rss_2.0Classical and Ancient Near Eastern Studies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Classical and Ancient Near Eastern Studieshttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/CLhttps://www.sciendo.comClassical and Ancient Near Eastern Studies Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/Classical_Ancient_Near_Eastern_Studies.jpg700700Une « Triple Enceinte » Et L’inscription Funéraire De À Milanhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bgs-2022-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The funerary slab of <italic>Agate</italic>, daughter of an Ostrogoth <italic>comes</italic>, dated to 512 AD, shows a hitherto unnoticed <italic>tabula lusoria</italic> or symbolic representation in the blank space below the inscription. The pattern, used for the game of Nine men’s morris, is accurately incised, and not hastily scratched, in a central and visible position. Interesting questions arise: is the pattern a game board? Is it precedent, coeval or posterior to the funerary inscription? How could the presence of the design be explained in such a context? Could the Nine men’s morris pattern have had a symbolic overtone, or is it just connected to a secondary utilization of the slab? These questions will be evaluated mainly through the reconstruction of the conservation history of the slab.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Roman Game Finds from Cremona (Italy)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bgs-2022-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Finds pertaining to board games have been discovered during excavations in the northern Italian town of Cremona. Some objects were found in the recently published Piazza Marconi dig, in contexts belonging to three <italic>domus</italic> dated between the late Republic and the early Empire (40 BC - 69 AD). Thirteen black and white glass counters and two ivory dice were found in the remains of a wooden chest of drawers or cabinet in a probable service room of the “<italic>Domus</italic> del ninfeo”. A bone “Alexandrian” counter incised with a bird in flight and, on the reverse, the Roman numeral II and the Greek number B (<italic>beta</italic>) was found in the destruction levels following the drastic siege of Cremona by Vespasian troops during the civil war of 69 AD. Finally, a bone token in the form of an elongated parallelepiped (so-called <italic>tessera lusoria</italic>) with the word FICOSE inscribed on one side and the Roman numeral XIV on the other was found in the construction trench of an early Imperial house discovered during excavations underneath the Cathedral of Cremona. The paper will discuss in detail the finds, their contexts and their meanings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Games and Oracular Practices Around the Hearth: The “Table of Offerings” from the so-called Temple 4 at Kition- (Cyprus)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bgs-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the sanctuary of Kition-<italic>Kathari</italic> (Cyprus), a building with benches, identified as a temple (“Temple 4”), is characterized in its centre by a hearth pit next to a trapezoidal stone construction, constituting “Altar E”. The platform’s surface comprises a series of little cup-holes. Once labelled “table of offerings”, it has recently been interpreted as a gaming table. Besides clay gaming stones, this area has yielded knucklebones as well as several deposits of incised scapulae linked with divination practices. This Cypriot context gives us the opportunity to explore and also to put in light the influences and interactions between different regions of the Eastern Mediterranean at the turn of the 1st millennium BC.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Plato Plays Polishttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bgs-2022-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>At <italic>Republic</italic> 422e1-423a2, while discussing Callipolis and its ability to wage war, Socrates makes a punning reference to the ancient boardgame <italic>polis</italic>. In this contest, two opponents deployed sets of identical <italic>pessoi</italic> (counters) to surround and capture the enemy’s forces. Socrates’ allusion is not simply amusing; it is well-suited to the dialogue’s philosophical content and historical context. With regard to philosophy, Callipolis’ guardians resemble the <italic>pessoi</italic>. Their training makes them equal and interchangeable, while their personal interests are subordinated to those of the group to discourage dissent (<italic>stasis</italic>) and promote unity. Elsewhere in the Platonic corpus, learning to play <italic>polis</italic> is mentioned as part of a philosophical education. In the hands of a skilled practitioner like Socrates, dialectic is like playing <italic>polis</italic>. With regard to history, the <italic>Republic</italic>’s main interlocutors (Socrates, Adeimantus, Glaucon) were soldiers known for their bravery. Moreover, its readers remembered the rule of the Thirty Tyrants and its aftermath. Indeed, the dialogue’s arguments about the just city and regime change are framed by an allusion to the movements of Thrasybulus and Critias and their respective troops around the game board of Attica. At Athens, <italic>polis</italic> was played for high stakes, namely the polis itself.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00A Boeotian Die in Context: Gaming Pieces, Jewellery, Seals, Spindle Whorls and Bird Bowls in a Female Burial of Statushttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bgs-2022-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present paper presents a die in its archaeological context, which is a rich grave in the region of Boeotia. It attempts to understand with what other items this gaming piece coexisted and why, as well as who was the person who played with it during lifetime. The Boeotian die is a solid cube made of clay that presents a peculiarity in its numbering system, for the face normally bearing six dots features twenty-five instead. The date of the die in the Archaic period and the sex of the deceased can be established from its associated grave-group which comprises 48 Boeotian (mostly bird bowls) and Late Corinthian vases, minor objects, such as spindle whorls, and gaming pieces from raw natural materials (such as pebbles, shells, a terracotta animal in secondary use, etc), as well as jewellery such as rings, bracelets, necklaces, brooches, pins, spiraled tubes, seals and rosettes attached on a -now lost- head cover. The age of the dead is estimated as young from osteological analysis, which situates our die and its gaming assemblage in the cultural context of the “<italic>mors immatura</italic>” in Archaic Greece. Dice among other gaming pieces are known from antiquity, yet undisturbed (and sexed) contexts of the Archaic period are rare. In the 6th century BC dice occur in sanctuaries; none is known from Boeotia, hence the significance of publishing one here in its assorted grave-group.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Back to the Game: Reframing Play and Games in Context An Introductionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bgs-2022-0001ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Pavement Designs and Game Boards from Public Spaces of Ancient Athens: A Review Across the Boardhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bgs-2022-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper aims to offer significant new additions to the record of pavements designs known from archaeological contexts in the ancient Mediterranean, giving an overview of the patterns carved on marble steeps and floors in public spaces of ancient Athens. Given the problematic interpretation of carved outlines in ancient public spaces, the contribution focuses on features and locations of these patterns in the attempt to provide identification of actual game boards, contextualize them and propose their plausible chronological setting. The need to more fully understand the social and cultural dimension of play in ancient societies is now crucial to archaeological research; this paper is also offered as a contribution to approaching that understanding.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Amulets, Gaming Pieces, Toys or Offerings? Thoughts on Animal Figurines and Funerary Practices in the Late Bronze Age Aegeanhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bgs-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The assemblage of four cones (ivory, stone) and an astragalus marked with dots from Katsambas in Crete is so far the best evidence of gaming pieces uncovered in an Aegean tomb of the Late Bronze Age. A small faience animal associated with the same burial, that of a child, attracted however little attention, and raises the question whether it may be added as a possible game piece to this set. Although this holed piece was certainly used as a personal ornament or amulet, this paper gives the opportunity to review the functions of small faience, stone and ivory animal figurines in the Aegean, especially the couchant ones. It also introduces the notion of chance and fate linked to playing on the basis of cross-cultural comparisons in the Eastern Mediterranean. Additionally, the hypothesis that small standing terracotta quadrupeds may have initially served as toys before having functioned as votive or funerary offerings in Aegean cult places and tombs is further explored. Special interest is shown on Mycenaean funerary assemblages from Prosymna in the Argolid and Perati in Attica featuring small terracotta animals and cone shells, inasmuch as these objects may be seen as potential toys and gaming pieces.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Game Board or Abacus? Greek Counter Culture Revisitedhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bgs-2022-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A late 5th century BC funerary altar from the necropolis of Krannon (Central Greece) depicts a bearded man and a boy on either side of a board with five lines carved on a block. The fact that the man is seated and the horizontal position of the board reveal important information about Greek education and the history of Greek numeracy. This paper analyses the iconography of the relief, the link between the <italic>Five Lines</italic> game (<italic>Pente grammai</italic>) and abaci, examines the possible identification of the man as a “pebble arithmetician”, of the boy as a student, and suggests a new reconstruction of the reckoning system operated on an abacus composed of five horizontal lines. A special practical function is proposed for the half-circle at one end of the abacus. This five lines pattern and the related material, especially counters, are considered from a wider perspective, a system of cultural practices associated with boards and counters throughout the Greek world.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Catacomb Games: Reused Game Boards or Funerary Inscriptions?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bgs-2022-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Several marble slabs fashioned like game boards for <italic>XII scripta/Alea</italic> come from Christian catacombs in Rome. Often deliberately cut or fragmented, they were used as funeral slabs. The general opinion is that these game boards have found a secondary use in the funeral context. The present paper presents a critical discussion of this interpretation. The slabs differ in several details from real game boards. Moreover, the inscriptions often betray a distinctive funeral character. Game boards for this game consist of three rows of two groups of six squares, their structure thus being identical to the poetic form of a hexagram. It appears that in Late Antiquity, the hexagram was particularly popular as a formula for funerary inscriptions. Moreover, the symbolic meaning of the <italic>XII scripta/Alea</italic> game favoured its use in sepulchral contexts. It seems therefore that at least a certain number, if not most of these “game” boards, were produced as funeral slabs and never used before as game boards in the home of the living.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00A Playful ? A New Look at the Terracotta Group of the Early Roman Board-Game Players NAM 4200 and Related Findshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bgs-2022-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper aims to offer a new look on the published early Roman terracotta group of the National Archaeological Museum inv. no. 4200, which is comprised of a male and female couple of board-game players in the company of a dwarf, by reanalysing its figures, board-game type and presenting some of its hitherto unknown details in the form of impressed images made by the coroplast on the back of the two player figures. These impressed images, if intentional, meaningful and not random, together with parallel finds, are examined in the light of information they can offer regarding the board-game type represented in the terracotta group, the possible winner of the game or gaming attitudes related to the gestures of the figures. An overview of relevant Roman and earlier literary sources and comparisons with related finds are included. Instances of ceramic, terracotta, metal or other finds with -random or intentional- impressed signs and symbols made in coroplastic or pottery workshops, as well as examples of post-manufacture graffiti by a possible user are presented and investigated, leading to possible interpretations of ludic concepts represented by the figural synthesis of the terracotta group NAM 4200.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00The Knucklebone and the Goose: Playing and Jeopardy for the Boy of Lilaiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bgs-2022-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A particularly beautiful marble statue of a boy, a dedication unearthed in Lilaia, Phokis, and on display in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens, is an opportunity for us to explore the connection between the boys’ games and the jeopardy in their outcome. Both the expression on the boy’s face and the way he holds an astragal and a goose demand multiple levels of reading. These are related to the intent of the dedication in the first place, the identification of the games requiring an astragal or involving a goose, as well as to the choice of these specific playthings for the particular imagery. Why is he holding a single astragal, and in such a particular way? Why is the goose included in the picture, and what species of <italic>Anatidae</italic> is this? The apparent originality of the motif and of the work, in comparison with other well-known Hellenistic representations in stone or terracotta, dictated our research into the milieu of artistic and symbolic quests of that period, and also a reflection on the choice of the artist to designate a child as the owner of the playthings within a particular spatial and temporal context, perhaps associated with healing frοm a life-threatening fever.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00 An Extraordinary Cone Shell Group from Mycenae and the Problem of Identifying Mycenaean Board Gaming Materialhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bgs-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In 1974 in Room Θ3 of House Θ in the Southwest Quarter of the Mycenae citadel, an extraordinary find came to light: 545 <italic>conus mediterraneus ventricosus</italic> shells were found together with 12 small objects in a crevice of the bedrock. 353 cones were intentionally pierced and ground, and 9 of them were filled with lead. This assemblage includes the largest collection of cone shells known from the Late Bronze Age Aegean, and it is now possible to attempt an interpretation of its use, after the publication of the Southwest Quarter excavation. The find is examined in detail, in comparison to other large cone shell groups from Mycenaean contexts. The facts suggest that the Θ3 assemblage artefacts could have been markers for a kind of game, for which games of strategy, skill and chance known in the Eastern Mediterranean, are suggested as possible candidates. Under this hypothesis, context finds from the Room Θ3 deposit are also examined. This study highlights the difficulty in identifying the material remains of board games, as well as the need to include the game – being a basic human activity- in the potential interpretations of archaeological records from the Mycenaean period.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Board Games in Ancient Fiction: Egypt, Iran, Greecehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bgs-2022-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Board games are often used as a plot motif in modern genre fiction, especially in detective and adventure stories. In these types of narrative, a well-known pattern of storytelling or literary structure (e.g., the treasure hunt, the detection of serial crimes, the iniatory course, or the medieval tale collection) is reworked and adapted to the rules and phases of a board game such as chess, <italic>jeu de l’oie</italic>, or the tarot card pack. This literary practice is very ancient and may be traced back to a number of novelistic compositions of the ancient Near East, dating from the 1st millennium BC to late antiquity. In the Demotic Egyptian <italic>Tale of Setne Khaemwaset</italic>, from the Saite period, the protagonist Setne plays a board game (probably <italic>senet</italic>) with the mummy of a long dead and buried magician, in order to gain a powerful book of spells. The widespread Near-Eastern story-pattern of the magical competition is here superimposed on the procedure of a celebrated Egyptian game. In a late Hellenistic Greek novella inspired by the <italic>Odyssey</italic> (Apion of Alexandria, <italic>FGrH</italic> 616 F36) Penelope’s suitors play an elaborate game of marbles (<italic>petteia</italic>) in order to determine which one of them will marry the queen. This is a playful rewriting of the famous bow contest of the Homeric epic. A Sasanian novelistic work, the <italic>Wizārišn ī čatrang</italic>, adapts the age-old legend of the riddle contest of kings; the riddles are replaced with board games (chess and backgammon), which the opponents invent and propose to each other as difficult puzzles for solution. In all these texts the board game becomes a central symbol of the transformative and innovative power of literary narrative.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Rolling Dice for Divination, Gambling and Homeromanteiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bgs-2022-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Everyday tools such as dice and knucklebones are associated with gambling and divinatory books founded upon the use of Homeric epics. Papyrological documents about this practice date back to Roman Imperial times. Verses drawn from <italic>Iliad</italic> and <italic>Odyssey</italic> were currently assigned to a divinely inspired wisdom. The preface to <italic>Homeromanteia</italic> shows a link with religious and divinatory ideas current at that time (hilastic invocations, hemeromancy, cledonism).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Board Games Equipment from Archaeological Contexts in Archaic Atticahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bgs-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper addresses the question of the presence of gaming equipment (painted gaming tables and dice) in Attic tombs of the 7th and 6th century BC. It is argued that this type of funerary goods, whether functional at once, or not, have acquired a specific social and ideological meaning related to the notion of leisure, specifically destined to the upper classes. They first appear in the early 7th century, when such equipment must have been a rarity in mainland Greece, and their use was revived during the first third of the 6th century BC, a period of polarization between the aristocracy and the rest of the Athenian population.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00 Diplomacy. What About Romania in the Last Minutes of and the First of People’s Republic of Bulgaria (1945-1947) Foreign Affairshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amsh-2021-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Romanian-Bulgarian relations were assigned the role of satellites belonging first to the Axis, and then to U.S.S.R., following the regulation of the territorial statute of South Dobrudja on September 7<sup>th</sup> 1940, through the Treaty from Craiova. After the Red Army has entered Bulgaria, on September 8<sup>th</sup> 1944, an unusual fact has intervened between Bucharest and Sofia, from the perspective of Kremlin’s influence, of course: the priority of Bulgarian political, ideological and diplomatic factors over the Romanian ones, unprecedented fact in the history of almost seven decades of the modern bilateral relations. The lack of human and ideological resources of the Romanian Communist Party has become obvious during the not even declared competition with the Bulgarian Communists and their leader, Georgi Dimitrov. The Communist Bulgaria has become a model that Romanian communists do not only seriously took into account, yet, at least the year King Mihai I has abdicated (1947), they zestfully were also studying and copying, as the case may have been.</p> <p>Being a so-called People’s Republic even since September 1946, following a falsified popular referendum, Bulgaria has undertaken during the next months to coordinate plans of internal and external politics of Romania. In order to finalize a “Bulgarian way” in Romania, the government led by Petru Groza and the media of propaganda, and mainly the press official of the Romanian Communist Party, “Scânteia”, have scrupulously assumed the role of protagonists. And Communist Bulgaria, just like U.S.S.R., has become for more than two years (1946- February 1948) an extremely important and valuable topic of the Romanian public speech, of the Romanian Communists’ confirmation, of establishing the project for instituting the totalitarian regime. The similarity of actions and of institutes’ organization is striking for this short period, and the treaty signed in January 1948 is nothing but the final of a stage extremely abundant in models and suggestions for the Romanian communists.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00 vol. VII/1, vol. VII/2, Dumitru Suciu (coord.), Simion Retegan Loránd Mádly, Mirela Popa-Andrei, Daniela Deteșan, București, Editura Academiei Române, 2015, 505 p.; 2019, LXXXI +473 p.https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amsh-2021-0013ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00, vol. editat de Leslie Brubaker și Mary B. Cunningham, New York, Routledge, 2016, 307 p.https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amsh-2021-0011ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Students and Teachers of the State University of Chișinău, 1946-1987: Mentalities, Daily Life and Ideologyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amsh-2021-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article takes a longue durée perspective on the history of the State University in Chișinău. More exactly, it sheds new light on the relations between students and the teaching staff at the first Moldavian Bessarabian university created by the Soviet regime in the aftermath of World War II. Based on new archival documents, it revolves around three main subtopics. The one focused on mentalities, the second one on everyday life, and the third one on ideology. The article tackles sensitives issues such as amoral or illegal actions by both students and professors, including corruption affairs and sexual scandals, how the Communist regime dealt with them and how these phenomena are connected to the ultimate goal, and failure, of the Soviet higher education, in creating the New (Wo)Man.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1