rss_2.0Chemistry FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Chemistry Feed of ABH secretor status: a cross-sectional study in Lagos, Southwestern Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The mucosa contains soluble antigens of the ABO blood group system. Secretor status as a trait has been linked to a variety of clinical diseases and is determined by the individual’s fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) allele. The distribution of secretor status in relation to ABO blood group phenotypes varies from region to region, with medicolegal significance. There is a dearth of information on the secretor status of the studied population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the secretor status of the ABH in a Nigerian population. To achieve this, fresh saliva samples (~5 ml) were collected from 325 (181 males and 144 females) apparently healthy individuals in the urban city of Lagos. Secretor status was determined by haemagglutination inhibition test with the saliva samples of participants. Results showed that 85% of the participants were secretors and 15% were non-secretors with no statistically significant differences (p&gt;0.05) between male and female gender. The frequencies of the Secretor, Se and Non-secretor, se genes were 0.543 and 0.457, respectively while the frequencies of the SeSe, Sese, and sese genotypes were 0.294, 0.496, and 0.209, respectively. The participants’ ABO blood group distributions were 65.5% group O, 16.6% group A, 15.1% group B, and 2.8% group AB. The incidence of secretors across blood group was 89% in group O, 85% in A, 79% in B and 67% in AB. However, there were no statistically significant variations in secretor status and ABO blood group (p&gt;0.05). In conclusion, the study shows that there are more secretors than non-secretors, and the ability to secrete the ABH antigens are independent of ABO blood of individuals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue bieneusi Infection in Livestock from selected farms in Lagos, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Microsporidia</italic> are enteric intracellular pathogens infecting animals and humans. It causes life-threatening diarrhoea in humans. <italic>Microsporidia</italic> species have been isolated from several domestic and wild animals, however, data on <italic>microsporidia</italic> infection in animals in Nigeria is still very scanty. This study was conducted to clarify and improve our knowledge of the possibility of the zoonotic origin of <italic>Enterocytozoon</italic> species in the environment. Two hundred and fifty (250) animal faecal samples from various farm animals were examined for their frequency of <italic>microsporidia</italic> spores using Weber’s chromotrope stain and Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT). <italic>Enterocytozoon bienuesi</italic> were detected in 6 (24.0%) turkeys, 2 (8.0 %) goats, 3(12.0 %) cattle, and 4(16.0%) rams. No reactivity was detected with other species of <italic>microsporidia</italic> by IFAT. This study confirms the presence of <italic>E. bienuesi</italic> in the animals examined and shows that animals can be a significant source of zoonotic transmission in the environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of proximate compositions and heavy metal concentrations of L. and (L.) Juss. harvested on some poultry dumpsites in Badagry, Lagos State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Poultry waste as enhancement for crop development has become a norm for nutrients’ source but their pollution potentials is a source for concern. Thus, this study aimed at assessing proximate compositions and heavy metal accumulation in organs of <italic>Amaranthus spinosus</italic> and <italic>Talinum fruticosum</italic> handpicked from three poultry faecal sites in Badagry, Lagos State. Leaves and roots of <italic>A. spinosus</italic> and <italic>T. fruticosum</italic> as well as soil samples were collected from Yafin, Agric and Badagry dumpsites in Badagry Local Government and these were subjected to proximate and heavy metal analyses using standard analytical procedures. Data obtained were analyzed using mean-standard deviation. Proximate analyses of <italic>A. spinosus</italic> and <italic>T. fruticosum</italic> from three faecal sites contained appreciable Moisture, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, ash, and fat contents. Also, heavy metal analyses of the vegetables from the three faecal sites ranged as follows: Cd: 0.01-0.05mg/100g in leaves; 0.04-0.12mg/100g in roots, Co: 0.04-0.05 in leaves; 0.04-0.12mg/100g in roots, Cr: 0.58-0.84mg/100g in leaves; 0.91-1.01mg/100g in roots, Cu: 0.27-70.51mg/100g in leaves; 0.50-58.55mg/100g in roots for <italic>A. spinosus</italic>; Cd: 0.04-0.07mg/100g in leaves; 0.06-0.12mg/100g in roots, Co: 0.02-0.06mg/100g in leaves; 0.08-0.34mg/100g in roots, Cr: 0.05-0.12mg/100g in leaves; 0.04-0.23mg/100g in roots, Cu: 61.55-121.81mg/100g in leaves; 48.45-147.45mg/100g in roots for <italic>T. fruticosum</italic> and Cd: 3.53-9.05mg/100g, Co: 0.14-0.69mg/100g, Cr:0.14-4.22mg/100g: and Cu: 2.59-8.11mg/100g in soils for all three dumpsites sampled. However, all metals analysed were below WHO limits for vegetable and soils except cobalt, copper and chromium. Thus, locals should be advised against consumption of vegetables from dumpsites since toxic substances often accumulates in the environment and maybe hazardous to man’s health.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue DNA methylation data for diagnostic classification of Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in Dogs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a common B-lymphocyte tumor in dogs, making up 60-70% of cases. We assessed the utility of DNA methylation data for the diagnostic classification of DLBCL in dogs. We also assessed the utility of the classification features identified in cDLBCL for diagnostic classification of DLBCL in humans. The GSE94913 cDLBCL DNA methylation dataset from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) was used for analysis. Differential methylation analysis was performed between the 37 cDLBCL and seven control lymph node samples in the dataset. 1701 differentially methylated probes were identified between the cDLBCL and control lymph nodes groups. Applying recursive feature elimination on the 1701 significant probes, 20 probes were selected for machine learning classification tasks. The methylation values of these 20 probes were used to build an SVM model and create the training and testing set. 100% of the test samples were accurately classified by the SVM model. The diagnostic classification utility of the identified differentially methylated CpGs/CDS was also assessed in humans using the GSE28094 human DLBCL dataset. 95% of 98 DLBCL and leukocyte samples obtained from this dataset was correctly classified using clustering techniques on 11 CpG sites of 5 genes (<italic>ERBB4</italic>, <italic>IGF2</italic>, <italic>PGF</italic>, <italic>PITX2</italic>, <italic>TJP1</italic>). The utility of DNA methylation data for the diagnostic classification of DLBCL in dogs is demonstrated. Further exploration of this data type for potential biomarker discovery in cDLBCL is necessary.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Emissions Dispersion Modelling, Principles and Algorithms; Cross-Border CZ-PL Course for Master’s Students<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Regular mathematical modelling of the dispersion of emissions from large sources is required by law in all EU countries. It is also used in risk analysis to predict releases of toxic substances from various technologies, from volcanic activity and possibly also terrorist acts. However, there is a shortage of experts in this very specific and demanding profession in the labour market in most EU countries. In a collaboration between academicians from neighbouring University of Hradec Králové and University of Opole and experts from important ecological companies of both regions we designed and verified as a part of a four-year pedagogical project supported by the EU a comprehensive education system in mathematical modelling of emission dispersion with exchange field trips and internships of students during cross-border Polish-Czech university education. The paper consists of two separate parts. The first part is focused on implementation of innovative lesson “Principles, algorithms, and differences of environmental dispersion emissions models”, used on both sides of Polish-Czech border region. An example of the use of the educational package of the Gaussian plume model with PC Templates, who was modified in cooperation between teachers from both cross-border universities and experts from professional companies is presented here too. Our four-year experience with student motivational field trips to professional companies in both border regions and exchange one-month professional internships for interested students to two Czech professional companies, where students learn to work with to the Gaussian plume model and one Polish professional company, where students are introduced to the Gaussian puff model is also discussed. The following separate second part will be focused on the innovative lesson of multivariate statistical methods of environmental data analysis, which are required for processing materials for modern mathematical modelling of the dispersion of emissions in practice. The target users of this two-part innovative courses are students of the MSc degree in Physical Measurement and Modelling at the University of Hradec Králové and students of the MSc degree in environmental studies at the University of Opole. However, it is also open to other Czech and foreign students and professionals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Safety - The State of Art at Schools in Czechia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Chemistry experiments have been an issue of vivid discussion for more than fifty years now. Though there are many who hold a stand-offish position, there is a general notion chemistry experiments inherently belong to chemistry instruction. In this study, attention was given first to the frequency that Czech teachers at both lower and upper-secondary schools use experiments, demonstrations, laboratory work etc. A random, generalisable sample of 354 teachers filled in a questionnaire. The results showed experiments are used only seldom at lower-secondary schools and lyceums, more frequently at grammar schools, yet just “at least once a month”. Safety showed as one of the barriers. The teachers expressed general knowledge about a norm which covers the topic, however in their further responses they expressed a lack of awareness of the compounds their students are allowed to work with. These findings are a call for measures such as: developing a database of well-described procedures including safety regulation remarks or a simplified, easy to follow list of up-to-date regulations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Reactions of Aniline Derivatives with Formic Acid: Inquiry-Based Learning Experiments<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The synthesis of amides belongs to traditional experimental tasks not only in organic chemistry exercises at universities but also at chemically focused secondary schools or in special practices at general high schools. An example of such a synthesis may be the preparation of acetanilide <italic>via</italic> reaction of aniline with acetic acid or acetic anhydride. However, both of these reactions are associated with a rather long reaction time and certain hazards that limit their straightforward use in pedagogical practice. Conveniently, the reaction of aniline with acetic acid may be significantly optimised if it is performed under solvent-free conditions in the presence of microwaves, which reduces considerably the reaction time and provides very good yield, compared to traditional heating by a heating nest. In this study, the main pedagogical aim of the experimental design is elucidation of the influence of the structure of the amines on the course of the reaction with formic acid through inquiry-based learning. Specifically, the proposed experiments consist in investigation of the chemical yield achieved in microwave assisted reactions of aniline and its derivatives with formic acid in such a way that is adequate for constructive learning of undergraduate chemistry students. The selected series of amines involves aniline, 4-methoxyaniline, 4-chloroaniline, and 4-nitroaniline. In accordance with the chemical reactivity principles, students gradually realise that the influence of the substituent is reflected in the reaction yield, which grows in the following order: N-(4-nitrophenyl)formamide ˂ N-(4-chlorophenyl)formamide ˂ N-phenylformamide ˂ N-(4-methoxyphenyl)formamide. Therefore, the results of the experiments enable students to discover that stronger basicity of the amine increases the yield of the amide. In order to deepen the students’ chemical knowledge and skills, the concept of the experiments was transformed to support inquiry-based student learning. The proposed experiments are intended for experimental learning in universities educating future chemistry teachers, but they may be also utilised in the form of workshops for students at secondary schools of a general educational nature.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Personal Care Products in the Environment with Emphasis on Horizontal Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance Genes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) discharged into environment has several adverse impacts. PPCPs are widely utilised for veterinary as well as cosmetic and personal health reasons. These are members of the expanding class of substances known as Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs). Antibiotic resistance in the environment and garbage generated by PPCP endanger life. The World Health Organisation (WHO) now recognises antibiotic resistance as a significant global health problem due to the expected increase in mortality caused by it. In the past ten years, mounting data has led experts to believe that the environment has a significant impact on the development of resistance. For human diseases, the external environment serves as a source of resistance genes. It also serves as a major pathway for the spread of resistant bacteria among various habitats and human populations. Large-scale DNA sequencing methods are employed in this thesis to better comprehend the dangers posed by environmental antibiotic resistance. The quantification of the number is an important step in this process. Metagenomic measurement of the number of antibiotic resistance genes in various contexts is a crucial step in this process. However, it’s also crucial to put this data into a broader context by integrating things like taxonomic information, antibiotic concentrations, and the genomic locations of found resistance genes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue,3-Dihydro-Quinazolin-4(1H)-One as a Fluorescent Sensor for Hg Ion and its Docking Studies in Cancer Treatment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The 2,3-dihydro-quinazolin-4(1H)-one was synthesised via the deployment of SBA-Pr-SO<sub>3</sub>H and its application was explored as a highly selective fluorescent sensor for Hg<sup>2+</sup> ion; fluorescence intensity was decreased selectively by Hg<sup>2+</sup> ions. Furthermore, this compound also indicated for its superb anti-interference ability among other ions. It is important to mention that this compound could be employed to detect a very low amount of Hg<sup>2+</sup> ions, which are highly toxic and general contaminants. The docking study shows that the molecule, 2,3-dihydro-quinazolin-4(1H)-one, is a good inhibitor for the 5ACC enzyme.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Curiosities Cabinet And The Chemical Showcase<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>With the drastic reduction of the school chemistry teaching program in England in 1986, large quantities of apparatus and chemicals became redundant. The disused apparatus at Highgate School inspired the construction of a chemical showcase for pupils; this has encouraged pupils to develop a passion for chemistry. The idea of a “miniature museum” came from a visit to a local primary school in London, which had a beautiful science curiosities cabinet in one of its rooms. In both schools, sciences thrive, and are popular among pupils. Undoubtedly a display of assorted artefacts, which can be readily accessed by pupils, makes a significant impact on developing their interest in science. It is hoped that the story of these ventures will inspire teachers to make their own versions of these excellent and easily constructed educational facilities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Biological Monitoring as a Source of Information on Environmental Pollution with Heavy Metals<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The influence of environmental pollution on living organisms has been known for a long time, but it was not until the second half of the twentieth century that methodical studies on the influence of anthropopressure on changes in ecosystems began. Living organisms began to be used as biological indicators of environmental pollution. Cyclical and quantitative studies of pollutant concentrations in bioaccumulators have become the basis of modern biological monitoring (biomonitoring) of environmental pollution. Biomonitoring studies are carried out with the passive method (passive biomonitoring), in which living organisms occurring in their natural environment are analysed, and with active methods (active biomonitoring), in which, for example, plants living in the environment with low pollution are transferred and displayed in more polluted ecosystems e.g. heavy metals. The analysis of trace elements, including heavy metals accumulated in algae, mosses and lichens used in biological monitoring provides a lot of information on, among others concentration and origin of pollutants and the directions of their spread. Biomonitoring is used to assess the level of contamination of selected ecosystems, as well as the impact of individual emitters on the environment. An important element in determining the concentrations of trace elements in biological material used in biomonitoring is the proper planning of the experiment, taking into account, among others: methods of collecting or exposing samples, selection of analytical methods and methods of evaluation and interpretation of results. The aim of the presented long-term research, conducted by the Research Team of the Institute of Biology of the University of Opole, was to show that analytical techniques using biota samples can provide reliable data on the past, present and future state of the environment. However, it should be remembered that in order for the results of biomonitoring studies to be reliable and comparable, the applied research methodologies should be consistent and repeatable. In the presented research, <italic>Palmaria palmata</italic> and <italic>Spirogyra</italic> sp. algae, <italic>Pleurozium schreberi</italic> mosses, <italic>Hypogymnia physodes</italic> and bark of deciduous trees were used. In samples of biological material by the method of atomic absorption spectrometry, the concentrations of heavy metals, including Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, were determined. On the basis of the conducted research, it was unequivocally stated that the biomonitoring methods are a good complement to the classic methods of environmental quality assessment. The analysis of the elements accumulated in the biological material provides us with information about the quality of the examined ecosystems, the introduced pollutants and their potential sources. This information allows for the introduction of effective measures to improve the quality of the environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Energy and Sustainable Digitalisation: Challenges for Europe<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The key to a successful strategy for Europe is sustainable innovation. The current political, economic and military crisis should be used to accelerate the shift to sustainable innovations in order to exit the path dependency of fossil energies. Such as diversity of portfolios at stock markets, diversity of energy and digital technologies ensures resilient behaviour in an innovation portfolio to respond flexibly to the risks of the future and to recover overall in the event of selective setbacks. Sustainable technologies must not be based on a single solution, but rather the entire technological potential must be bundled in an innovation portfolio. A case study is presented in which energy-efficient digitalisation is linked to a sustainable circular economy. A democratic legal system is not only an expression of the human rights highlighted in the UN Charter, but also provides a certain and reliable legal framework for innovations and markets on which technological and economic competition takes place.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue 9th Annual International Seminar on Trends in Science and Science Education (AISTSSE) 2022<DIV align=justify><P>This is the ninth time we are hosting this seminar and we are proud to inform you that this seminar is an annual event in our calendar and has been held every year since 2014. This year, for the third year, we are holding it via Zoom meeting (online meeting) due to Covid-19 pandemic. We are inviting internationally recognized speakers from several countries to share their latest discoveries in the fields of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Science Education. Well-known researchers in science and science education will share their experiences and knowledge so that we can stay up-to-date with the latest information. This is one of the goals of this seminar. As science researchers, we realize the importance of information exchange among us. </P> <P>The new information enlightens our minds and gives us ideas on what to do next in our research and how to do it. This new information often becomes the foundation for our next project in particular and sets the research trends for the upcoming year in general. Information exchange also keeps us updated, allowing us to give and receive suggestions and critiques that will lead to better results. Therefore, we need a forum where we can share and exchange information. Seminars, conferences, and other scientific gatherings are the media through which we can do this. </P><STRONG></STRONG> <P><STRONG>Organizer</STRONG> </P> <P>Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences of Universitas Negeri Medan </P><STRONG></STRONG> <P><STRONG>Where</STRONG> </P> <P>Web Seminar via Zoom Meeting </P><STRONG></STRONG> <P><STRONG>When</STRONG> </P> <P>Tuesday, 8th November 2022 </P><STRONG></STRONG> <P>Theme </P> <P>The development of industrial-based research in science and science education to improve research innovation strategy </P><STRONG></STRONG> <P>Topics: </P> <P>AISTSSE-2020 included following topics: </P> <P>1. Mathematics Science </P> <P>2. Mathematics Education </P> <P>3. Physics Science </P> <P>4. Physics Education </P> <P>5. Biology Science </P> <P>6. Biology Education </P> <P>7. Chemistry Science </P> <P>8. Chemistry Education </P> <P>9. Computer Science </P> <P>10.Science Education </P><STRONG></STRONG> <P><STRONG>Scientific Committee</STRONG> </P> <P>1. Prof. Dr. Syawal Gultom, M.Pd, Universitas Negeri Medan (Indonesia) </P> <P>2. Prof. Dr. Marleen Kamperman,  University of Groningen (Netherland) </P> <P>3. Prof. Manihar Situmorang, M.Sc., Ph.D , Universitas Negeri Medan (Indonesia) </P> <P>4. Prof. Tsunenori Mine,  School of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kyushu University (Japan) </P> <P>5. Prof. Dian Armanto, M.Pd, Universitas Negeri Medan (Indonesia) </P> <P>6. Prof. Dr. Herbert Sipahutar, M.Sc  , Universitas Negeri Medan (Indonesia) </P> <P>7. Prof. Abedel Karrem Nasser M Alomari Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Yarmouk University (Jordan) </P> <P>8. Prof. Dr. Bornok Sinaga, M.Pd , Universitas Negeri Medan (Indonesia) </P> <P>9. Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sattar Rasul Universitas Kebangsaan Malaysia, (Malaysia) </P> <P>10. Prof. Motlan, M.Sc., Ph.D , Universitas Negeri Medan (Indonesia) </P> <P>11. Prof. Dr. Asmin, M.Pd  , Universitas Negeri Medan (Indonesia) </P> <P>12. Prof. Dr. Fauziyah Harahap, M.Si, Universitas Negeri Medan (Indonesia) </P> <P>13. Prof. Dr. Mukhtar, M.Pd , Universitas Negeri Medan (Indonesia) </P> <P>14. Prof. Dr. Pargaulan Siagian, M.Pd , Universitas Negeri Medan (Indonesia) </P> <P>15. Prof. Dr. Sahat Saragih, M.Pd , Universitas Negeri Medan (Indonesia) </P> <P>16. Prof. Dr. Edi Syahputra, M.Pd , Universitas Negeri Medan (Indonesia) </P> <P>17. Prof. Dr. Hasratuddin, M.Pd , Universitas Negeri Medan (Indonesia) </P> <P>18. Prof. Dr. Ramlan Silaban, M.Si, Universitas Negeri Medan (Indonesia) </P> <P>19. Prof. Dr. Retno Dwi Suyanti, M.Si , Universitas Negeri Medan (Indonesia) </P> <P>20. Prof. Dr. Nurdin Bukit, M.Si , Universitas Negeri Medan (Indonesia) </P> <P>21. Prof. Dr. Sahyar, M.S , Universitas Negeri Medan (Indonesia) </P> <P>22. Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Binari Manurung, M.Si , Universitas Negeri Medan (Indonesia) </P> <P>23. Prof. Dr. Makmur Sirait, M.Si , Universitas Negeri Medan (Indonesia) </P> <P>24. Prof. Dr. Eva Marlina Ginting, M.Si , Universitas Negeri Medan (Indonesia) </P> <P>25. Prof. Dr. Drs. Tri Harsono, M.Si, Universitas Negeri Medan (Indonesia) </P> <P>26. Prof. Dr. Martina Restuati, M.Si, Universitas Negeri Medan (Indonesia) </P> <P>27. Prof. Drs. Zul Amry, M.Si., Ph.D, Universitas Negeri Medan (Indonesia) </P><STRONG></STRONG> <P>Supported by: FORUM MIPA LPTK INDONESIA </P> <P></P> <P><STRONG><EM>The conference does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges</EM></STRONG> </P> <P><STRONG>Open Access Statement</STRONG> </P> <P>This conference proceedings is an Open Access proceedings that allows a free unlimited access to all its contents without any restrictions upon publication to all users. </P> <P><STRONG>Open Access License</STRONG> </P> <P>This conference proceedings provides immediate open access to its content under the <A href="">Creative Commons BY 4.0</A>. Authors who publish with these proceedings retain all copyrights and agree to the terms of the above-mentioned <A href="">Creative Commons BY 4.0</A> license. </P>BOOKtrue of 1-Triacontanol treatment of sweet corn ( L. convar. ) aimed at the improvement of salt tolerance based on a pot experiment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In our research, the salt stress of two sweet corn hybrids (Tyson and Sweetstar) was induced by irrigation with saline water in a pot experiment. We studied the possibility of the decrease of the negative effects of salt stress by applying <italic>1-Triacontanol</italic> (TRIA) in various (3, 6, and 9 μM) doses. Plant height, raw biomass, root biomass, parameters characterizing the photosynthetic activity (SPAD, NDVI, chlorophyll content), and proline content were determined in order to quantify the effect of the TRIA treatment on salt tolerance. We concluded that triacontanol treatments had a positive effect on the studied parameters of both hybrids.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the most important red wine grape varieties of the Miniş (Ménes) wine region based on their quantitative and qualitative parameters<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Winemaking has a very old history, which goes back thousands of years in the past. Numerous countries and geographical regions are known and acknowledged for their winemaking history. In Romania, there are countless winemaking regions that produce high-quality red and white wines. In the present experiment, we measured the quantitative and qualitative parameters of two red wines manufactured from worldwide-known varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) and two red wines produced from traditional grape varieties (Cadarcă/Kadarka and Fetească Neagră/Fekete Leányka). The data were collected in three different years to see if the traditional varieties could compete with the worldwide-known varieties. In terms of wine quality parameters, looking at total acidity, the Cabernet Sauvignon in 2018 while in terms of alcohol content the Fetească Neagră/Fekete Leányka in 2017 showed the highest values. From the sensory examination, it could be concluded that Fetească Neagră/Fekete Leányka yielded the best results in 2017, in 2018 the Cadarcă/Kadarka, and in 2019 the Merlot variety.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue blue and Congo red removal by activated carbons: A current literature<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Dye is a major source of water pollution. This mini-review highlights the origin of dye, its removal strategies, and the recent literature of methylene blue and Congo red adsorption by activated carbons. Adsorption is a unique process that relies upon the physicochemical properties of the activated carbon and the inherent characteristics of dye. Also, factors affecting adsorption, such as contact time, temperature, and concentration, were discussed to gain insight into dye removal mechanisms.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue media, water stress and re-watering effects on the growth and dry matter production of cocoa seedlings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cocoa (<italic>Theobroma cacao</italic>) seedlings are very sensitive to water stress during the nursery stage and early field establishment. Sawdust, carbonated rice husk, and compost in the following ratios (i) 60: 40: 0 – M1, (ii) 60: 30: 10 – M2, (iii) 60: 20: 20 – M3, (iv) 60: 10: 30 – M4, (v) 60: 0: 40 – M5, and (vi) topsoil – M6 as control were used to investigate the effect of growing media, water stress, and re-watering on the growth, dry matter production, and partitioning of cocoa seedlings. Each combination was subjected to water stress 6 weeks after sowing for a period of 4 weeks, after which they were rewatered. Plant height, stem girth, leaf number and area, and seedling biomass were significantly higher in soilless potting media as compared to topsoil. M4 and M5 significantly recorded the highest total dry weight, plant height, stem girth, leaf number, leaf area, and root volume before imposition of water stress. Following imposition of water stress, cocoa seedlings grown in M4 and M5 showed a recovery that was superior to the other growing media, indicating that higher proportions of compost together with sawdust and carbonated rice husk provide an alternative for growing cocoa seedlings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue’ use of sustainable production practices for yellow pepper crop in the Nsukka agricultural zone, Enugu State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigated farmers’ use of sustainable production practices for yellow pepper crop in the Nsukka agricultural zone, Enugu State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used in selecting 135 farmers and interview schedule using structured questionnaires was employed for data collection. Data generated were analysed with SPSS software using frequency and percentage, mean scores, standard deviation, factor analysis, and logistic regression. Findings revealed that the majority (91.1%) of the yellow pepper farmers had moderate knowledge on sustainable production practices and that some of the practices used were mass selection (97.0%), use of poultry manure (95.60%), use of improved varieties of yellow pepper (94.0%), crop rotation practices (91.10%), and minimum use of agrochemicals (78.50). Among the factors considered to be potential determinants of farmers’ use of sustainable production practices, only sex was statistically significant, at 5% level. Also, findings indicated that technical, institutional, and economic constraints affected farmers’ use of sustainable production practices. Furthermore, results indicated that sustainable production practices could be enhanced through the use of improved seeds (85.5%), access to credit facilities (77.8%), access to extension services (71.8%), and training of farmers (68.9%). The study therefore recommends that government and private sectors should provide services that will facilitate the development of sustainable production practices of Nsukka yellow pepper crop, as this will have a long-term effect on productivity and the production environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of genetic variation among maize inbred lines for salinity stress at seedling stage through salt-stress-responsive traits<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Saline conditions affect plant development and significantly reduce its yield. Maize (<italic>Zea mays</italic>) is the one of main cash crops in Pakistan, and unfavourable saline conditions are among the core reasons for its reduced productivity, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. The identification of potential genotypes is essential for genetic modifications. By considering this situation, the current experiment was conducted to evaluate the inbred maize lines under different salinity levels. We evaluated ten maize inbred maize lines at seedling stage under three salinity levels (0 mM, 75 mM, and 125 mM NaCl). The highly significant (p ≤ 0.001) differences in inbred lines, salinity levels, and in their interaction were revealed by analysis of variance results for most of the traits. The results indicated that inbred lines D-135 and NCIL-20-4 performed better under saline conditions. Our results showed that salinity severely affects seedling growth. Accordingly, a significant decline was observed in root length, shoot length, root weight, and shoot weight, and these traits offered the maximum values for heritability and genetic advance. From the correlation and path coefficient analysis, it has been concluded that root length, shoot length, fresh root weight, and root density are the traits that can be beneficial for the identification of better germplasms under saline conditions and that are helpful for improving tolerance against saline conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the expected impact of climate change on the reproductive success of roe deer and wild boar<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We have identified weather factors that may influence the reproductive characteristics of roe deer and wild boar, and thus the harvest rates in the future. By exploring the weather and other factors affecting reproductive success, considering the likely scenarios of climate change, we hope to predict future changes in reproductive capacity and, in the light of these, estimate the necessary changes in harvest rates to maintain reasonable numbers of animals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue