rss_2.0Architecture and Design FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Architecture and Design and Design Feed Role of Fine Art and Hand-drawing in Architectural Studies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper proposes to analyse survey data among students about the role of drawing in architectural studies. It compares the results obtained by researchers on the role of fine arts and freehand drawing compared to digital tools in representing drawing. Architecture students have expressed their support for studying freehand drawing and the subsequent use of this competence in their professional careers. The article also presents the views of international students, and the authors compare the experiences and recommendations of Latvian and international students and experts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Folk Games and Toys: Levels of Integration Into Modern Visual Culture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The study deals with the possibilities of integrating the folk experience of creating Ukrainian games and toys into modern visual culture. An ethno-cultural pattern that synthesizes the artistic image, national form, natural materials, and game principles of interaction into an integral structure based on the analysis of folklore materials and artistic folk products from the territory of Western Polissia in Ukraine has been formed. The result of the study is the classification of Ukrainian folk toys and games of the population of Western Polissia organized as a holistic multifaceted visual and communicative system of interaction between folk games and toys. It has been proved that integration of ethno-cultural patterns into modern visual culture is carried out on three levels: subject, environmental, and socio-cultural. The study presents the theoretical basis for designing a modern visual and communicative environment for life, learning and rest, which is able to attract a child to the deep traditions of national culture in a natural way.</p> <p>The outlined levels of integration are closely related with modern practices of eco-design, ethno-design, and art-therapy, which act as a strategic basis for the formation of modern visual culture and are aimed at the sustainable development of society.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Fourth Wall: Digital Performance and Spectatorship in (Post-)Pandemic Era<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Theatre can be interpreted as a place where various modes of participation in the community or patterns of citizen behaviour can be rehearsed. In pre-pandemic Lithuanian theatre (as well as theatres of other Baltic countries) various forms of audience engagement were conspicuously emerging, ranging from physical co-creation practices to interactive forms of entertainment. After the global lockdown of theatre institutions the emerging forms of “virtual theatre”, ranging from performance recordings to zoom theatre, redefined the role of theatre spectatorship, in particular the notions of “active”, “passive”, “collective”, “individual”, fundamental for the understanding of the role of publics. Analysing the abundant examples of “pandemic theatre” one starts to think about the return of the digital “fourth wall”, where audiences are becoming distant spectators. This poses important questions to theatre research: whether these forms of theatre are strengthening the feeling of passivity and isolation, serve as platforms for much-needed psychological escapism or offer a critical revaluation of the essential principles of theatre art.</p> <p>With the help of two case studies, this paper will define and analyse the prevailing practices of pandemic Lithuanian theatre and will outline whether and how the fundamental categories associated with the spectator’s experience of theatre have changed in the post-pandemic era.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Typologies Appeared by Modernism: Case Study of the Edirne Zeppelin Hangar<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>When modernism started to be seen in architectural spheres, it did not emerge just with an architectural language for design but also with new architectural typologies. Due to the main discourse of the Modern Movement with the famous quote of Louis Sullivan, “Form follows function”, new building types which were explicitly designed for their functions have appeared. However, over time, while some of these functional buildings kept their functions, some of them either lost their function entirely already, or the technology which created that function is in a downward trend. Zeppelin/airship hangars are amongst those buildings constructed for a specific function in the early 20th century which have lost that function in the present. Therefore, even though they might not reflect any tangible qualities, the function can operate as an intangible cultural reference. The object of this paper is one of those zeppelin hangars, which is located in Edirne, Turkey. The research attempts to categorise the architectural typologies that appeared by modernism, and apply a case study method to the Edirne Zeppelin Hangar to gain insight towards the problem, which is related to the consequences created by the language of the Modern Movement due to the emphasis of the function, and to discuss the possible adaptive reuse strategies regarding these artefacts which totally lost their functions. It is concluded that it is not possible to transform all the building stock that emerged in the built environment into museums, including the Edirne Zeppelin Hangar; however, inconsequential to the designated purposes, it is crucial to leave intangible references to the previous function in its design process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Landscape Photography of the 20 Century: Place Towards Space<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This article analyses Lithuanian landscape photography that reflects the cultural landscape of the 20th century, revealing not only the natural phenomena of the land, but also the historical development of the country, social memory and national identity. Landscape photographs are abundant with cultural codes implicated in visual structures of landscapes, which are read and distinguished with the help of the palimpsest model. An interdisciplinary methodological approach is applied to the understanding of the functioning of photography in the spatial and local planes and to the purposeful use of the concepts of <italic>place</italic> and <italic>space</italic>, combining the phenomenological insights of humanistic geography, the theory of spatial production of the sociologist Henri Lefebvre, and the art historical analysis of visual texts. This interdisciplinary study introduces the cultural layer that is characteristic of the 20th century landscape, provides a sense of historical time shifts, and clarifies the prevailing stylistic movements in photographic landscapes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue“Art and Objecthood,” Michael Fried and Jonathan Edwards<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Michael Fried’s 1967 essay “Art and Objecthood” is one of the most well-known and influential pieces of art criticism ever written, and continues to generate novel interpretations. Its overtly theological cast, however, has never been the subject of close study. This article focuses on Fried’s decision to use a lengthy quotation from Perry Miller’s biography of the theologian Jonathan Edwards as his epigram, and contends that Fried’s essay is informed in significant ways by Edwards’ notions of history and grace, and characterized by wordings that reveal an active engagement with Miller’s text. Certainly, the contexts in which Edwards and Fried worked were irreducibly different. Nevertheless, an examination of the ways in which Fried drew on Miller’s text and Edwards’ ideas demonstrates that he was productively influenced by both in composing “Art and Objecthood.”</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Development of Standard Designs of Primary School Buildings in Lithuania During the 1920s and 1930s<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This article analyses the development of standard designs of primary school buildings in Lithuania during the 1920s and 1930s. This process aimed to create simple and comfortable standard school buildings and provide them to the primary schools operating in the country. The article presents the development of standard designs that took place at that time, explaining the circumstances of their emergence, and comparing the main designs of such buildings developed at that time. To reveal this process as best as possible, the influence of the then Ministry of Education of Lithuania, local former Lithuanian county municipalities, and various architectural specialists in the standardisation of buildings for primary schools and the development of standard designs are presented and analysed. This aims to introduce the readers to the still little-known process that took place in the architecture of Lithuania during the 1920s and 1930s.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Art History During the 1950s as a Form of Social History of Art<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The Romanian Workers’ Party – the political party that led Romania from 1947 until 1965 – need for legitimisation led to the rewriting of history in a way that the history of Romania was presented as a linear progression finally leading to communism. In art history, art also became a linear phenomenon, progressively advancing towards Socialist Realism.</p> <p>The tactics of constructing the new narrative in art history during the 1950s and the beginning of the 1960s can be read as a form of the social history of art. Although the methodology could have led to remarkable results, ethical boundaries were violated: only some historical episodes and moments from artists’ biographies were selected.</p> <p>Within this context, this study investigates whether papers and monographs about Romanian painters active in the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century can be read as a form of social history of art.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Imperfect: Parallels Between the Contemporary Circus Artist’s Embodiment and the Westernized Wabi Sabi Concept<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Wabi Sabi is a Japanese concept that, despite lacking a universal definition, comprises three principles: nothing is perfect, nothing is finished and nothing lasts forever.<sup>1</sup> While in 2018, an adapted version of Wabi Sabi started to become trendier in the Western world<sup>2</sup>, this Westernized concept accidentally starts to have parallels with the way in which contemporary circus artists experience their embodiment. The research showed that contemporary circus artists are constantly trying to focus more on what a body can do and how it can do instead of body appearance, they are accepting that bodies are not perfect and share an understanding of the importance of embracing this imperfection. Moreover, contemporary circus artists are having in mind constant bodily changes and reflecting it correspondingly by developing positive relationships with their bodies. This article will be a sociological outlook of interconnections among the already existing beliefs in the contemporary circus field and the new trend of Westernized Wabi Sabi ideas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Code as an Object Graphic Design for Dissemination and Promotion of Brand<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The article reveals the features of the graphic language of coded information by identifying, systematizing, and combining QR-codes and AR-codes at the present stage of graphic design development. The analysis of coded information in different types of graphic design is presented: advertising, environmental, motion, print, packaging, set prop, web, mobile app, art, and illustration graphic design. The role of a graphic designer in the development of digital codes of various types for various fields of application is described. It is proved that the coded information is a trigger between the online and offline worlds. The article also reveals the importance of using coded information for the formation, development, and improvement of the brand.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue as System. The Structural Principles of Representation in Visual Culture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This paper constitutes a reflexive and theoretical approach to the study of iconographies from a cultural perspective. Its aim is to depict iconographies as the structural order which makes images representative of the social frameworks from which they stem. By analysing the stable principles which participate in the production of such representativity in any given iconography, and by considering the cultural agents which socially regulate them and make images culturally specific, it is possible to understand the cultural mechanisms by which the social construction of reality is projected onto images. Consequently, this approach favours a conceptualisation of iconographies as cultural systems through which the identity of social frameworks is conveyed thanks to the use of images.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Street Network Attributes of Vibrant Urban Settings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study examines two crucial interlinked physical planning and design aspects with potential impact on pedestrian flow in urban settings. Mixed land uses and gridded/interconnected streets are invariably characterised in the urban design literature as the essence of vibrant cities and lively street environments. The study develops a critical approach that investigates some of the most popular algorithms utilised in assessing mixed-use characteristics and their impact on pedestrian movement. “Entropy,” “LUM,” and “dissimilarity” indices are critically evaluated in terms of their reliability in predicting pedestrian travel patterns. The study also examines street network measurement indices and spatial analysis tools that enhance urban vitality and aid in the design and development of active street environments. It bridges the gap between disparate approaches aiming at understanding and prescribing the built environment attributes that enhance urban vitality. The theoretical quest of this study provides a robust foundation for future case study research on the built environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the causes of construction accidents as a component of building safety management<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Managing safety in construction aims to ensure that buildings are safe for occupants and meet applicable safety standards. These actions help to mitigate potential hazards and provide protection for the lives and well-being of people within the building. This article analyzes the causes of construction disasters in Poland during the years 2020-2021, comparing them with data from 2015-2019. The disasters are categorized into two groups based on their causes: those triggered by random factors and those resulting from human error. Catastrophes arising from random factors account for 70 to 83% of all construction disasters.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the surface overflows of a water dam<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article discusses technological solutions for the renovation (reprofiling) of the outer layer of surface overflows, taking into account the size and shape of the Porąbka Dam. The history of its creation, the legitimacy of construction and basic construction parameters are presented. The issues of damage and destruction of concrete in damming structures of this type, technological aspects of the permanent connection of old and new concrete, the essence of shotcrete technology (shotcrete) and the results of durability and strength tests of selected building materials were discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the optimal size of the basic element in a space grid structure<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article explores the matter of optimizing a metal structural covering with a focus on mini-mizing material usage. Through static and structural design of the metal structural covering, it conducts a comparative evaluation of various approaches to identify the most efficient dimen-sions for both the structural framework and the overall height of the metal structure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of heat exchange in office premises with radiant cooling<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Decarbonization of the engineering systems of buildings and structures is extremely important both for achieving zero emissions of greenhouse gases and for ensuring energy security of countries. One of the main consumers of energy in public buildings, in particular in office premises, are cooling systems, which maintain the temperature of the internal air in the premises during warm periods of the year. To achieve the goals of energy saving and high thermal comfort in the premises, it is advisable to use radiation cooling systems. Modeling methods are used to describe the behavior of radiation cooling systems and to assess the influence on them of various factors. In this article, modeling of thermal interactions in an office premises is performed using graph theory. As a result of mathematical modeling, heat balances for the heat capacities of the room were drawn up and systems of balanced equations were proposed. In addition, the article provides a graphic dependence of the area of the ceiling cooling panel on the temperature of the internal air and heat gain from solar radiation in the office premises.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue ceramic brick used in the energy and resource-saving technologies of the construction industry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article discusses the production and role of engobed bricks in the construction industry in view of the global trend towards resource and energy conservation. Standard methods for determining properties, as well as X-ray fluorescence, dilatometry, thermal and petrographic analyses, were used in the study. It has been established that for samples of ceramic bricks fired at 950-1000°C, the application of an engobic layer reduces the water absorption of the front surface from 14.5-1.2% to 6-2% and masks the undesirable colour. This makes it possible to use cheaper raw materials for brick production. The thermal conductivity of engobe bricks decreases from 0.48 to 0.43 W/(m·K), which opens up broad prospects for further development of energy-efficient coatings. An engobe was found to be optimal when produced with the following set of properties, wt.%: refractory clay – 65; quartz sand – 10; container glass – 25.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the effect of surface pre-treatment on selected properties of the glass-metal bonded joint<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to its properties, glass is a material that is increasingly used in technical practices including construction and architecture. Products that combine both glass and metal are often used in the construction industry. Nowadays, modern methods of joining these materials are being sought, which include gluing. Bonding is a multi-step process that is affected by both internal and external factors. The resulting quality of the joint, which can be evaluated by destructive and non-destructive tests, is important for the application of a glued joint that is exposed to external stress. The presented article deals with the analysis of the effect of pre-treatment on selected properties of the bonded glass-metal pair using selected methods of destructive testing.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue rate effect on the mechanical properties of thermoplastic polyolefin<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Modern industries, including those in construction, increasingly uses various types of polymer materials, which should be characterized by good mechanical properties. In this work, the effect of strain rate (10, 20, and 50 mm/min) on the tensile and properties of three polymers (high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinylchloride (PVC)) was studied. A twin-screw extruder was used for the preparation of samples. In order to study the influence of strain rate, tensile strength was used. Mechanical property results show that the tensile properties, tensile strength, and elastic modulus increased with the increase in the strain rate, while elongation at the break point decreased.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of heat exchange in the energy-efficient exterior wall of a passive house<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research thoroughly examines the unique characteristics of heat exchange in the energy-efficient external wall of a passive house. With a growing emphasis on sustainability and energy-efficient construction, passive houses have gained significant attention. The external wall, specifically in the form of a Trombe wall, plays a crucial role in maintaining thermal comfort while minimizing energy consumption. This article explores the intricacies of heat exchange in the Trombe Wall, considering factors such as solar radiation influence and modeling strategies. Through physical modeling and analytical investigations, the study delves into how these factors impact heat exchange and overall energy efficiency. The conclusions drawn provide valuable insights to architects, engineers, and construction professionals engaged in designing and implementing energy-efficient building envelopes. Understanding the nuances of heat exchange within the context of passive houses is vital for achieving optimal thermal efficiency and enhancing sustainable development in modern construction practices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue