rss_2.0Cultural Studies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Cultural Studieshttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/CShttps://www.sciendo.comCultural Studies Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/Cultural_Studies.jpg700700L’Allemagne dans l’Irlande de Hugo Hamilton, ou la mise en film sur le papier d’une maternellehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sck-2022-0036<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In his memoirs <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_sck-2022-0036_ref_017"><italic>The Speckled People</italic> (2003)</xref>, Irish author Hugo Hamilton recreates his German mother's past during the Third Reich as if it were a “black and white film” (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_sck-2022-0036_ref_017">Hamilton 2003</xref>). The multilingual child, who can be considered a specific figure of enunciation on account of the acuity of his metalinguistic awareness (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_sck-2022-0036_ref_008">Cazden 1974</xref>, <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_sck-2022-0036_ref_001">Anokhina 2015</xref>), is recreated from afar by the adult author. This article aims to contribute to academic readings of Hamilton (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_sck-2022-0036_ref_023">Ní Éigeartaigh 2010</xref>, <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_sck-2022-0036_ref_010">Depner 2014</xref>) by arguing that the originality of the self-narrative deployed around an autobiographical topos (the telling of the maternal inheritance) relies on a novel intermediality. Within the book space, Hamilton puts into film both the personal history of his mother, whose family fought against Nazism, and the history of Germany, perceived from a distance in a double linguistic and diasporic otherness. The images of Germany emerging from this hybrid medium are inserted throughout the autobiographical narrative. They may leave a stronger impression on the reader than the main body of these otherwise rather typically Irish memoirs.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Reconsidering Resistance: Ainu Cultural Revival as Protesthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/vjeas-2022-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article aims to explore how different Ainu groups have resisted continual control and assimilation by the Japanese government in the late twentieth century. First, it provides a brief analysis of early resistance strategies of ethnic groups to colonial power, contrasting it with contemporary methods of protest in the post-war era. This is to show the different modes of resistance and to analyse why and how they changed over time. The article highlights the period between the 1970s and 1990s, during which violent resistance committed by Japanese progressive activists in the name of Ainu liberation was gradually succeeded by peaceful protest enacted by Ainu themselves, resulting in a movement using artwork in pursuing their political goals. The article argues that this latter kind of resistance represents the core of Ainu activism. I will analyse cultural resistance efforts such as literary publications, commemorative monuments, and educational programmes since the 1970s. Special attention will be given to three children’s books produced by prominent Ainu activist Kayano Shigeru to discuss how the author’s cultural activism during this period shaped Ainu methods of contesting authority through cultural pride and maintenance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00: The Representation of the Japanese Police in Japanese Factual Televisionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/vjeas-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper is about the representation of the Japanese police in three factual television series. In all three series, the audience accompanies police officers during their work and thus gets a close look at the daily work of the Japanese police. However, even if the series try to convey a feeling of authenticity, staging strategies which aim at the entertainment and education of the audience can be clearly identified. I therefore place them in the intermediate area between the genres of reality TV and documentaries. The research method adopted in this study is Werner Faulstich’s qualitative movie analysis, based on his book Grundkurs Filmanalyse (2013), in combination with a descriptive quantitative approach. In the analysis I ask what kinds of messages about the Japanese police are created in the three series under examination. The major findings can be summarised as follows: the comprehensive image created about the Japanese police is positive. The police force is legitimised above all by its professionalism and success in providing assistance to people in need by arresting criminals and proving their guilt, but also by its monopoly position as the sole competent crisis solver.<sup>1</sup> This kind of representation does not come as a surprise as such; the paper, however, will show how this overall positive image is created by specific filmic techniques.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Book Review: , Tallinn: 2021, ISBN 978-9916-4-0728-8, 688 pp.https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsmr-2022-0013ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Letter from Ukrainehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsmr-2022-0002ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Witnessing in Participatory Journalism: Siege of Aleppo and Narratives of Authenticityhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsmr-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article explores witnessing within and as participatory journalism (participatory witnessing) based on a case study of narratives of the Aleppo siege created by amateur content producers, professional journalists and commenting audiences. To analyse the nuances and challenges of participatory witnessing as a practice and a field, I examine the narratives of all parties (tweeters in Aleppo, news outlets and people commenting below the news articles) as well as their visual and textual strategies for gaining “trust” by claiming authenticity. While news outlets were largely sympathetic to tweeters and amplified their messages, the commenting audience distanced themselves from the suffering and refused to bear witness by responding with four narratives: “tweeters are fake,” “tweeters are terrorists,” “the media is lying” and “collateral damage.” Many elements from the “post-truth” narrative repertoire were utilised to create distance from the scene of suffering. Therefore, empowering vulnerable parties to participate “in journalism” (inviting the audiences to “bear witness”) does not necessarily lead to participation “through journalism” (audiences “bearing witness” in response to these calls).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00When is a Poet an Instapoet?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsmr-2022-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Through professional social media accounts, poets can become actors in the ecosystem of Social Media Entertainment (SME). In this article, using an ecological perspective, the accounts of five poets are treated as exhibits of processes they take part in, both platform-specific practices related to content creation in the SME, and practices showing the interlocking and overlapping of the SME with other ecosystems of cultural production. By doing this, the article aims to show how platformization as a socio-technological process is shaping the practice of being a poet. The article identifies the platform-specific practices the poets partake in that make it possible to say when they are being instapoets on Instagram. For the concept of “instapoet” to be fruitful when referring to poets, it is not enough for them to merely be on social media. A poet is an instapoet when they take on the platform-specific tasks of a social media creator, which is more than just producing content. Often, poets are not only instapoets. Rather, how much of an instapoet you are depends on how platform-dependent you are.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00A Medium Is Born: Participatory Media and the Rise of Clubhouse in Russia and Ukraine During the Covid-19 Pandemichttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsmr-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Clubhouse is a social network allowing only real-time oral communication. While its 2020 worldwide launch went largely unnoticed in Eastern Europe, it took countries such as Ukraine and Russia by storm in February 2021. Users were enticed by the platform’s exclusivity (invitation only and limited to IOS users), unusual format, and compatibility with post-covid social life. For some time, Clubhouse was the dominant theme of discussions on other social media, mainstream news media organizations started launching daily talk shows in the app, and early adopters engaged in a plethora of participatory activities ranging from propagandist broadcasts to 24/7 rooms where bots would recite Russian classical poetry, from fervently seeking ways to monetise their participation to creating the somewhat unexpected genre of audial fakes.</p> <p>In this article we intend to analyse the turbulent arrival of the new app in Russia and Ukraine from the perspectives of media ecology and media archaeology. Focusing on the app’s mediality and remediation, the social media discourse about it and particular content in some of the notable rooms, we highlight the conjunction of social environment, the already existing and novel technological affordances, as well as users’ perceptions and expectations in the emergence of a new niche in the ecology of participatory media. Based on this, we will also try to outline some possible scenarios for the new platform in Eastern Europe’s dense mediascapes. We argue that the prompt rise of Clubhouse’s popularity was not thanks to its special authenticity, as some suggest, but rather because of the normalization of group long-distance conversations (e.g., via Zoom), coupled with the intentional monomedia poverty of affordances and clearly delimited boundary between the roles of broadcasters and listeners, which was perceived as liberating in a produsage-saturated environment. This actually limits the participatory media potential of content creators and influencers, increasing their power and reviving monological models of communication that suggest a passive audience.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Where We Go One, We Go All: QAnon, Networked Individualism, and the Dark Side of Participatory (Fan) Culturehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsmr-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Participation in online spaces has afforded new fan cultures (Baym, Burnett 2009; Jenkins 2018) and enabled new communities of networked individuals (Rainie, Wellman 2012; Burgess, Jones 2020). Online participation also generates participatory cultures, which allow audiences unprecedented opportunity to connect with each other and with the media they share. However, it has also generated some decidedly anti-social and anti-democratic movements, such as QAnon (Amarasingam, Argentino 2020). In this commentary, we argue that QAnon can be thought of as a participatory fan culture gone awry. Using QAnon’s entry into mainstream culture in 2020 as a case study, we explore the darker implications of online participatory culture, including misinformation, conspiratorial- thinking, and an undermining of shared realities. Lastly, we propose that these issues are made more explicit and difficult to attend to in a media sphere characterized by dominant neo-liberal corporate control of participatory media, and digital dualism.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Covid-19 Pandemic Coping Strategies in a Complex Landscape of Crisis Communication: A Participatory Study with Disability Organisations in Swedenhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsmr-2022-0010ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Rethinking Participatory Culture: Introductionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsmr-2022-0001ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Laugh in Case of Emergency: Framing the Pandemic Through Memes in Italy and Russiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsmr-2022-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>During the COVID-19 pandemic, meme culture prospered. New topics, styles and problems emerged from meme-sharing, resulting in a specific genre – quarantine memes. Although some of the possible causes could be linked to the lockdown boredom and consequent increase in screen-time among internet users; we argue that the other cause has to be sought in the complex role memes had (and still have) as instruments of symbolic framing.</p> <p>As De Rycker (2018) put forth, a crisis is a human activity carried out knowingly and intentionally. Understanding the COVID-19 pandemic as a crisis, we aim to analyse quarantine memes as a participatory practice of ‘doing crisis’ – in particular, by framing its meanings and making sense of changes in everyday life.</p> <p>Quarantine memes exist in the context of uncertainty, risks and fears about people’s health, restrictions of freedom, stress and changes in daily routines. The creation of memes that emerged from this context frames the pandemic and the virus in a variety of ways, not only suggesting different points of view but also establishing norms, encouraging (dis)belief and satirically or creatively commenting on new COVID-related practices.</p> <p>Using a combination of digital ethnography and content analysis, we observed the meme-related participatory practices of quarantine memes on the most popular webpages in two countries: Russia (VKontakte) and Italy (Facebook). Temporally covering the first wave and the subsequent pandemic containment measures (February-October 2020), we distinguished a set of framing strategies that are suggested via memes by online audiences: alienation, avoidance, awareness-raising, critique, domestication, subversion, escapism and acknowledgement of emotions. Comparing and contrasting the topics and symbolic strategies that emerged in those countries, we showed that symbolic framing via memes is not a straightforward phenomenon, but a long-nuanced process in which different perceptions of the virus overlapped each other and changed through time.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Reuse and Appropriation: Remediating Digital Museum Collections and Digital Tools for a Participatory Culture in Transitionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsmr-2022-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Museums have always used different media to communicate, widen perspectives and bring new knowledge, but in the era of digital media, their various offerings are increasingly part of the media ecosystem. Our research interventions explored the possibility of reusing existing digitised material in a participatory setting. The aim was to explore the object-centred audience participatory method in digital settings. We held a series of digital and in-person workshops that invited the participants to “imagine” narratives about the provenance of the museum’s objects and journeys to Sweden in a playful and creative exploration. We could observe how the virtual workshop setting supported focused discussions, and allowed zooming, drawing and remixing of digital photographs to facilitate conversation. The workshop participants on-site worked with the museum objects on display to remediate them through photos, drawings, clay modelling, and writing down thoughts and questions about the objects on discussion postcards. The participants’ contributions were included in the virtual collection database (Carlotta), under the same collection as the other museum objects, making the remediation process circular. We argue that object-centred methods enable audience participation in digital media ecosystems both in museums and with other media makers.</p> <p>The audience’s expectations and experiences from using other media bring them to the digital museum platforms with a willingness to explore, remix and integrate.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Imparting Knowledge via Entertaining YouTube Formats. An Explorative Study of Young Media Users in Germanyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsmr-2022-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The participatory use of moving images on the Internet, e.g. on YouTube (Fuchs 2014; McMullan 2020), is one of the major trends in recent media history. YouTube is the undisputed leader of the distribution channels and in the top range of social media, although TikTok is becoming increasingly popular (MPFS 2020a, 2020b). In addition to explicitly entertainment-oriented music, comedy and how-to videos, young people use videos that impart knowledge or deal with political topics. It has already been proven that knowledge can be conveyed via YouTube and users are motivated by interest-based learning. There are also numerous offerings that are primarily geared towards entertainment, but nonetheless motivate users in a casual, rather emotional and sometimes unintentional manner to further explore certain topics. This article offers a specific example of the effects this process can have on young people watching YouTube Videos that seem primarily focused on entertainment. The presented study is based on data collected in 2019 and explains which participatory strategies for imparting knowledge via entertaining YouTube formats can be effective. The findings of this study are of fundamental importance, especially considering the COVID-19 pandemic. Remote interaction, communication, and learning have resulted in a more solitary media usage that raised new questions regarding participatory culture and learning. Can entertainment formats be part of blended learning and thus contribute to imparting knowledge despite school closures, a lack of social exchange opportunities and increased media use (in the sense of media as a window to the world for locked-down people)?</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00The Mortgaged Miracle Social Stratification in Contemporary Estonian Cinemahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsmr-2022-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>According to recent OECD statistics, Estonia is the European Union country with the highest income inequalities. Among all the ex-Warsaw bloc states, the Baltic country also has the highest household debt. Despite these dire socio-economic indicators, Estonia’s path to economic development, the adaptation of the purest forms of neoliberalism to be found in Europe, is often hailed among economists. Former prime minister Mart Laar, one of the key architects of what was dubbed by some the <italic>Estonian Economic Miracle</italic>, admitted that his guideline for the post-Soviet economic reform (and the only book he read on economics) was Milton Friedman’s <italic>Free to Choose</italic>.</p> <p>How does inequality, social exclusion and growing social stratification manifest itself in Estonian contemporary cinema? The debut films of three directors, Vallo Toomla, Mihkel Ulk and Toomas Hussar, which all have a contemporary setting, address the neoliberal transformation process to various degrees. All three debut films are genre films: <italic>Mushrooming</italic> (Hussar, 2012) is a comedy, <italic>Zero Point</italic> (Ulk, 2014) a high-school drama and <italic>The Pretenders</italic> (Toomla, 2016) a thriller. None of the films directly addresses the social stratification of Estonian society. The films engage the subject with a low level of politicization, yet each of the films is a chronotope of the engagement of the film medium with society. Especially the question of individual responsibility to society, accountability for social exclusion and possible alternatives to neoliberalism are either addressed in an apprehensive way or, through their absence, deemed irrelevant. How did Friedman’s claim that economic freedom equals political freedom, that the market is the only effective tool and that self-interest is the only acceptable driving force in society affect the Estonian cinemascape? This article argues that the chronotope of contemporary cinema in the small Baltic country is an outopia, a no-place, in which alternatives to the status quo have no more reference points. The outopian outlook on society is manifested either by an absence in the belief of the integrity of politics and media (<italic>Mushrooming</italic>), by an implicit acceptance of social exclusion (<italic>Zero Point</italic>) or by the acknowledgement that faking material wealth is the only tool for maintaining social relationships (<italic>The Pretenders</italic>).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Participatory Cultures of Digital Games: The Double-Edged Sword of Being a Reddit Community Moderatorhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsmr-2022-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Volunteer community moderators are at the centre of a multitude of conflicting views in the media and society, while being continually exposed to inappropriate content and risking their mental wellbeing. On Reddit.com, their specific interest in a topic drives them to volunteer for moderation responsibilities to nurture the participa-tory community; however, this puts them in the uncertain position of being neither a member of the community nor a representative of the social media platform tied to the community. By adopting Nico Carpentier’s concept of participation as a site of political–ideological negotiation, this article explores the precarious conditions and expectations of community moderators around digital games after the 2020 COVID-19 struggles, with more people turning to social media, which increases demand for platform moderation. The study is based on semi-structured interviews with community moderators associated with online media communities (subreddits) of different games on the social media platform Reddit. It draws two conclusions: Firstly, the field of subreddit moderation involves multiple actors, such as content creators, content generators, moderators, and game studios. Here, moderators hold an assumed absolute power in two processes of decision-making: (1) ensure that content abides by the sitewide rules and subreddit specific rules; and (2) promote content that is sensitive to the subreddit’s cultural context. In decision-making moments, the tools that are afforded to moderators from the Reddit platform put moderators at a disadvantage, as they are forced to implement their decisions using negative reinforcement as opposed to achieving change in the subreddit through positive reinforcement. Secondly, community moderators exist within a participatory process of checks and balances, making any moderation actions a double-edged sword where any intervention by moderators can result in backlash or disagreement from content creators and content generators, and material advantages largely determine actors’ involvement in these participatory processes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:006. Design – Synthesis Phenomenon: Art, Science and Technologyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/rae-2022-0026<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the nineteenth century, the century of electricity and railways, radio and cinema, in the process of vertiginous technical progress, within the industrial civilization, appears a new phenomenon of creative, artistic and scientific activity – design. It gave birth to a “way of industrial thinking”, oriented towards creating useful and functional objects, but at the same time able to delight the eye with their beauty without recurring to ornament and decoration effects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:005. Implicit Theories of Intelligence and School Performance. A Systematic Reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/rae-2022-0033<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this paper was to shed a light upon the relationships between implicit theories of intelligence and school performance through a systematic review approach, which mainly used empirical studies on the connections between these constructs. In the first section of this review, we synthesized the necessary theoretical marks for understanding the concepts mentioned above, we analysed definitions, as well as models of implicit theories of intelligence, referring to the relevance for the educational field. Then, there is also an analysis on empirical studies in the international literature that addresses the central concepts of the paper in an educational context and a systematic review of the relationships between implicit theories of intelligence and school performance. The last section contains the final conclusions, the limits of this systematic review and future research directions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:002. Persistence and the Becoming of the Pictorial Portraithttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/rae-2022-0022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The seductive power of the Pictorial Portrait determined that, in the context of certain cultural eras, the portraits were made according to attitudes and expressions that would cover the aspects of philosophical, theological, aesthetic, or political ideals. Once it regains its place in the modern art of the 20<sup>th</sup> century, the Pictorial Portrait becomes an opportunity to explore unlimited expressive and conceptual dimensions. Artists realize that when there is an exceptional talent and it is educated on all intellectual and spiritual levels of the human being, the perspective on art acquires unprecedented dimensions in the history of the arts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:006. Challenges of Covid-19 Pandemics, on-line Teaching within Vocational Higher Education for Hearing-Impaired Studentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/rae-2022-0034<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Given the occurrence of the Covid-19 pandemics, the art teaching process within the higher education system had to incorporate the on-line experienc, with the help of dedicated software platforms. This paper proposes a solution for making remote teaching more effective for hearing-impaired students, so that they may have access to the oral explanations of the teaching staff, given the circumstances of the lack of linguistic IT support for the Romanian language in the dedicated software for PCs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1