rss_2.0Architecture and Design FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Architecture and Design and Design Feed lighting systems and the method of implementing dynamically adjustable on-demand strategies – conclusions from research<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Street lighting is an important aspect of the operation of not just every city or municipality but also the operation of the roads and highways in every country. The search for energy-saving solutions has become a ubiquitous number-one topic and leads to the need for lighting management systems to make lighting more efficient and economical from a financial and environmental point of view. There are many important needs of cities and municipalities strictly connected with the type of roads and areas in cities and their surroundings. Highways, country roads, main city roads, parks, cycling paths and residential areas all have different requirements with regard to efficient lighting management. Lighting and power schedules, adaptive lighting schemes based on the density of road usage, dynamically adjustable on-demand lighting which lights up the way ahead of moving objects (vehicles or pedestrians). All of the above are important and can help in the achievement of the main goal, which is efficient energy usage properly managed for the given situation and which will ensure safety and comfortable lighting for all kinds of roads. This paper is focused on dynamically adjustable on-demand lighting, it proposes a solution capable of achieving optimal lighting management for cities and surrounding areas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Definition of Restoration Strategies with H-BIM Applications. The Case Study of Vittorio Giorgini's “Casa Esagono” in Baratti, Italy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This contribution is focused on the “Casa Esagono” realized in 1957 by Vittorio Giorgini in Baratti (LI), Italy. The research objective is to lay the foundations for a restoration plan of this experimental wooden architecture, which is now in precarious conditions due to its location near the sea, and whose constructive features, has always raised great questions about the technical feasibility of a full restoration. The paper describes the workflow for the implementation of the H-BIM model, aimed to organise all the data deriving from the historical and on-site research, and the restoration programme. The historical analysis about the house and the architect was the basis for the geometric survey and the analysis of building materials. All building components were subjected to visual analysis aimed to identify deterioration forms. The proposed conservation approach aims to maintain as much of the original elements as possible, while increasing their durability. H-BIM revealed to be the ideal tool to manage the entire restoration process, whose ultimate goal is to celebrate Giorgini's work, to exploit the potential of the house as a cultural attraction.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Documentation of the Historical City of Cagliari (Italy)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The documentation of the urban historical heritage is the preliminary step to identify the correct strategies for its protection and enhancement. To achieve this aim it is necessary to acquire a graphic documentation at the different scales of detail required by a multi-layered system as the historical landscape; this complexity can now be explored integrating traditional and digital survey methods and representation methodologies. Traditional methods, in particular, are characterized by a direct contact with places; this condition guarantee a deepest perception and a total immersion in the landscape integrating and giving quality to the considerable amount of data offered by recent technologies; this approach has been applied in the survey of the historical city of Cagliari in which the medieval districts of <italic>Marina</italic>, <italic>Stampace</italic>, <italic>Villanova</italic> and <italic>Castello</italic> retain a great part of the modern walled system built since the fourteenth century until the first half of the nineteenth century and a lot of interesting buildings designed for civil, public and religious use.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Double Skin Façade (DSF) and Electrochromic Glass in Buildings in Tropical Climate<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One method in terms of architectural technology used to minimize the negative impact of overheating is to design a building with double skin façade and integrating it with electrochromic glass. The purpose of this research is to reveal whether the use of a double skin façade and the application of electrochromic glass would be preferable for buildings in tropical climates, in terms of obtaining aesthetic points while not having to sacrifice thermal comfort nor committing energy waste at the same time. The data in this research is obtained with qualitative – descriptive comparative method, which is applied for room temperature measurement with a computer simulation software, based on pre-existing theories, reference standards and material specifications from existing manufacturers. The results of this study conclude that the application of double skin façade in a building does make a significant contribution to achieving thermal and lighting comfort. Both profiles of space reduction with the use of electrochromic glass in buildings in tropical climates are able to reach ideal temperatures in comparison to when ordinary glass material is applied. And third, it is proven that the double skin façade technology and applying electrochromic glass on a building can provide significant energy efficiency for long-term projects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Modelling of Thermal Comfort in the Passenger Coach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents the results of numerical simulations of thermal comfort in a passenger coach. The numerical model with people's presence was developed and appropriate boundary conditions were prepared. The ANSYS CFX program was used for the simulations. The calculations were carried out for summer and winter conditions. The predicted mean vote (PMV), predicted percentage dissatisfied (PPD) and draft rate (DR) were calculated to assess the thermal comfort of passengers. The requirements of railway standards in terms of passenger comfort assessment were also verified. Based on the simulation results, it was found that the thermal comfort conditions of the passengers in the coach were not fully satisfactory, especially in summer.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Assessment on Influence of Adjacently Placed Strip Footings at Different Embedment Level<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The footings laid in close proximity imposes a definite change in the behaviour of the adjacent footing, subsequently changing the behaviour of the nearby footings. The present study emphasises the behaviour of the nearby strip footings embedded at a different level by adopting the commercially available finite element analysis program, ABAQUS. The load-settlement behaviour, ultimate bearing capacity (<italic>UBC</italic>), and the failure patterns of adjacent strip footings are assessed by considering the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The <italic>UBC</italic> is of the nearby footings (left and right) are estimated and represented in terms of interference factors (<italic>ξ<sub>L</sub>/ξ<sub>R</sub></italic>) defined as the <italic>UBC</italic> of a footing in the presence of adjacent footing to that of same considered for equivalent isolated footing. The results reveal that a significant influence of the adjacent footing is experienced when the spacing between the footings (<italic>S/B</italic>) is lesser, and they behave as the single footing of greater width at <italic>S/B</italic> = 0.25 irrespective of the level of embedment depth. Furthermore, the influence of interference increases with the increase in the embedment depth of adjacent footing. It is found that the <italic>ξ<sub>L</sub></italic> is significantly more for a lower level of embedment depth, and the same increases with an increase in the embedment depth of the right footing but on the contrary <italic>ξ<sub>R</sub></italic> decreases. The increase in the peak interference factor, <italic>ξ<sub>L-max</sub></italic> for <italic>D<sub>L</sub>/B</italic> = 0.5 is 2.1% and 4.2% when <italic>D<sub>R</sub>/B</italic> = 0.75 and <italic>D<sub>R</sub>/B</italic> = 1.0, respectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for Health and Well-Being. The Housing Needs of Future Seniors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents the results of the research made on a sample of 2,000 of young respondents surveyed in the scope of their housing needs, including their expectations as to the place of residence, form of residence and size of their living space. The methodology assumed for the presentation of results of quantitative variables included such statistical measures as the arithmetic mean, standard deviation or quantity. Whereas, the quantitative variables have been presented via quantity and percentages. To assess the percentage difference between the analysed parameters, the author has used Pearson's chi-squared test, chi-squared test and others. Comparative analyses drawn up on the basis of the data show the tendencies in the housing preferences among young people, both in the short and long time perspective. The research was intended to diagnose the housing needs of young people and to juxtapose their expectations with the tendencies. It can effectively help architects create solutions that properly meet the factual needs of the residents as well as improve the quality of designed housing for the future senior residents.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Riverside Built Environment Versus Success Indicators of Functional Performance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper focuses on the downtown built environment (downtown waterfronts) and also on individual architectural objects which have an important function in such a space. The quality of the built environment affects its surroundings not only in a physical but also in a social way. To find the most appropriate ways of preventing the occurrence of the built environment pathologies in downtown areas, the study used the diagnostic technique of functional performance understood, among other things, as the ability to satisfy the stakeholders' needs and the impact of stakeholders' actions on their living environment. During the research, a comparative platform was found for the functional performance, the imperative of sustainable development and the ecosystem services of rivers and reservoirs. The investigations resulted in the creation of success indicators illustrated by examples of six voivodeship capital cities in Poland which have the strongest connection with the downtown built environment in waterfront areas, namely: Gdańsk, Szczecin, Warszawa (Warsaw), Kraków (Cracow), Wrocław and Poznań.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Criterion of Access to the Sky View in Residential Environment Architectural Designing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Standards specifying the requirements for daylight in shaping the interiors of residential buildings do not cover issues related to visual perception and the role of light as a carrier of images of the outside world. The general recommendations in this regard, given in the 2018 European Lighting Standard can hardly be considered an unambiguous, precise normative regulation. According to the author, the inalienable element of the view through the window is the image of the sky, which is the basic reference in human perception of the space of the external environment. The aim of the research is to identify the main determinants for ensuring access to the sky view from apartments in housing estates with high intensity of development. The analyzes are based on the author's simple graphical research methods capable of simulating the visual perception of images of the external environment space through a window. The key parameter in the analyzes is the vertical viewing angle, called the sky view entry angle. Its minimum value set at 7.5°C is of fundamental importance in shaping the geometric relations between neighbouring buildings. The research results oblige, in the context of the paradigm of sustainable housing development, to recognize the criterion of access to the sky view from residential interiors as a mandatory design guideline.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Use of Residual Municipal Solid Waste as an Alternative Fuel<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The relevance of the work is determined by the war of the Russian Federation in Ukraine and the decision of the leading countries of the world, the EU and Ukraine to abandon energy dependence on energy from the Russian Federation. An analysis is provided of the main directions for reducing the European Union's dependence on Russian natural gas by a third by the end of 2022, in particular, the development of the Waste-to-Energy market in the EU and other leading countries of the world. The main ways are presented and computational investigations of the possibility of substitution of certain amounts of natural gas with artificial fuel from residual MSW are carried out.</p> <p>Based on the performed calculations, the authors formulated proposals for the feasibility of constructing facilities for energy use of residual MSW in different regions of Ukraine, as well as connecting them to the systems of centralized heating in Ukraine. The paper proves the necessity of building Waste-to-Energy power plants in the largest, large and big cities of the country. The ecological expediency of recovery of residual waste is shown.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Train Stations. Katowice-Zwardoń-Žilina-Rajec<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The subject of the paper is train station. The research deal with those train stations that either no longer serve their purpose or are now abandoned. By abandoned train stations, the author of the paper means rail buildings that do not provide passengers with the necessities of cash desk and a waiting room or toilet. Stations that have abandoned their original purpose. Such stations were analysed on the only railway line connecting Poland and Slovakia operating on a daily basis. Mentioned line is connecting cities Katowice – Zwardoń – Žilina – Rajec. Much of this railway architecture is abandoned and unused. The work described in the paper aims to create a database of abandoned train stations based on authors own research and points to a large number of abandoned train stations that have potential for their future development. The data was collected by means of various methods described in the paper and was valid as of 31.12.2021. The situation today may differ.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Water Purification Using Pitcher Filters<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to the high risk of exposure to various contaminants in drinking water, pitcher filtration is rapidly growing in popularity worldwide as a cheap and easy method to remove pollutants from drinking water. On the other hand, an evaluation of the real-time performance of pitchers is not possible for usual consumers. This study presents the performance of pitcher filtration in the removal of copper, chlorine, and chloroform from tap drinking water. Pitchers were packed with Aquaphor cartridges JS500, A5, and B25. Experiments were performed with model solutions, which were prepared from hard drinking water (7.5 mval/L, pH=7) spiked with copper, hypochlorite sodium, and chloroform. It was found that pitcher filtration is a very effective method for the removal of pollutants such as heavy metals, chlorine, and disinfectants byproducts. The concentration of copper, chlorine, and chloroform in filtrates did not exceed the maximum admissible values. Cartridges JS500, A5, and B25 reduced chlorine at a comparable level – almost 100%. During the whole experimental period, removal of chloroform was slightly better for JS500 (100%) and A5 (100%) cartridges than for B25 (91.4–97.7%).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Report on Ignitibility of Combined Pro-Ecological Waterproofing and Fire Retardant Coatings for Paperboard in Architectural Application<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Both fire and water protection are crucial for the safety and usability of paper-based products applied as building components. The presented study investigates the possibility of combining environmentally-friendly fire retardants with oil- and wax-based waterproofing coatings on paperboard for architectural applications. The proposed impregnation technique can be used as protection for paper-based temporary and emergency structures, or as part of the protective system for building envelopes of permanent structures. The fire retardants selected for the tests were diammonium phosphate and a mixture of borax and boric acid in a 1:1 ratio. Single-flame ignitability tests were performed on the impregnated specimens to assess the fire performance of specimens with fire impregnation, waterproofing impregnation and both. A Life Cycle Assessment analysis was performed for fire-retardant paperboard. The study has shown that the application of layered fire and waterproofing treatments on paperboard components is possible and leads to a significant reduction in flammability compared to untreated and only waterproofed specimens.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Thermal Decomposition and Gases Release from Pre-Drying Municipal Solid Waste (PMSW) Via Pyrolysis Technology<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Present study investigates the thermal decomposition and syngas potential of pre-drying municipal solid waste (PMSW) via pyrolysis using thermo-gravimetric (TGA) analyzer coupled with the mass spectrometer (MS). The experiments were performed at the heating rates 5 and 15°C/min. Differential thermo-gravimetric (DTG) curves exposed four conversion phases at lower heating rate and two conversion phases at higher heating rate. MS analysis of the evolved gases H<sub>2</sub>, CO, and CH<sub>4</sub> revealed that the devolatilization phase played a major role during the processes. Higher H<sub>2</sub> generation was observed at a lower heating rate due to more contact among PMSW and process temperature. Higher CO and CH<sub>4</sub> were also favored at lower heating rate. Total yield of gases was found higher due to higher CO generation. For the estimation of activation energy (Ea), Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) kinetic model was applied at the conversion rates (α) ranged from 5–35. In overall, the lower heating rate supported the higher WMSW conversion as well as higher gas released during the process. Hence, this study will help to evaluate the H<sub>2</sub> potential of the PMSW using pyrolysis thermal technology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Short Review on Feedstock Characteristics in Methane Production from Municipal Solid Waste<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The increase in population and industrialization leads to an increase in the solid waste year by year. The limited availability, increasing cost and adverse effect of climate change on fossil fuel leads to encouraging the research in the field of finding alternatives for energy sources. The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) can be utilized as a bio-energy source, which reduces the environmental impact and the requirement of landfill areas to dispose of municipal solid waste. Anaerobic digestion is the widely used sustainable approach to treat OFMSW. In recent years, the generation of methane from municipal solid waste has received increasing attention in research. This paper reviews literature published in recent years considering various characteristics of input feedstock parameters like pH, total solids, volatile solids, and water content which affect the digestion quality of the OFMSW and increase the production of methane. A regression model is developed to identify the relationship between methane production and various feedstock parameters. When the chemical compositions of feedstock were used as independent variables, the percentage variation accounted for by the model is low (r<sup>2</sup> = 0.63) and also the important observation from the analysis is that the pH of the feedstock influences majorly methane production.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Thermal Energy Storage Technology in the Decarbonization of Energy Sector Process – Packed Rock Bed Parameters Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents the adiabatic installation of compressed gases energy storage. The authors present the results of analyzes for this type of installation due to the selection of thermal storage material. The simulations were carried out for basalt, granite and ceramics (alumina) as well as for porosity value from 0.375 to 0.39 of basalt-filled reservoirs in Thermal Energy Storage (TES) installation. Characteristics of outlet air temperature, air pressure drop amount of energy stored and external heat losses as a time functions during the charging phase are presented. The research indicated that due to the lowest density and average heat capacity of the materials studied, granite has the fastest and most intense physical exit loss from the storage tank which was approximately 1100 W. However, there was no significant effect on air pressure drop depending on the chosen accumulation materials. The effect of rock bed porosity on the pressure drop of flowing air was investigated. For a constant mass flow rate, pressure drop values ranging from 2200 Pa to 6200 Pa were obtained depending on the porosity value.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Two Dyes Using White Rot Fungus (BWPH) Strain and Evaluation of Zootoxicity of Post Process Samples<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Synthetic dyes are extensively used in various industries like textile and food industry and are responsible for generation of colored and toxic wastewater. The aim of study was to evaluate decolorization efficiency of White Rot Fungi <italic>P.ostreatus</italic> (strain BWPH) for dyes belonging to different classes: Anthanthrone Red (anthraquinone dye) and Disazo Red (azo dye) having concentration of 0.08g/l. The <italic>Daphnia magna</italic> immobilization test was performed to check zoo toxicity of samples during and after treatment. The result show that maximum decolorization efficiency achieved for Anthanthrone Red and Disazo Red dye after 168h was 94.31% and 73.13% respectively. The zoo toxicity test reflects that the pure dyes were much less toxic to <italic>D.magna</italic> at higher concentration. In contrast, the post process samples were more toxic to organism. It reflected production of toxic metabolites because of enzymatic degradation/biotransformation of dye. For anthraquinone dye, post process sample of 0.25 h was less toxic as compared to 168 h sample. Toxicity Unit was 23.52(class IV), and 2.61(class III) respectively for Anthanthrone Red and Disazo Red post process sample. The conducted research showed high potential of BWPH strain for decolorization dyes belonging to different classes. But the mycelium produces toxic substances during the decolorization process. It may be related to the biodegradation of these substances to toxic metabolites. Further studies have indicated to optimize the process of decolorization.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Untreated Abaca Fibre on Mechanical Properties of Lightweight Foamed Concrete<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Presently, the expenditure on construction materials grows dramatically along with the enduring effect on the ecosystem, and it has led the academics to the recognition of natural plant fibres such as abaca fibre (AF) for enhancing the mechanical properties of concrete. AF is plentifully obtainable making it fairly relevant to be employed as a strengthening material in lightweight foamed concrete (LFC). Moreover, natural plant fibre-reinforced concrete has been progressively utilized in construction for several decades to decrease crack growth under the static load. This paper anticipates examining the effectiveness of the addition of AF in LFC to enhance its mechanical properties. LFC specimens of 550 kg/m<sup>3</sup> density were reinforced with AF at weight fractions of 0.00%, 0.15%, 0.30%, 0.45% and 0.60%. Three parameters have been assessed which were flexural strength, compressive strength and tensile strength. The results revealed that adding 0.45% AF into LFC enables optimal compressive, flexural and splitting tensile strengths. The presence of AF augments material strength by filling spaces, micro-cracks, and gaps inside the LFC structure. Additionally, AF helped reduce crack spreading when the plastic state of the LFC cementitious matrix was loaded. Though, further, than the optimum level of AF addition, accumulation and the non-uniform distribution of AF were identified, which triggers the lowering of the LFC strength properties substantially. The output of this preliminary investigation would give a better understanding of the potential utilization of plant fibre in LFC. It is of great importance to drive the sustainable development and application of LFC material and infrastructures.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Erected with Unconventional Materials in Grajewo and Rajgród Communes, N-E Poland: Results of Field Surveys in 2021<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In October 2021 a series of field surveys were performed in the gminy (communes) of Grajewo and Rajgród in north-eastern Poland, to assess the present-day occurrence of old semi-vernacular buildings that had been made with unique materials or unconventional structures. The secondary objective was to develop and test the best methods of recording such buildings, assuming that they are an important part of the local architectural heritage. Eventually, six rammed earthen buildings and two cordwood masonry houses were found, assessed and recorded. However, the authors failed to find two other cordwood masonry buildings that had been mentioned in earlier writings. Old hollow brick buildings were also found and mentioned as important elements of rural landscape due to their ornamental values.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Open-Air Museums in Poland – Adaptation to the Expectations and Requirements of a Modern Audience<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The subject of open-air museums has been and continues to be extensively researched in Poland. The world’s first open-air museum called ‘Skansen’ was established in 1891 on the Stockholm island of Djurgården. The oldest open-air museum in Poland, the Teodora and Izydor Gulgowski Kashubian Ethnographic Park in Wdzydze Kiszewskie, was founded in 1906. Initially, open-air museums presented exclusively heritage facilities related to rural culture. Gradually, the exhibitions were supplemented with examples of small-town, worker, manor and industrial buildings. Over time, industrial open-air museums began to be established. Open-air museums can be divided into three categories. The first comprises displays of ethnographic items with the focus on folk culture. The second category comprises museums of technology and industry. In the third group there are ethnographic museums with separate sections of industrial exhibitions as well as museums displaying industrial equipment and machinery against the background of ethnographic heritage facilities. The aim of this treatise is to present the diversity of Polish open-air industrial museums, classify them, present their activities, evaluate them and discuss the conditions to be met so that open-air industrial museums can be recognised as a tourist product. Polish museums of technology and industry in the open air or with industrial outdoor exhibitions can be divided into museums related to sailing, shipbuilding and fishing, military, aviation, railway, firefighting, road building, beekeeping and mining, and others. The financial standing of outdoor museums of technology and industry varies, but is usually bad. In order to make open-air museums profitable it is necessary to modernise their offer. Since the traditional, static model of presenting museum resources is the least attractive nowadays, it is necessary to shift away from passive displays towards active dissemination.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue