rss_2.0Business and Economics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Business and Economics and Economics Feed to sell without words: What science knows about nonverbal behavior in personal sales and service<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent decades, a very modest number of papers on nonverbal behavior in sales and the service sector have affected the field of study. Nevertheless, a comprehensive conceptual model is missing. Very heterogenous views appear to shape the topic. Scholars have shown that empathy is a crucial factor in interpersonal interaction. In particular, this applies to salesperson-customer interaction. Additionally, researchers found that nonverbal behavior shapes 90 % of mutual understanding and verbal communication hardly has an influence. However, salespersons’ nonverbal behavior has received scant attention in marketing research. This study contributes to the corpus of knowledge by evaluating how the existent research is founded on various intellectual frameworks and by identifying the most important references, authors, themes, and journals, as well as comprehending it in a conceptual model of salespersons nonverbal behavior. To achieve this objective, I examined more than 3,000 publications published between 1994 and 2021 using bibliometric methods. This is a small body of literature compared to other fields. I determined four publishing eras that affected the evolution of research in this field. Nonverbal behavior has been studied from a range of angles in the publications that have published these articles. The predominant emphasis is on the United States and empathy as a central trait, offering scholars the ability to conduct further cross-national and cross-industry research. My study not only provides intellectual and social frameworks, but integrates them in a conceptual model. Thus, it lays the foundation for future study.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue as a leader or a servant? The effect of anthropomorphized brand roles and goal types on consumer responses<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Using research from brand roles and goal pursuit as our theoretical framework, we find that the type of goal pursuit influences how consumers respond to the brand role of leader (i.e., leader brand) vs. servant (i.e., servant brand). Two experiments show that consumers in the goal attainment condition prefer a leader brand rather than a servant brand. In contrast, consumers in the goal progress condition show no difference in their preference for a leader brand or a servant brand. Mediation analyses show that the level of motivation mediates the effect of goal pursuit on consumers’ preference for leader brands. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue people’s brainhex type be changed with serious games? Evidence from the banking industry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The BrainHex model is one of the most researched models to represent player profiles in games. In this paper the author examines how serious games can be used to change the player profiles over time, even in heavily regulated environments, such as the banking industry. To understand if player archetypes change over time, I have conducted an exploratory study with 2531 bankers over the course of three years. Our results indicate that the players ‘archetypes can potentially be changed with the help of serious games Age of the players and their role in the organization do not influence the change of the main archetypes, but can determine the amplitude of that change. The change appears to be significant across all age groups and roles in the organization and also persistent. A slight decrease in Y3, however, could indicate that the change could be reversible with the passing of time. The statistical analysis of the data collected indicates that the desired change in the main archetype can be obtained by having the players spend between 10 and 20 hours playing personalized serious games that facilitate the desired archetype and that those games should be designed to facilitate an easier level up mechanism. My results both confirm existing studies on the subject and have practical implications for the designers of serious games and gamification mechanisms, by indicating how serious games should be personalized to achieve the desired change in behaviour.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue to digital payment adoption: micro, small and medium enterprises<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Technological developments that continue to develop make fintech applications compete to create innovations. Currently, people can transact using digital payment applications. As a result, digital payment application continues to innovate. This makes micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) adopt digital payments to run their business. This study aims to examine the adoption of digital payment systems for the digitization of MSMEs. The population in this study was 4,793 MSMEs in Blitar City, Indonesia. The sample in this study was 100 respondents using the Slovin formula. The data is processed through the SmartPLS software and analyzed using the SEM approach. The results of this study indicate that the barriers to use, value, and risk have a positive and significant effect on functional barriers. In contrast, barriers to tradition and image positively and significantly affect psychological barriers. However, the functional barrier variable is not significant for the actual use of digital payment. Furthermore, psychological barriers have a positive and significant effect on the actual use of digital payments.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue based social marketing for greenhouse gas emission reduction in households<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The European Union (EU) has set an ambitious goal to achieve a carbon neutral society by 2050. In response, several EU member states, including Lithuania, pledged to achieve 100% renewables in the final energy consumption. The main ways of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the energy sector are (1) the energy efficiency improvement and (2) the use of renewable energy sources (RES). Although many policies and measures were implemented to promote a fast penetration of renewables, especially in the supply sector, there is a massive GHG emissions reduction potential in households. However, there are several social and behavioral barriers hampering a fast penetration of renewables into households. Therefore, new well-targeted policies are necessary to overcome these barriers. The community based social marketing (CBSM) can be applied to promote GHG emissions reduction in households through behavioral changes. This paper evaluates the carbon emissions reduction potential at the household level driven by CBSM. The research is conducted in the Kaunas district municipality in Lithuania, having quantitative and qualitative components. The results show that ~20% energy could be saved in households through behavioral changes initiated by CBSM; and that it is possible to achieve significant GHG emissions reduction, save energy and money without making any major investments in households. The average realistically achievable GHG emissions reduction potential for one Lithuanian household is ~500 kg CO<sub>2</sub> equivalent per year. These results can be used to roughly assess the energy saving and GHG emissions reduction potential of all Lithuanian households due to behavioral changes. This study also shows that the main obstacles to behavioral changes in households (after the implementation of intervention measures) are: lack of knowledge, lack of trust in information sources, inertia, values, etc.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue small and medium enterprises beneficial from the adoption of green market orientation under the intensity of market competition? A strategic alignment perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There is limited knowledge regarding whether market competition (MC) influences the adoption of green market orientation (GMO) by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Moreover, there is no clear understanding of whether the strategic alignment between differentiation strategy (DS) and the adoption of GMO and MC accounts for these enterprises’ financial performance (FP). This study aims to draw on contingency theory and the natural resource-based view to shed light on these questions by proposing a research model, which demonstrates the relationship between MC and GMO and the mediating effects of DS on the relationship between MC, GMO, respectively, and FP. Data were collected from 172 SMEs that are currently operating in Vietnam. The partial least square structural equation modelling technique was executed to examine the research model. The results reveal that the intensity of MC influences SMEs to adopt GMO. Furthermore, it was also shown that DS fully mediates the relationship between MC, GMO, and FP. This study provides four significant contributions to environmental management research and contingency theory. In addition, this study provides crucial practical implications for SMEs operating in Vietnam.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, skills and intra-entrepreneurship: mapping the field and future research opportunities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Employability, and especially entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship, is a topic attracting the interest of researchers in recent years. Although knowledge about creating and managing a company is essential (hard skills), the importance of other competencies such as soft skills and emotional intelligence has also been highlighted in recent years. This study analyzes documents related to Emotional Intelligence, Soft Skills, Hard Skills and their relationship with (intra)entrepreneurship. The methodology used was bibliometric analysis, followed by a bibliographic coupling and identification of thematic areas within this field of study. A total of 121 documents were analyzed, following the PRISMA protocol. The results showed an upward trend over the last five years in the production of works in this field, accounting for approximately 75% of the total number of articles found. Seven different sub-themes were identified. The theme with the most significant impact, which generates the most interest among the scientific community, encompasses personal relationships, emotional intelligence, and the positive work climate for a company’s growth. Finally, a series of implications and future lines of study are proposed to help develop and consolidate this research field.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Purchase Behaviour Towards Consumer Goods During Economic Crisis – A Middle Eastern Perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The primary purpose of this study is to develop a realistic understanding of the factors that influence consumers’ purchase behaviour towards consumer goods in the middle east region during the economic crisis, by focusing on Oman. This study has used linear regression analysis to develop a clear idea of the factors that influence consumers’ purchase behaviour towards consumer goods during the economic crisis. This study has also used Sobel test, to conduct the mediation analysis. The data was collected using a standard five-point Likert scale-based questionnaire, from a sample of 122 individuals who have recently completed their bachelor’s program in one of the four major Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Oman. Unlike the popular belief, this study has found the elements of the marketing mix to not exert significant influence on consumers’ purchase behaviour towards consumer goods during the economic crisis. However, the results found cultural and social factors to exert useful influence on the consumers’ purchase behaviour towards consumer goods. The study recommends that organizations need to focus more on cultural compliance and societal acceptance of their offerings, than focusing on the traditional marketing mix. While helping the organizations manufacturing or marketing consumer goods in the middle east region during the economic crisis, this study would add more value and variety to the available literature. While the findings of this study could also be used by individuals dealing with consumer products in similar markets to redefine their product offerings, by taking the cultural and social issues into consideration, this study could act as a point of reference for future researchers. This study has provided a unique perspective related to the factors that drive consumers’ purchase behaviour towards consumer goods in the middle east region, during the economic crisis. These observations could also be generalized and used in other countries that have similar cultural and social affiliations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Protection of Buildings: Its Types, Solutions and Choice Options<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Lightning safety in private and public buildings is a seriously evaluated issue that requires an appropriate and safe long-term solution to protect property from destruction during or due to the consequences of a lightning strike. Relatively easy-to-replace home appliances such as a TV-set or a vacuum cleaner, larger and more expensive appliances such as a heat pump, alarm system or antennas can be damaged from a lightning strike. The aim of the study is to explore the ways of lightning protection in buildings and to develop recommendations for its effective use. Lightning protection is part of a set of electrical assembly and fire protection measures of property, which are performed during construction or renovation of property and the installation thereof is determined by the regulatory framework of the Republic of Latvia. Over time, two types of lightning protection systems have been developed: the classic or passive lightning protection system, which, if hit by lightning, captures and drains the electrical charge generated by lightning to the ground, and the active lightning protection system, which attracts the electricity generated by lightning with energy generated by itself and then drains the charge to the ground. Consequently, both lightning protection systems can be considered to have their advantages and disadvantages, so it is necessary to assess the choice of the most appropriate protection system on a case-by-case basis, also taking into account the criteria such as the complexity of the building project, the size and accessibility of the protected area and the cost of each individual site.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Prices of Shares Listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange Using Machine Learning<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The technology developing before our eyes is entering many areas of life and has an increasing influence on shaping human behavior. Undoubtedly, it can be stated that one such area is trading on stock exchanges and other markets that offer investors the opportunity to allocate their capital. Thanks to widespread access to the Internet and the computing capabilities of computers used in the daily activities of investors, the nature of their working has changed significantly, compared to what we observed even 10–15 years ago. At present, stock exchange orders may be placed in person using various types of brokerage investment accounts, which allow the investor to view real-time quotations which opens up a whole new range of opportunities for investorsIts skillful application during the stock market game can positively influence a player’s investment performance.Machine learning is a branch of artificial intelligence and computer science that focuses on using data and algorithms to solve decision-making problems based on large amounts of information. In machine learning, algorithms find patterns and relationships in large data sets and make the best decisions and predictions based on this analysis.</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> The main objective of this paper is to investigate and evaluate the applicability of machine learning for investment decisions in equity markets. The analysis undertaken focuses on so-called day-trading, i.e. investing for very short periods of time, often involving only a single trading session. The hypothesis adopted is that the use of machine learning can contribute to a positive return for a stock market player making short-term investments.</p> <p><bold>Findings:</bold> This paper uses the Azure Microsoft Machine Learning Studio tool to enable machine learning-based calculations. It is a widely available cloud computing platform that provides an investor interested in creating a model and testing it. The calculations were made according to two schemes. The first involves teaching the model by taking 50% of the companies randomly selected from all companies, while the second involves teaching the model by taking 80% of the companies randomly selected from all companies.</p> <p><bold>Value Added:</bold> The results from the study indicate that investors can use machine learning to earn returns that are attractive to them. Depending on the teaching model (50% or 80% companies), daily returns can range from 1.07% to even 4.23%.</p> <p><bold>Recommendations:</bold> The results obtained offer investors the prospect of using the method presented in the article in their capital management strategies, which of course requires them to adapt the techniques used so far to the specifics of machine learning. However, it is necessary to note that the presented method requires that each time the data on which the forecast was made be updated..Further research is needed to determine the impact of the number of companies on the effectiveness of the learning process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Management in Management Studies – Theoretical Discussion<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The aim of this article is to attempt to present theoretical considerations towards the concept of diversity management from the perspective of its location in the discipline of management and quality sciences. As the concept of diversity management lacks a strict demarcation between related disciplines, such as economics, psychology, sociology or even biology and cultural anthropology, it should be noted that the specification of paradigms is not closed, and further paradigms, micro-paradigms or mega-paradigms may emerge over time.</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> the research method adopted in the article is literature analysis and inference.</p> <p><bold>Findings:</bold> The approach presented, which points to the permanent development of alternative paradigms and cognitive perspectives in the discipline of management and quality sciences, is a confirmation that these ‘sciences’ are not ‘impregnated’ against change and are de facto changing.</p> <p><bold>Value Added:</bold> Consideration of the issue of human capital diversity in organisations and its management has been carried out for many years in the literature, which is characterised by a diversity of definitions and perceptions. It is therefore worth presenting, a cross-cutting historical perspective on the phenomenon of human resource diversity in organisations in the discipline of management and quality sciences.</p> <p><bold>Recommendations:</bold> Diversity management should be defined in the broadest possible way, understanding it as the systematic efforts of an organisation to involve the diversity of its human resources in its activities and to treat it as a strategic advantage. Such a conclusion prejudges the need for further research in relation to the concept of diversity management.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Disclosure in Social Media – Substitutionary or Complementary to Traditional Reporting?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> This study examines sustainability disclosure by 50 British companies from FTSE 100 and compares reporting via traditional sources and on Twitter by indicating whether the content in two various disclosure channels is of substitutionary or complementary nature.</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> A content analysis on more than 20,000 tweets was performed to examine sustainability disclosure practices which were compared with Bloomberg ESG scores for each studied company.</p> <p><bold>Findings:</bold> On the general level of sustainability division into three pillars (Environment, Social and Governance), it can be observed that social media reporting provides complementary information. Whereas, the disclosure of environmental issues via traditional sources was relatively poor, the reporting of environmental information in social media performed best. However, with the division on ESG sub-pillars, the picture is not that clear. Most of the poorly performed ESG sub-pillars in traditional reporting, were also poorly reported in social media.</p> <p><bold>Value Added:</bold> This article is a response to the call for studies on non-financial disclosure via social media, which is strongly highlighted in the recent literature concerning future research. Additionally, a comparative analysis with the reporting by traditional, well-studied channels was performed.</p> <p><bold>Recommendations:</bold> This study offers an understanding of the British companies’ corporate practices that refer to sustainability disclosure by traditional channels and via social media. Hence, it has implications for organizations in the creation and use of communication channels when developing a dialogue with stakeholders on topics regarding sustainability.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Accounting: A Bibliometric Analysis of Literature Outputs in 2013–2022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> Comprehensive overview of the most current topics, trends and scientific production in the field of behavioral accounting.</p> <p><bold>Method:</bold> A bibliometric approach was applied to analyze data extracted from the Scopus database covering the period 2013–2022. R software and VOS viewer were used to determine the relevant parameters of the studied papers and create scientific maps of collocations.</p> <p><bold>Findings:</bold> An analysis of selected 270 papers has shown that behavioral accounting is a rather scattered area both in terms of publication outputs as well as the conceptual apparatus, including the keywords used by scientists dealing with such issues. This makes it much more challenging to synthesize its output to date and probably slows down the process of crystallizing its scientific identity.</p> <p><bold>Value Added:</bold> It is a diagnosis of the current state of the art within behavioral accounting that can be treated as a continuation of the literature reviews made so far by means of more “manual” methods; however, the first performed with the use of bibliometric tools and devoted exclusively to that topic.</p> <p><bold>Recommendations:</bold> It would benefit the field’s development if researchers parameterized their outputs to facilitate the synthesis of the current state of knowledge within behavioral accounting.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue UK Energy Price Guarantee the Energy Crisis: Lessons Learned from the Energy Price Cap Policy in France Debt Ceiling, Once More, with Feeling... Inflation: The Italian Case Sanctions Against Russia Work<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Since the annexation of Crimea in 2014, Russia has been under an EU sanctions regime. While these sanctions have not prevented Putin from ordering an invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, in the overall picture, they have significantly weakened Russia’s ability to wage war. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the sanctions and argues that the EU should maintain and tighten sanctions, thus further weakening the military and economic power of the Putin regime.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue EU Price Cap for Natural Gas: A Bad Idea Made Redundant by Market Forces Tale of the German Gas Price Brake: Why We Need Economic Disaster Preparedness in Times of Overlapping Emergencies