rss_2.0Architecture and Design FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Architecture and Design and Design Feed the Edge - future adaptation challenges: The role of futurology, scenario planning methodology and off grid design in architectural and urban teaching<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article describes the role of thinking about the future and its importance in architectural and urban education. The first part deals with the scientific discipline of futurology and the possibilities of its use in architectural and urban practice. It covers topics that futurology makes available to architecture and their influence on the urbanized environment. It relates the creation of strategic visions for urban development with the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the UN Habitat III initiative. The second part is dedicated to introducing the futurological method of scenario planning, and its origin and use. It mentions so-called megatrends as the driving forces of future scenarios, effecting future challenges and threats that cities will have to deal with. Further, it provides insight into how this method can benefit architectural and urban work and represents the way it was used during architectural teaching. It reflects on the advantages of creating visions in the educational process. In the last part, it shows the off-grid design as a suitable simulator of structural and system thinking, leading to a better understanding of how complex architectural and urban systems function. It highlights the contribution of space architecture projects as a source of innovative thinking. It anticipates that working on space projects where self-sufficiency is a necessity can also benefit thinking about ecology, self-sufficiency, and the sustainability of settlements on Earth.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00The positive impact of wooden material on educational processes in the environment of Slovenian wooden kindergartens<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Several scientific studies confirm that the colors, structures or materials used in the physical environment of interiors affect the human psyche. Wood, as a material applied in the interior spaces of buildings, is an attractor that, in addition to its static and structural properties with high environmental responsibility, also brings other benefits to users. It has a much greater impact on the society than we might think. The topic of applying sustainable materials and transforming them into newly-built, valuable and cultural architecture is currently also popular in connection with the new initiative the New European Bauhaus. The initiative has ambitions to use the existing national and international legislative frameworks, and to set sustainability rules with an interest in aesthetics and the involvement of communities in the creation of new living spaces. This paper aims to expand current scientific knowledge about the positive influence of wood material and its impact on educational processes in the architectural environment of kindergartens. Selected analyses and comparisons made it possible to assess whether the presence of wood material can positively affect the well-being of children in the physical environment of kindergartens. The article presents the results regarding children’s sensory perception, the feeling of safety, the feeling of a peaceful atmosphere. It aims to prove that interiors with exposed wood can improve the quality of teaching, can support social interaction and playful learning of children. The wood material is characterized in the presented author’s research as an interior, visible, massive material. Its design is authentic, with or without fine surface treatment, which does not degrade its visual-haptic-olfactory qualities. The study examines, analyzes and compares the architecture of kindergarten interiors in Slovenia. It interprets the results of practical research from the locations of Loče, Poljčane, Šoštanj, Polzela and Škofja Loka.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Linking virtual reality, architecture, and crime prevention for educational purposes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents selected links between the complex fields of architecture, use of virtual reality (as a part of computer science), and their potential in helping tackle crime. The presented information sets a general background for the development of a put forward prototype of new immersive learning experience to provide deeper understanding of CPTED concepts to enhance the traditional curriculum and the overall retention of knowledge. In architecture, better computer technology raises the stakes. Architecture’s side of communicating ideas and managing information has been reflected in BIM. Technology is one component of larger social, economic, and business revolutions that will continue to have a substantial impact on the markets in which architects deliver services. Technological progress enables blurring the boundaries between reality and the virtual world. It is a source of inspiration and some freedom in architectural design. The theory of education is also influenced by new technologies. There are scientific studies suggesting learning in virtual reality may be more efficient than in the real world. Current VR systems provide new features for perceptual expansion, for creative construction, and for unique social interactivity. There are now hundreds of university architecture programmes with VR and AR labs all over the world. We have also changed the way of designing of and thinking about our cities, including safety. The global nature of crime has brought international cooperation in the field of prevention, one example being the CPTED security concept. New visual stimuli, such as VR, may broaden our understanding of housing design, burglary risk and CPTED, and help prevent crime. VR has also pedagogical promise, as it can be used not only to assess hypothetical environments, but also to track, shape and affect subjects’ thinking towards them. There are not many practical studies on the use of VR for this purpose, which points at a niche for more research to be conducted in this area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00In the pixel zone: Perception of digital design<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Since the beginning of the millennium, the internet has undeniably influenced everyday life as well as the creative fields, in countless ways that have already been exhaustively discussed. In this paper, we discuss the term postdigital, which is relevant to anchoring the perception of digital design. Numerous theoretical works are dealing with the terminology of postdigital, with conceptualisations differing from one another. Post-digitality offers a set of speculative strategies with the intention of building a complex architecture for thinking and creating under contemporary conditions: how to critically consider, contextualize, and shift the perception of new technologies as part of the existing culture. Digital design has become an integral part of everyday reality: websites, mobile devices, tablets, but also products and services that use digital interfaces as interactive communication channels between a human and a machine. These interfaces require a specific approach to design. The term <italic>digital design</italic> covers the design of the entire range of digital products and services and is understood as a complex set of many disciplines: user interface, interaction design, information architecture, user experience design, visual design, web design, app design, or game design. The boundaries between the different areas of design are blurred and permeable, and although their mutual interaction can be beneficial, it is necessary to clearly differentiate between graphic and digital design. Digital design grows out of the principles of graphic (visual) design and introduces additional knowledge and very specific principles based on the nature of the digital medium and the transdisciplinary field of cognitive ergonomics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Architectural studies in the European Higher Education Area: Criteria for student degree mobility<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The European Higher Education Area was implemented as a result of the Bologna Process and set the mobility of students and staff as its main goal, suggesting tools to facilitate it. The European Union has supported the suggested measures, as mobility can be a way to support a common European identity and a strategic way to improve the quality of higher education institutes. Architectural studies, due to their special character as both an art and a science discipline, are chosen as the education area most suited for mapping degree mobility and highlighting the characteristics that differentiate each school in terms of attraction to international students. How do architectural students select the school to continue their studies? On what criteria is that based? There were more than 351 schools of architecture in the European Higher Education Area with 49 participating countries at the time the research was conducted. Do international students choose them at the same degree? What makes a difference between them, causing some of them to become famous schools of excellence while others are barely visible in the international competition? To answer the above questions, a research based on two questionnaires was conducted during the academic year 2018-2019. The aim of both questionnaires was to map the state of the art in architectural studies and determine the criteria students value the most to make their choices at master studies. The process of combining the data collected from both questionnaires showed that the study programmes and the city or country of the school are the main reasons for master’s students to choose a specific school and for schools to stand out. This is followed by the criteria: offered studies’ quality, institution’s reputation, teaching language, the host city’s economy, giving students the possibility to work during and/or after studies, the offer of third cycle. The paper concludes suggesting changes schools could implement if they wish to get a better position in the competitive market of attracting international students.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00How many neurons are needed to make a short-term prediction of the Bitcoin exchange rate?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The goal of our work was to select a neural network architecture that would give the best prediction of the Bitcoin exchange rate using historical data. Our work fits into the very important topic of predicting the value of the cryptocurrency exchange rate, and makes use of recent data which, as a result of the high Bitcoin exchange rate dynamics of the last year, differs significantly from those of previous years. We propose and test a number of neural network-based architectures and conduct a discussion of the results. Unlike previous state-of-the-art works, we conducted a comprehensive comparison of three different neural network-based models: MLP (multilayer perceptron), LSTM (long short-term memory) and CNN (convolutional neural network). We tested them for a wide range of parameters. The results we present are, to the best of our knowledge, the most up to date when it comes to the application of artificial intelligence methods for the prediction of cryptocurrency exchange rates. The best-performing architectures were used for a website that gives real-time predictions of the Bitcoin exchange rate. The website is available at <ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href=""></ext-link>. Source codes of our research are available to download in order to make our experiment reproducible.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00The „hard” borders in the Baltic Sea Region, 1917-1922<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The British sociologist Gerard Delanty’s conception of “boundary and identities of exclusion” in European history shall be remembered when approaching “hard borders.” This concept takes into account the “cultural dynamics of self-identification through exclusion” and is germane when considering the interwar interactions between the countries of the Baltic area and Russia. The works of Reece Jones and Alec Murphy on “the hardening of borders” and “the fetishization of territory” as national traits are equally pertinent to the perception of frontiers during the duration of the 20th century, including the years 1917 to 1922. In every occasion in which war and violence (ultimatums, threats of force) were employed in the Baltic Sea Region to award borders in favor of one state or another or to settle accounts, the arrangements were not permanent and a cycle of warfare with terrible effects on local people followed. The combination of universalist ideologies (such as Communism) with imperial goals frequently resulted in both domestic and international conflicts. Civil unrest (sisällissota) and clashes with and between foreign troops (Russian and German) marked Finland’s journey to independence. Comparable conditions existed in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. In each case, the upshot was not just an obsession with boundaries, but also an increase in otherness and loss of life.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Validation of Soil Type Interpretation and Determination from CPT and DMT Tests<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper consists of three parts. The first part presents the methodology of <italic>in situ</italic> tests using a CPT probe and methods of soil type determination that are based on them. The second part lays out the methodology of field tests with Marchetti’s dilatometer (DMT) and methods of soil type determination on their basis. In the third part, the process of validation of CPT and DMT tests with borehole test methods is carried out based on the analysis of <italic>in situ</italic> investigations in the Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW) Campus sites compared to the results obtained from laboratory tests. Validation of the CPT method using Marr’s nomogram was successful. The DMT method using Marchetti’s nomogram chart should be also considered as satisfactory.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of the Construction Nodes a Water Pipeline Network and Modeling Planned Overall Dimensions Its Working Chambers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>While designing water supply networks, an important task consists in establishing the place necessary for an installation of water supply wells along with water supply units located in them, in aim to determine the number of structural elements in the composition of individual pipelines of this water supply network. It has been proposed to apply a methodology for predictive calculation of a number of structural elements of the water supply pipeline system by indirect signs. An improvement of this technique was carried out by systematising the structural elements into simple and complex ones, with the determination of an indicator of the structural device for each of them. In order to analyse the role of each structural element of the same type, belonging to an assembly consisting of a linear part of a pipeline and nodes, a concept of coefficient of constructiveness was introduced. Analytical and graphical dependencies for predicting the value of the coefficient of constructiveness have been obtained. For typical (simple) nodes, the minimum value of the coefficient of constructiveness is 1.3 and maximum value is 2.54. The largest value of the coefficient of constructiveness for a conventional (complex) node is 1.45, the minimum value is 1.13. Recommendations have been given for assessment of the complexity of the installation of water supply units in practice in the design of new and reconstruction of existing water supply networks. For the above water supply units, working chambers of a round shape are recommended, which makes it possible in practice to reduce the overall planned dimensions of a water well in comparison with a rectangular shape of the same chamber.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Blast Effect on Construction Barriers from External Load Including Angle Incidence<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents the method of determining the impact of an external explosion on construction barriers, taking into account the angle of the shock wave. For the presented two variants of the analysis, i.e. for the load placed at a distance of 5 and 10m from the construction barrier, the initial pressure of the reflected wave, the duration of overpressure and the course of load variability over time were determined. For the assumed parameters of the barrier and the blast load, the values of overpressure were determined, taking into account the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection. Additionally, a comparative analysis of the proposed method with other methods available in the literature was made. The convergence of the results did not exceed 10%. The proposed method allows to determine the boundary between the Mach and the incident waves.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00The Modelling of Soil-Binder Composites<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The development of an appropriate soil-binder composite (stabilized soil) is associated with the selection of the appropriate strength class of the hydraulic binder (e.g. ash-cement) and its amount to stabilize the soil. Advanced statistical methods based on the use of the <italic>spline</italic> function were used in the analysis of tests of soil-binder composites. The analysis presents statistical modelling as a tool helpful in the design of soil-binder composites, showing possible interactions between the components of materials included in the mineral composition of composites. A logarithmic model of the compressive stress forecast was developed for soil-binder composites both with freezing cycles of the soil composition and without freezing cycles, in which the composites hardening time and the addition of ash-cement binders to the soil were continuous variables.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Anthropogenic Ecosystem of Green Roofs from the Perspective Rainwater Management<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In Bielsko-Biała (Poland), thanks to the initiative of the originator and architect, a green intensive roof was created on a shopping centre. This roof primarily serves as a garden that enhances the qualities of the residential area, but also as a means of absorbing some rainwater and slowing down the runoff. The water collects in the rainwater retention tank located under the building. Rainwater also evaporates, and its surface runoff is slowed down as it passes through the vegetation on the green intensive roof. This paper addresses some of the operational problems of a selected green roof. The Water Law introduces the obligation to pay charges for the reduction of natural terrain retention. Shopping centres usually occupy large areas of land, but their roofs are rarely used for rainwater management and the installation of biologically active surfaces. Green roofs undoubted advantage is the increase of biologically active surface in urban areas. It is also an oxygen-producing surface as well as reducing urban heat islands and attractive place for honeybees and butterflies. The roof in question meets the requirements of a retention facility mentioned in the Water Law Act. It is a multifunctional system for rainwater management. The analysis suggests that the roof under study is not a self-sustaining ecosystem and requires human intervention.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Effective Methods to Strengthen the Bending Reinforced Concrete Elements<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The analysis of methods of strengthening reinforced concrete structures showed, that strengthen structures that work for bending can be both a way of increasing the cross-section, and a way to change the calculation scheme of the work of structure. To date, the effect of low-cycle loads of high levels on the work of strengthened bending reinforced concrete elements is not fully investigated. Research in this area is relevant and necessary for modern construction. The use of modern carbon-plastic materials and steel-fiber reinforced concrete is an effective way to strengthen bending reinforced concrete elements.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Clayey Sand–Nonwoven Geotextile Interface Characterisation Through Gradient Ratio Test<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nonwoven geotextiles have been widely used as a substitute for mineral materials to provide filtration functions in civil engineering. However, in filter systems, geotextiles are the first to be in contact with soft, saturated, and fine soils. For that reason, the selection of a geotextile filter depends on the characteristics of the geosynthetics and the base soil (e.g. grain size distribution, internal stability, permeability) and on the design and boundary conditions such as continuity of the soil–geotextile filter contact interface. The geotextile filter must be properly designed to avoid clogging. The most commonly method used for measuring filtration compatibility of soil–geotextile systems is the gradient ratio test. This paper presents the gradient ratio test program for needle-punched nonwoven geotextile used as a filter layer and internally unstable soil. Laboratory tests were conducted in a modified gradient ratio test apparatus. Test results show that gradient ratio increases with time due to clogging. Also the need for a measurementofwaterheadsveryclosetothegeotextiletomeasurement of water heads very close to the geotextile to provide additional information on the soil–geotextile system behaviour were presented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Review of Technical Methods Landfill Sealing and Reclamation in the World<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Landfills, even properly designed, constructed, and operated, are facilities that in the future can be a potential source of pollution of surface and groundwater and atmospheric air. Especially, old municipal landfills were very often established in inappropriate soil and water conditions, which contributed much more to the release of toxic leachate into the ground. This happened due to lack of sufficient regulation and control systems in this area. Reclamation of degraded sites became a kind of rescue for contaminated areas. However, this process was not always carried out in a proper way. This study presents the trends of landfills sealing and their reclamation over the years in different countries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Types and Valorization of Sludge Generated in Water Treatment Processes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper is a study on the problem of sludge formation in water treatment processes. Various physical and chemical processes used in technological systems of water treatment were described and those which are the source of sludge were indicated. The chemical composition of the sludge was presented, with particular emphasis on hazardous organic and inorganic pollutants. An essential part of the work was to consider the possibilities and ways of valorizing sludge. It was determined that the type of generated sludge depends on the applied process and its pollution degree depends on the type and quality of the water taken. Most of the sludge is formed during the coagulation process of surface waters, which may be contaminated with various heavy metals. Among the possibilities and methods of sludge valorization, an interesting way to use it is in construction, as an admixture to various building materials. It is also possible to use sludge as an unconventional adsorbent or reaction catalyst in the oxidation of organic pollutants present in wastewater.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Revitalization of Degraded Areas and Facilities in the Cities of Core of the Metropolis GZM<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The subject of the paper is the revitalization of urbanized areas, considered in terms of the importance of degraded areas and objects that require adaptation, protection, and creation measures in this process. The research focuses on cities belonging to the core of the Metropolis GZM – Poland’s first metropolis whose industrial origin, history and dynamics of development make it necessary to carry out revitalization activities. To conduct the research, the available source materials were collected and analyzed, including planning documents, information portals, scientific articles and items, cartographic and photographic materials. The collected information was compiled according to the adopted functional criteria. The research aims are to identify the implemented and planned revitalization activities, analyze their distribution in the context of individual cities and the entire core of the Metropolis GZM, and as a result assess their impact on the direction of city development and the quality of life of the inhabitants of the post-industrial metropolis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of the Effects of Using Classical and Modified Pool Water Treatment Technologies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Contemporary requirements on the quality of swimming pool water necessitate the improvement of the classical technology of its treatment. It is associated with the need to modernize installations or implement a new technology. The purpose of the analysis is to compare the effects of using classical and modified technologies for the treatment of swimming pool water in sports and recreational pools with similar characteristics. The research was carried out for ten pools, which were divided into two groups – pools with a classical water treatment system and a modified one. The conducted tests showed significant differences in water quality in terms of: pH, redox, permanganate index (COD<sub>Mn</sub>), total organic carbon (TOC), free chlorine, combined chlorine, chloroform and trihalomethanes (THMs), and no differences in terms of: temperature, turbidity, nitrates and ammonium ion. It was found that the modified swimming pool water treatment technologies made it possible to obtain water of better quality with regard to physical, chemical and bacteriological properties.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00CHLORIDE CONTENT OF STREET CLEANING WASTE AND ITS POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>According to the data of the Central Statistical Office for 2017, the average amount of municipal waste generated per capita is 486 kg. Poland ranks last but one in terms of the amount of municipal waste generated. About 56% of municipal waste is processed, but still about 40% is landfilled. They may contain chlorides, especially those from the winter period, resulting from the use of deicing agents. Chlorides cause salinity of surface and ground waters and soil salinity, which in turn leads to deterioration of water purity and a decrease in biodiversity of aquatic organisms, changes in the microbiological structure and increased toxicity of metals. Chlorides also damage road surfaces and bridges, corrosion of plumbing pipes. Once the chlorine-containing sweepers are deposited in a landfill, this waste may contribute to an increase in chemical aggressiveness, which is important in the design of anti-filtration barriers, and in the rehabilitation of contaminated land and soil. The level of water and soil salinity has a significant impact on the critical infrastructure, especially in terms of water supply – the risk of corrosion of pipes and their decline in species biodiversity. An important role in the critical infrastructure is played by the storage of dustmuds – the risk of failure of security measures in storage yards. Therefore, it is very important to determine the salinity level in this stored waste. The salinity level of street sweeping waste from different street locations is not commonly studied. Therefore, such a study was conducted for a midsized city. The study shows that the highest chloride concentrations in street and sidewalk sweeping waste are found around manholes and the lowest concentrations are found on sidewalks.</p> <p>The aim of the research is to determine the amount of chlorides in sweepings in the annual cycle to determine the potential risk associated with their impact on selected aspects of the environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1