MR 20 mg and twice-daily DEX-IR 10 mg after a normocaloric and a high-fat, high-calorie breakfast. In the multiple-dose study, participants received DEX-MR 20 mg and twice-daily DEX-IR 10 mg for seven days each. In the run-in period (five days), participants consumed a normocaloric breakfast; on profile days, participants consumed a normocaloric breakfast (day 6) or a high-fat, high-calorie breakfast (day 7).</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Once-daily DEX-MR at a dose of 20 mg was bioequivalent to twice-daily DEX-IR 10 mg after single dosing under fasted and fed conditions and after multiple dosing under fed conditions. DEX-MR 10 mg and DEX-MR 20 mg were bioequivalent when administered as a single 20 mg dose. Food slightly reduced the rate and extent of absorption of DEX-MR and delayed the time to peak plasma concentration (<italic>t</italic><sub>max</sub>) by approximately two hours compared to the fasted state. Bioavailability of DEX-MR was comparable under different meal conditions (normocaloric vs. high-fat, high-calorie breakfast) both after single and multiple dosing.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Bioequivalence of once-daily DEX-MR and twice-daily DEX-IR was established. 1×2 DEX-MR 10 mg was bioequivalent to 1×1 DEX-MR 20 mg. DEX-MR should be administered with/after a meal to achieve the targeted pharmacokinetic profile (delayed <italic>t</italic><sub>max</sub>). Bioavailability of DEX-MR is not affected by meal composition (i.e., fat and caloric content).</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Insecurity or Disorder: A dichotomy worth revising? Review of Environmental and Psychosocial Risk Factors associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder in Children and Adolescents<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>In the majority of cases, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accompanied by one or more comorbid disorders, with the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) being one of the most frequently diagnosed comorbid disorders. There is a lack of systematic reviews addressing the evidence for an association between the independent environmental and psychosocial risk factors associated with ADHD, ODD, and Conduct Disorder (CD).</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>This study aims to determine the link between ADHD and ODD/CD, specifically in terms of the most up-to-date environmental and psychosocial risk factors in the development of these illnesses.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Eleven studies were included in this systematic review. Among these, ten studies involved environmental risk factors, and only one involved socioeconomic risk factors as exposure. Of the ten studies highlighting the environmental risk factors, six studies reported perinatal risk factors, three reported Atopic diseases as exposure measures, and one involved exposure to energy and coffee drinks. We have found that the most common risk factors associated with ADHD, ODD and CD in Europe and North America were Perinatal risk factors. In contrast, the risk factors of Atopic diseases were more common in Asia.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Most of the studies included in our systematic review fall within the scope of environmental risk factors were perinatal risk factors and atopic diseases are the most common risk factors. However, only one article highlighted the association of socioeconomic risk factors as an exposure. Our review results suggest the need for more research focused on psychosocial risk factors for ADHD and comorbid ODD/CD. Further research is required with the primary objective of investigating this association in greater depth and examining the possible mechanisms at varying levels is needed.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue properties of the Observing Mediational Interactions (OMI) coding system during mother-adolescent conflict discussions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Observational assessments of parent-adolescent conflict can guide interventions to prevent and reduce conflict and mental health problems. The authors identified the Observing Mediational Interactions (OMI) as a particularly useful coding system for examining parent-adolescent conflict. The OMI is the observational measure used in the Mediational Intervention for Sensitizing Caregivers (MISC) and quantifies emotional (attachment-based) and cognitive (learning-based) behaviors during caregiver-child interactions.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>The overall aim of the current study was to tailor and evaluate the OMI specifically for observing conflict interactions.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Method</title> <p>Conflict discussions between 56 clinical youth aged 10-15 years and their mothers were coded using the OMI. Reliability, construct validity, and associations with affect following the conflict discussion were examined.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Analyses revealed that the OMI demonstrated adequate internal consistency, interrater reliability, and construct validity in terms of associations with an alternate observational measure and parent-reported family functioning and stress. Additionally, mothers who engaged in fewer negative parenting behaviors reported greater positive affect following the conflict discussion, controlling for baseline affect.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Taken together, findings support the use of the OMI in future studies. While further research should attempt to extend findings to other populations and settings and elaborate the coding instructions as needed, researchers can use the OMI to inform ongoing adaptations of MISC and identify targets for prevention and intervention more broadly.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effects of sexual abuse on female adolescent brain structures<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>Sexual abuse (SA) is known for its effects on brain structures in adolescents. We aimed to explore if SA has any effect on limbic and prefrontal cortex (PFC) structures. We hypothesized that children with SA would have a thinner PFC with larger amygdala and hippocampus that lead to aberrations in threat detection, orientation and response circuit; that would be highly adaptive in a dangerous environment in the short term.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Method</title> <p>We included 57 SA and 33 healthy control (HC) female participants. In addition to psychiatric evaluation, we acquired 3 T MR images from all participants. We compared prefrontal cortical thicknesses, hippocampus and amygdala volumes between groups.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The age and education levels of study groups were matched, however, IQ scores and socioeconomic status (SES) scores of the SA group were lower than the controls. Total CTQ scores of the SA group were higher than the HC. Nevertheless, the mean value of sexual abuse scores was above the cut-off scores only for the SA participants. SA participants had larger right and left hippocampus and right amygdala volumes than the controls. SA group had reduced inferior frontal gyrus cortical thickness (T=3.5, p&lt;0.01, cluster size=694 mm2, x=51 y=-30 z=6) than HC group. None of the structural findings were correlated with total or sexual abuse CTQ scores.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Children with SA history has structural abnormalities in threat detection, orientation and response circuit. SA victims with no psychiatric diagnosis have a high probability of psychiatric problems with a possible contribution of these aberrations. SA cases that do not have a diagnosis must not be overlooked as they may have structural changes in emotion related brain regions. Careful follow-up is needed for all of all SA cases.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Cortical Thicknesses of Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder and Relationship with Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Cortical thickness (CT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were widely investigated in bipolar disorder (BD). Previous studies focused on the association between the volume of subcortical regions and neurotrophic factor levels.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association of the CT in youth with early-onset BD with BDNF levels as a potential peripheral marker of neuronal integrity.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Method</title> <p>Twenty-three euthymic patients having a clinical diagnosis of BD and 17 healthy subjects as an age-matched control group with neuroimaging and blood BDNF levels were found eligible for CT measurement. A structural magnetic resonance scan (MRI) and timely blood samples were drawn.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Youth with BD exhibited lower cortical thickness in caudal part of left (L) middle frontal gyrus, right (R) paracentral gyrus, triangular part of R inferior frontal gyrus, R pericalcarine region, R precentral gyrus, L precentral gyrus, R superior frontal gyrus and L superior frontal gyrus when compared to healthy controls. The effect sizes of these differences were moderate to large (d=0.67-0.98) There was a significant correlation between BDNF levels with caudal part of the R anterior cingulate gyrus (CPRACG) in adolescents with BD (r=0.49, p=0.023).</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>As a special region for mood regulation, the CT of the caudal part of the R anterior cingulate gyrus had a positive correlation with BDNF. Regarding the key role of CPRACG for affective regulation skills, our results should be replicated in future follow-up studies, investigating a predictive neuroimaging biomarker for the early-onset BD.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Motor Skills in Children with Tourette Syndrome and their Unaffected First-degree Siblings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>The exact etiology of Tourette Syndrome (TS) remains unclear, making the search for impaired neuropsychological functions possibly connected to the underlying cause of TS as important as it is challenging. One neuropsychological domain of interest is fine motor skills.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Method</title> <p>This study compared fine motor skill performance on the Purdue Pegboard Task (PPT) in 18 children with TS, 24 unaffected first-degree siblings and 20 controls. A set of screening questionnaires was administered to determine comorbid psychiatric illness.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Children with TS, their siblings and controls did not differ significantly in fine motor skills as measured with the PPT. Performance on the PPT was not correlated with tic severity; however, we found an inverse correlation with severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, as assessed by parent reported ADHD symptoms. Children with TS were found to have significantly higher parent reported ADHD symptoms compared to controls, yet only two out of the 18 participants had been diagnosed with ADHD.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>This study suggests that fine motor skill impairment in children with TS may be more strongly correlated with comorbid ADHD than to TS and tics.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Acceptability of Using FirstPlay® to Enhance Mother–Child Interaction: A pilot study of mothers’ perspectives<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Although there is evidence that human touch facilitates mother–child bonding, mothers’ understanding of how to connect with and develop the emotional regulation of their babies remains unclear.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Objectives</title> <p>This study used a Storytelling Massage program to investigate mothers’ experience of practicing reciprocal interactions with their children. Specifically, it explored the efficacy of multi-sensory activities for building healthy parent–child bonds.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Method</title> <p>Participants included 12 mothers with children between 8 and 23 months. These mothers participated in a 6-session program on FirstPlay Infant Storytelling-Massage Intervention (FirstPlay Therapy) and attended an individual semi-structured interview after the program. Data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The FirstPlay program positively affected the participants’ self-efficacy in parent–child bonding and parenting beliefs. Five themes were identified: “bonding with the child—connect and engage,” “attending to the child’s uniqueness and needs,” “developing a structure and a daily routine,” “feeling calm and relaxed as a person,” and “gaining confidence as a mom.”</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The results of this study further support the need for low-cost, high-impact programs that enhance parent–child interactions. Limitations of this study are discussed. Future research and practical implications are also suggested.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Evidence of an Association Between a Positive Child Behavior Checklist-Bipolar Profile and a Diagnosis of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: A Meta-Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Previous research has found that a unique profile of the Child Behavior Checklist comprising of aggregate elevations of the Attention, Anxiety/Depression and Aggression scales (A-A-A profile, CBCL-Bipolar (BP) profile, CBCL-Dysregulation profile (DP); henceforth CBCL-BP/DP profile) is associated with a clinical diagnosis of pediatric bipolar (BP) disorder.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>The main aim of the study is to evaluate the strength of the association between the CBCL-BP/DP profile and the clinical diagnosis of pediatric BP disorder through a meta-analysis.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>A literature search was performed to identify studies that examined the association between a positive CBCL-BP/DP profile and a clinical diagnosis of pediatric BP disorder. The meta-analyses first examined studies assessing the rates of a positive CBCL-BP/DP profile in youth with BP disorder versus those with 1) ADHD, anxiety/depression, or disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs), and 2) non-bipolar controls. The second analysis evaluated studies examining the rates of pediatric BP disorder in youth with and without a positive CBCL-BP/DP profile.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Eighteen articles met our inclusion and exclusion criteria, and fifteen articles had adequate data for meta-analysis. Results showed that BP youth were at significantly increased odds of having a positive CBCL-BP/DP profile compared to those with other psychiatric disorders (i.e., ADHD, anxiety/depression, or DBDs) (pooled OR=4.34, 95% CI=2.82, 8.27; p&lt;0.001) and healthy control groups (pooled OR=34.77, 95% CI=2.87, 420.95; p=0.005). Further, meta-analysis results showed that youth with a positive CBCL-BP/DP profile were at significantly increased odds of having a BP disorder diagnosis compared to those without (pooled OR=4.25, 95% CI=2.12, 8.52; p&lt;0.001).</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Our systematic review and meta-analysis of the extant literature provides strong support for the association between the CBCL-BP/DP profile and pediatric BP disorder.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Book Review on Handbook of Positive Youth Development: Advancing Research, Policy, and Practice in Global Contexts. Radosveta Dimitrova and Nora Wiium (Eds.) (Cham, Switzerland: Springer), 2021, 754 pages, ISBN 978-3-030-70261-8