rss_2.0Business and Economics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Business and Economics and Economics Feed the Demand for Indonesia’s Foreign Reserves<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The foreign reserves sufficiency is important to maintain macroeconomic stability. The main objective of this paper is to model the behaviour of the central bank in accumulating the foreign reserves in the case of Indonesia. Unlike the previous empirical studies, this paper disaggregates the components of foreign reserves into foreign currency, securities, gold, and special drawing rights. This paper relies on the Almost Ideal Demand System combined with the Error Correction Model. The estimation result for monthly data over the period 2010(1)-2020(12) reveals that the own-price coefficients are negative and statistically significant which is consistent with the standard theory of demand. While the foreign currency-securities pairwise is substitutive, the foreign currency-gold and the foreign currency-special drawing rights pairwise are complementary or even independent. However, the wealth effect is inelastic except for securities reserves. These results imply that the central bank of Indonesia can re-balance its reserves. The securities holding which have the highest proportion of foreign reserve scan be switched to foreign currency, gold, and/or special drawing rights. The rebalancing measures would remain having an optimal level of foreign reserves holding in terms of its opportunity cost. Therefore, the monetary authority can conduct a further macroeconomic stabilisation without substantially losing the returns.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Leadership and Employees’ Creativity: The Mediating Role of Organizational Pride<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of the current study is to examine the mediating role of organizational pride on the relationship between ethical leadership and employees’ creativity. Using a convenience sample of (130) managers, heads of the department, and their employees from private hospitals in Jordan, the data were gathered by questionnaire. The current study adopted a quantitative approach. Furthermore, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the study hypotheses. The current study reveals that ethical leadership has a significant and positive impact on employees' creativity. On the other side, the results of the study showed that ethical leadership has a significant and positive impact on organizational pride. Additionally, the current study also showed that organizational pride has a significant and positive impact on employees' creativity. Finally, it has been found that there is a mediation impact on the relationship between ethical leadership and employees' creativity. These findings may help the leader to focus heavily on organizational pride to foster the relationship between ethical leadership and employees’ creativity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Renaissance in Education: Unveiling the Transformative Potential of Digitization in Educational Institutions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper examines the ongoing trend of digitization within educational institutions, analyzing the potential opportunities that lie ahead. As educational landscapes evolve, embracing digitization offers institutions a pathway to unlock a myriad of prospects. This research explores the current state of digitization in educational settings, highlighting the opportunities that arise from the integration of digital technologies. The driving forces behind significant changes in higher education include escalating operating costs, the emergence of micro and nano degrees, the surge in online learning, the influx of digitally-native students, and the overarching wave of digital transformation. Students are increasingly leveraging digital technologies to showcase a diverse array of tools, integrating structured learning environments into the fabric of higher education teaching. This research provides a comprehensive overview of digital transformation in higher education, evaluating the potential of digitalization and forecasting its prospects in the near future. Key concepts such as digital transformation, virtual reality (VR) technology, artificial intelligence (AI), and Technology, Entertainment, Design (TED) courses are examined as practical and indispensable elements shaping the future of education. Through a meticulous analysis, it becomes evident that digitalization marks only the initial phase in a broader process wherein institutions harness new technologies not merely to replicate old tasks but to redefine educational paradigms. Furthermore, the paper emphasizes that digital transformation necessitates the infusion of new management practices capable of harnessing the full potential of information and communication technologies (ICT). The journey towards the digital transformation of educational institutions involves a profound shift in mindset, encompassing innovative approaches to teaching, learning, and administration. As institutions embrace this transformative journey, they position themselves to create enhanced value for students and forge dynamic collaborations with partners in the evolving landscape of higher education.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Styles and Academic Performance Among Students<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this study is to identify whether students’ academic performance is influenced by their learning style. The research addressed students in the field of educational sciences. To collect research data, a questionnaire was applied to a number of 143 students aged between 19 and 56 years. The research data were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal Wallis Test. The statistical results indicate significant differences between students with auditory, visual and practical learning styles depending on the academic performance and the year of study. Our results can be used in the teaching-learning process by the teacher.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Healthcare Cybersecurity Risk Management Complexity<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>It is important to fully comprehend the critical role of the healthcare and public health sector in safeguarding the economy from various threats, including terrorism, infectious diseases, and natural disasters. The private ownership of many healthcare assets underscores the need for enhanced collaboration and information sharing between the public and private sectors. The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the digitalization of this sector, leading to a heightened risk of cyber threats. The increasing reliance on emerging technologies such as blockchain, the metaverse, and virtual reality is further exacerbating the cybersecurity landscape, with the projected cost of cybercrime exceeding $10 trillion in 2023 and an anticipated surge to nearly $24 trillion in the next four years. Human error remains the primary cause of cybersecurity incidents, accounting for 95% of reported cases, with insider threats contributing significantly. Despite increased cyber training and risk mitigation efforts, vulnerabilities continue to be rapidly exploited. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of cybersecurity risks in the healthcare sector, drawing on existing literature and theoretical frameworks to highlight the complex challenges in this evolving landscape.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Using Artificial Intelligence in EU and UN Peacekeeping Activities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main purpose of writing this article was to show how disruptive technologies, including artificial intelligence and machine learning, can be used in military operations. We also covered how the UN and other international organisations have begun to regulate this rapidly exploding field from a policy perspective. We presented some of the technologies that use AI and made suggestions for their general military application and how these technologies can be used in peacetime operations. Artificial intelligence and intelligent devices can also bring enormous benefits in the areas of command and control systems, reconnaissance and intelligence activities. We also presented issues and dilemmas related to developments in this direction, such as ethical, liability, security and information protection problems and dilemmas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Role of Civilian Cybersecurity Companies in Military Cyber Operations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Russia-Ukraine war has clearly shown that critical infrastructures are prime targets for cyber operations in addition to the physical domain. In practice, in many cases, these critical infrastructures are protected by civilian cybersecurity companies in the context of a managed security service, so their defense operations must necessarily be coordinated with military defense activities. This includes among others the sharing of information classified under different classification systems (national, EU, NATO) between different actors in national cyber defense, the inclusion of appropriate civilian experts in the armed forces, and the usage of cutting-edge cybersecurity technologies (e.g. AI-enabled solutions) that are first introduced for civilian use, with military organizations only having access to them later or possibly not encountering them at all due to procurement difficulties. The main goal of this paper is to introduce the existing opportunities and obstacles to civilians’ involvement in military cyber operations in the areas of legislation, technology, and human resources from the European perspective. Moreover, the paper deals with the actual questions of cybersecurity intelligence sharing between civilian and military entities and the European Union’s actions in order to improve the overall cybersecurity posture of the region.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Utilizing Advanced Pattern Recognition in Language Models for Software Vulnerability Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Enhancing software quality and security hinges on the effective identification of vulnerabilities in source code. This paper presents a novel approach that combines pattern recognition training with cloze-style examination techniques in a semi-supervised learning framework. Our methodology involves training a language model using the SARD and Devign datasets, which contain numerous examples of vulnerable code. During training, specific code sections are deliberately obscured, challenging the model to predict the hidden tokens. Through rigorous empirical testing, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in accurately identifying code vulnerabilities. Our results highlight the significant advantages of employing pattern recognition training alongside cloze-style questioning, leading to improved accuracy in detecting vulnerabilities in source code.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Reduction Methods for an Emergency Diesel Generator Fitted Onboard a Large Container Vessel<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current study is focused on the analysis of methods and means for reducing marine engine exhaust and greenhouse gases (GHGs). The research method consists in identifying equipments that have been applied in the case of small four-stroke marine engines used as emergency generators on board large ships, specifically the Cummins Qsb6.7-G16 model. The results, which were demonstrated by practical experiences of the different possible configurations for the engine studied showed high potential for reducing emissions, but the most suitable alternative is the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Book Reading: The Changes in Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control in Minority Students: A Mixed Method Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The literature on college attrition rates has revealed that self-efficacy and locus of control play a critical role in academic performance and retention. However, despite the importance of students’ attitudes in academic performance, there have been few studies focused on how to develop students’ self-efficacy and internal locus of control. We examined the impact of motivational book reading on the promotion of self-efficacy and locus of control by leveraging a mixed method study, analyzing quantitative and qualitative data. One hundred diverse, business students participated in the research, where they read one motivational book and wrote essays to reflect their learning and took surveys that measured the quantitative variables before and after reading the book. The analysis revealed that motivational book reading significantly increased self-efficacy and locus of control of the participants. The qualitative analysis revealed that students expressed improvement in self-efficacy and internal locus of control after reading the book. The limitations, practical implications, and future research implications are discussed in this paper.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Aspects Related to Counterfeiting of Material Goods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years, there has been a noticeable increase in the production of counterfeit goods, ranging from luxury items to products that have serious repercussions on individuals’ well-being. This article presents the contributing factors to the rise of counterfeiting and its potential socio-economic impacts, including effects on innovation, business partnerships, environmental issues, employment rates and consumers. Research in the field of counterfeiting goods involves using a diverse set of methods to analyze and understand the phenomenon.Document research, such as legal documents, and analyses from international organizations, will give us information about the types of counterfeit goods, trade routes, and market trends.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Revolutionizing Real-Time Software Vulnerability Detection With Optimized GPT Framework<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The escalating complexity and sophistication of software vulnerabilities demand innovative approaches in cybersecurity. This study introduces a groundbreaking framework, named “CodeSentry”, employing a transformer-based model for vulnerability detection in software code. “CodeSentry” leverages a finely-tuned version of the Generative Pre-trained Transformer (GPT), optimized for pinpointing vulnerable code patterns across various benchmark datasets. This approach stands apart by its remarkable computational efficiency, making it suitable for real-time applications − a significant advancement over traditional, resource-intensive deep learning models like CNNs and LSTMs. Empirical results showcase “CodeSentry” achieving an impressive 92.65% accuracy in vulnerability detection, surpassing existing state-of-the-art methods such as SyseVR and VulDeBERT. This novel methodology marks a paradigm shift in vulnerability detection, blending advanced AI with practical application efficiency.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue GPT-2 for Feature Extraction in Malware Detection: A Novel Approach to Cybersecurity<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the rapidly advancing digital age, the surge in malware complexity presents a formidable challenge to cybersecurity efforts, rendering traditional signature-based detection methods increasingly obsolete. These methods struggle to keep pace with the swift evolution of malware, particularly with the emergence of polymorphic and metamorphic variants designed to bypass conventional detection. This study introduces a groundbreaking approach to malware detection by utilizing GPT-2, a cutting-edge language model developed by OpenAI, specifically for the purpose of feature extraction. By applying GPT-2’s deep learning capabilities to the EMBER and Drebin datasets, this research explores the model’s effectiveness in identifying malware through the intricate patterns present in binary data. Contrary to its original design for natural language processing, GPT-2’s application in this context demonstrates a significant potential for enhancing malware detection strategies. The model’s proficiency in extracting complex features from binary sequences marks a notable advancement over traditional methods, providing a more adaptive and robust mechanism for identifying malicious software. However, the study also acknowledges the challenges associated with the interpretability of deep learning models and their susceptibility to adversarial attacks, underscoring the imperative for ongoing innovation in the field of cybersecurity. This exploration into the unconventional use of GPT-2 for feature extraction in malware detection not only showcases the model’s versatility beyond language tasks but also sets a new precedent for the application of unsupervised learning models in enhancing cybersecurity defenses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue ownership and gender differences in pay: causal evidence from a sample of Polish workers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study attempts to estimate the causal relationship between foreign company ownership and wages that is driven by ownership per se, and not by observable or unobservable worker and firm characteristics. We employ proprietary data from surveys conducted by Sedlak &amp; Sedlak, a major Polish HR consulting firm, with our pooled cross-section data set comprising over 300,000 men and 250,000 women working in the Polish labor market between 2013 and 2017. The foreign-firm wage premium is estimated by several techniques, ranging from ordinary least squares and two-stage least squares to a recently developed frequentist RX-2SLS econometric procedure that relaxes IV assumptions via the exclusion restriction. Our major findings are: (1) regardless of gender, Polish workers employed by majority foreign capital firms earn a significant wage premium; and (2) the foreign-firm wage premium is substantially larger for women, suggesting that the wage policies used by foreign-owned firms in Poland have an equalizing effect on the gender wage gap.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of The Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy – CAPL-2 Questionnaire for German and Polish School Children<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Physical literacy (PL) is a lifelong process of developing the motivation, confidence, physical competence, knowledge and understanding to value and take responsibility for engaging in physical activity throughout life. It is also an important concept for understanding and promoting physical activity in children and adolescents and is becoming a theoretical basis for analysing physical education in schools. One of the best known, well-operationalised assessments of PL is the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy – CAPL-2. The aim of the study was to translate and culturally adapt the CAPL-2 questionnaires in two EU languages, German and Polish. Data from Poland and Germany were combined for this study, with a total sample size of N=802, consisting of 58.6% Polish and 41.4% German students. We used the TRAPD (the Translation, Review, Adjudication, Pre-test and Documentation) approach to translate the CAPL-2 questionnaires. The main results of this study show that the proposed Polish and German versions of the CAPL-2 questionnaires are satisfactory for use in research or for teachers to assess PL in physical education. Our results also indicate better predictive characteristics of the CAPL-2 questionnaires for children who are very close to or who meet the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) recommendations for health as defined by the WHO. We recommend that adaptations be made that are consistent with the original Canadian version, but which are deeply embedded in the language and culture of the country in question, especially in their wording and terminology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Future of Automotive Quality Control: How Cloud-Based Reporting is Changing the Game<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The automotive industry faces challenges in maintaining quality control while at the same time reducing costs and improving efficiency. Outsourcing has emerged as a potential solution. Such an approach can create issues such as communication barriers, quality control problems, and limited visibility into the manufacturing process. This study proposes a cloud-based quality reporting solution to overcome these challenges by providing real-time data analytics, facilitating proper communication, and enabling visibility into quality control processes. This solution significantly reduces waiting times for information regarding product quality status and allows interested parties to access data immediately. The outsourcing company, product producer and customer receive flexible, traceable, mobile cloud-based analytics in real-time. Challenges of this solution are the need to secure data, manage access and ensure the appropriate quality of data by persons performing control. The paper provides practical recommendations for implementing cloud-based quality reporting systems. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Advanced Technologies for Environmental Management Systems<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Environmental management systems (EMS) are essential in promoting sustainable practices and mitigating the adverse effects of human activities on the environment. As technology continues to advance, there is an increasing opportunity to utilize advanced technologies to improve environmental management systems. This article examines the potential of different advanced technologies, such as artificial intelligence (AI), blockchain, big data, and the Internet of Things (IoT), within the context of environmental management systems. This article intends to offer valuable insights to researchers, practitioners, and policymakers by examining the potential uses of AI, blockchain, big data, and IoT in environmental management systems. The goal is to demonstrate how these advanced technologies can be leveraged to enhance sustainability, boost environmental performance, and yield favourable environmental results across different sectors and industries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Decision Support Model for Mitigating Supply Chain Risks Based on a Modified FMEA, Multi-Objective Optimization and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Approach<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Recent years have seen a huge development in the subject of supply chain risk management. In this increasingly uncertain world, the use of practical and effective tools for decision making and risk mitigation has become more necessary than ever. In this research, mitigation strategies for a tier one multinational company operating in the automotive industry and providing an assembly operation to final customer Renault Tanger and Renault SOMACA were prioritized according to their effectiveness, as well as their implementation costs. Based on research in the literature and the opinions of experts in the field. 44 risks and 55 mitigation strategies were identified. FMEA (Failure Modes and Effects Analysis) method was used based on the latest AIAG 2019 edition to filter and identify the risks to be prioritized, we used then a multi-objective optimization approach to identify the mitigation strategies that constitute the Pareto front for each of the risks and finally used the EDAS method for the final ranking of the strategies. Our case revealed that strategies like ensuring elaborating a contingency planning and defining the responsibilities, imposing contractual obligations on subcontractors, applying a flexible supply contract were found to be relevant risk mitigation strategies for the company. Managers interested in mitigating risk can deploy this model to prioritize risk mitigation strategies. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Incubators in Morocco: Overview of the “Forsa” Program<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The research investigates the role and significance of incubators in Morocco’s entrepreneurial ecosystem, specifically in relation to the FORSA-2022 program. It focuses on how incubators establish mutually beneficial relationships with entrepreneurs to overcome obstacles to sustained innovation. As a crucial link between entrepreneurs and the external environment, incubators provide essential support. This is a case study, which presents a comprehensive exploration of a prominent regional incubator situated in Casablanca. The investigation delves into the intricacies of executing the government’s FORSA-2022 program, closely analyzing the challenges faced by accelerators. Additionally, the study delves into the hurdles experienced by project initiators, which act as barriers to the successful realization of their endeavors. This analysis marks an initial stride towards strengthening the role of incubators for more performance and profitability in order to create strategies that can effectively improve the competitive strength of start-ups in Morocco. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Balance in SME Sector and Large Enterprises<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The concept of Work-Life Balance (WLB), which involves finding a harmonious equilibrium between work and personal life, has gained considerable importance across the European Union. In 2019, the European Parliament adopted a directive that requires all member states to integrate the principles of WLB, aiming to promote gender equality and fair treatment in the labor market (Directive on transparent and predictable working conditions in the European Union and Directive on work-life balance for parents and carers). This perspective offers significant opportunities and potential, while also posing challenges for entrepreneurs. An analysis of the literature on the subject indicates that the issue of WLB should be analyzed in the context of company size. The main objective of the research is to analyze and evaluate WLB among employees in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and large enterprises in Poland. The main results reflect that employees of companies in Poland (both SMEs and large enterprises) indicate a wide range of tools as having, in their opinion, an impact on WLB. Companies in Poland most commonly utilize tools such as flexible working hours and hybrid work. Findings confirm that WLB is less frequently implemented in the SME sector compared to large enterprises, and that employees in large enterprises have a better maintained WLB compared to employees in the SME sector. Implementing WLB is a challenge for the SME sector. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue