rss_2.0Engineering FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Engineeringhttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/ENhttps://www.sciendo.comEngineering Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/Engineering.jpg700700Quality of automotive sand casting with different wall thickness from progressive secondary alloyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.20<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paperwork is focused on the quality of AlSi6Cu4 casting with different wall thicknesses cast into the metal mold. Investigated are structural changes (the morphology, size, and distribution of structural components). The quantitative analysis is used to numerically evaluate the size and area fraction of structural parameters (α-phase, eutectic Si, intermetallic phases) between delivered experimental material and cast with different wall thicknesses. Additionally, the Brinell hardness is performed to obtain the mechanical property benefits of the thin-walled alloys. This research leads to the conclusion, that the AlSi6Cu4 alloy from metal mold has finer structural components, especially in small wall thicknesses, and thus has better mechanical properties (Brinell hardness). These secondary Al-castings have a high potential for use in the automotive industry, due to the thin thicknesses and thus lightweight of the construction.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Contribution of the quality costs to sustainable developmenthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.19<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents a framework of contemporary quality costs concept contributing to a more sustainable society regarding an integrated view of quality costs in all phases of the product life cycle (engineering, production, use, and end-of-life) by all stakeholders in the supply chain. The development of this framework is viewed through the complementarity of the sustainability dimensions and the circular economy concept understood as a waste management concept, which represents a solid basis for the development of a novel approach to understanding quality costs which, in turn, reflects the sustainable quality concept. By providing sustainable criteria (economic, environmental, and social) as an integral part of the quality costs concept, this framework will improve the sustainability performance in the early phases of product design, increase the added value of the products and the duration of the added value, and strengthen the responsibility of all stakeholders beyond the limits of their organizational processes. This will inevitably lead to changes to the quality cost structure, dominated by new quality costs elements which reflect sustainability. This research demonstrates the findings that should support the setting the theoretic assumptions for the development of a sustainable quality cost generic model.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effect of Formal and Informal Regulations on Industrial Effluents and Firm Compliance Behavior in Malaysiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.23<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The rapid development of the manufacturing sector has been causing industrial effluents pollution. The practice of environmental regulation in the emerging economy focused on the externalities impact of industrialization. In conjunction with the issue, this study examines the effect of formal and informal regulation on the industrial effluent act and the firm compliance behavior in Malaysia. This quantitative study uses a survey questionnaire (structured) and involved 42 factories of three industries, namely food and beverages, textiles, and paper in Penang, Kedah, and Perlis. The data were analyzed using non-parametric tests: The Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, and Spearman’s Rho. This study uses the firm behavior theory as the framework, and our non-parametric analyses showed that the traditional enforcement and fined probability could significantly affect compliance levels. We also find the market, consumer, competitor, and investor pressure positively influence firm compliance. The empirical results suggest effective enforcement of environmental regulation and the role of non-regulation must be empowered as a support mechanism for pollution control.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Forecasting municipal waste accumulation rate and personal consumption expenditures using vector autoregressive (VAR) modelhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.17<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is important for the planning, operation and optimization of municipal waste management system. However, it’s not easy task due to dynamic changes in waste volume, its composition or unpredictable factors. Initially, mainly conventional and descriptive statistical models of waste generation forecasting with demographic and socioeconomic factors were used. Methods based on machine learning or artificial intelligence have been widely used in municipal waste projection for several years. This study investigates the trend of municipal waste accumulation rate and its relation to personal consumption expenditures based on the yearly data achieved from Local Data Bank (LDB) driven by Polish Statistical Office. The effect of personal consumption expenditures on the municipal waste accumulation rate was analysed by using the vector autoregressive model (VAR). The results showed that such method can be successfully used for this purpose with an approximate level of 2.3% Root Mean Square Error (RMSE).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Surface Roughness Reduction in A Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) Process using Central Composite Design Methodhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.18<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of this study is to optimize the fabrication factors of a consumer-grade fused filament fabrication (FFF) system. The input factors were nozzle temperature, bed temperature, printing speed, and layer thickness. The optimization aims to minimize average surface roughness (Ra) indicating the surface quality of benchmarks. In this study, Ra was measured at two positions, the bottom and top surface of benchmarks. For the fabrication, the material used was the Polylactic acid (PLA) filament. A response surface method (RSM), central composite design (CCD), was utilized to carry out the optimization. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was calculated to explore the significant factors, interactions, quadratic effect, and lack of fit, while the regression analysis was performed to determine the prediction equation of Ra. The model adequacy checking was conducted to check whether the residual assumption still held. The total number of thirty benchmarks was fabricated and measured using a surface roughness tester. For the bottom surface, the analysis results indicated that there was the main effect from only one factor, printing speed. However, for the top surface, the ANOVA signified an interaction between the printing speed and layer thickness. The optimal setting of these factors was also recommended, while the empirical models of Ra at both surface positions were also presented. Finally, an extra benchmark was fabricated to validate the empirical model.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Project of Micro-hydroelectric Power Generation System – Case studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.21<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article describes a student project of installing a micropower generation system utilizing energy from the water drained from underground coalmines. The paper contains a description of the site which is a manmade phenomenon from the anthracite mining era. The project described in the article was completed as part of the project-based learning curriculum. Students had the opportunity to work on a team and apply theoretical knowledge learned in individual courses as part of the engineering curriculum. The article also focuses on the calculation of the potential power capacity to a proposed hydropower generation system. The proposed micro-hydro system is harvesting the potential and kinetic energy of the water discharged from the water-draining tunnel. A commercially available micro-hydro turbine combined with an electric power generator was adapted for this purpose. The article also includes an analysis of the profitability of the project and the time of return on investment. The calculations are based on the current price of electricity (2021), depreciation schedule and present tax incentives (2021) to generate electricity from renewable sources. The article also includes some lessons learned from the project as well as the recommendations for future projects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Formation of coatings with technologies using concentrated energy streamhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.13<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A number of modern surface processing methods use an energy flux. The examples include electro-spark deposition (ESD) and laser beam processing (LBP). The work concerns the study of Cu-Mo coatings deposited on C45 carbon steel, which were then eroded with a laser beam. The analysis included the analysis of the microstructure, measurements of macrogeometry and microhardness, corrosion resistance tests of selected areas after laser treatment. The coatings were applied with ELFA-541 and subjected to Nd:YAG laser treatment with variable laser parameters. The problem presented in the work can be used to extend the knowledge of the areas of application of ESD coatings, especially in sliding friction pairs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Modeling and optimization of friction stir stitching of AISI 201 stainless steel via Box-Behnken design methodologyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.15<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper investigates the modelling and optimization of the notch-repaired/friction stir stitched AISI 201 stainless steel welds via the use of a non-consumable tool-based repair process. The repair process employs a sequential hopping-stitching approach. This approach involves the application of two intercepted and completely overlapped plunging actions of a probe-less titanium carbide tool to create an effective refilling and repair of the notched zone. Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed for the experimental planning, modelling, and optimization of the notch-repair process. Tool rotational speed, penetration depth and dwell time of the tool were the studied process parameters while tensile strength was the response variable. A quadratic model was identified as the best model for the notch-repaired welds based on the combination of a low sequential P-value of 0.008216, a high lack of fit P-value of 0.931366, and a close to unity adjusted and predicted R-square values. The process parameter and their interaction effects on the tensile strength of the repaired notch were identified via the ANOVA analysis. Plunge depth (main effect) and interaction effect of tool rotational speed and dwell time had significant influences on the notch-repair process and the resultant tensile strength of the AISI 201 stainless steel. The visual representations of these effects were shown through the 2D elliptical contour and 3D response surface plots. The optimized process parameters were identified as 1215.9795 rpm, 0.40262212 mm, and 5.98706376 s while the resultant notch-repaired joint yielded a tensile strength of 886 MPa, which is close to the predicted value.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Numerical simulation of the processes of burning lignite in a vortex furnace with swirling countercurrent flowshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.16<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This work presents the results of a numerical study of the working processes of burning lignite in a vortex furnace with swirling countercurrent flows. The results of computer simulation of the processes of burning lignite with a moisture content of 30%, an ash content of 20% and 35% and a higher calorific value of Qрв = 13.9 MJ/kg and 9.7 MJ/kg, respectively are given. The fields of temperature distribution, gas velocity and particle trajectory in the volume and at the outlet of the furnace are determined. The values of the swirling flow velocity near the exit from the furnace reach 150-170 m/s. Mechanical underburning is 3.7% and 9.4% depending on the ash content. The results of a numerical study have showed that the diameter of lignite particles affects their combustion process: coke particles with an initial diameter from 25 microns to 250 microns burn out by 96%. The furnace provides a complete combustion of pulverized coal particles - 99.8% and of volatiles - 100% at volumetric heat stress in the 2500 kW/m<sup>3</sup> furnace. The afterburning of fuel particles containing carbon is ensured by their circulation</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of the heat insulation layer on the thermally stressed condition of the facade wallhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.14<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The temperature-stress state of the concrete facade wall with a window opening, which is the external enclosing structure of the room with a steel heating device, was investigated by the method of numerical modeling. Estimated studies were performed for winter period when the heating system of the building is functioning. According to the results of solving the system of equations of thermal stress and equation of thermal conductivity, the temperature distribution over the wall volume and distribution of normal and tangential stresses were determined. Areas of the wall where these stresses are maximum were identified. The research was performed for cases of both, absence and presence of a heat-insulating layer on the outer surface of the facade wall. From comparison of the results obtained for these two options, it follows that the external thermal insulation coating not only helps to reduce dissipative heat loss through the facade wall, but also reduces the absolute values of stresses in the concrete wall arising resulting from temperature deformations. In some cases, the sign of stresses changes from stretching (wall without external insulation) to compressive (wall with insulation).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Revitalization of Mining Dumps. Assessment of Possibilitieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.24<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The revitalization of mining dumps in the Silesian agglomeration is a very difficult and complex problem. It has a substantial impact on the concepts of sustainable urban development. Other than the key areas including people, the environment and the economy, revitalization also refers to spatial management, and thus to a significant improvement in the functioning conditions of the local cities’ communities. The article describes an algorithm assessing the possibilities of revitalizing a mining dump by one of the Polska Grupa Górnicza’s mines. With legal status and location taken into account, several potential scenarios had been proposed, out of which one was chosen based on the adopted criteria. The chosen scenario had been subjected to further assessment using analyses such as SWOT/TOWS, FMEA, and QFD. The analyses had been carried out in order to acquire more effective and meaningful assessments, having taken social and economic aspects into consideration. In effect of the carried out analysis a recreational scenario was proposed. The adopted solution shows that the mine can continue its work in accordance with the principle of sustainable development as well as apply the concept of corporate social responsibility.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Dimensions and Factors that Determine Integration of Small-Scale Sources in the Structures of Virtual Power Plantshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.22<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the paper the author has attempted to achieve two convergent objectives: cognitive and empirical ones. The cognitive goal constituted an analysis of the definitions of virtual organi-sations and their adaptation while defining Virtual Power Plants (VPPs). When discussing the discourse in the area of virtual organisations, the author has attempted to justify the fact that the terminology pertaining to virtual organisations should constitute the foundations for defining Virtual Power Plants. With such an assumption, a vital importance has been assigned to co-sharing of “soft” resources – key competencies, and also organisational (managerial) integration. In the context of the adopted definitions, the distributed structure of virtual power plant has been em-bedded into four layers of Smart Grid: Customer Technology, Operational Technology, Smart Metering, Energy Management System. A measurable value of the conducted discourse has been aggregation of management functions of VPP, carried out in the four-layer structure of Smart Grid. In turn, the empirical objective was to determine and distinguish, based on the conducted expert research, the factors that determine the development of small-scale energy sector, including re-newable energy sources and prosumer installations – simultaneously determining the inclination of distributed electricity producers to mutual integration in the structures of virtual power plants. Assuming, in accordance with the definitions and discourse included in the first part of the paper, that the determined factors, among others, creating virtual power plants are not only of techno-logical nature, the author has developed four portfolios of these factors. They include the following ones: technological, economic (including micro- and macro-economic), environmental, and social. The experts participating in the research could select 5 factors from each of the developed portfolio which in their opinion determined the inclination of distributed electricity producers to integrate their sources in the structures of virtual power plants. A measurable value of the empirical part has been aggregating the determinants generated and distinguished in the research process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Utilizing augmented reality technology for teaching fundamentals of the human brain and EEG electrode placementhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/ijssis-2022-0005<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper demonstrates the use of augmented reality (AR) to teach the fundamental aspects of the human brain and guide proper EEG electrode placement. The proposed application consists of two main parts: (1) the proposed marker-based AR system uses the Vuforia technique to determine the dimension of the head to create the virtual brain and virtual EEG electrodes; and (2) user interaction and implementation. We performed two experiments using a phantom head to verify the size and workspace area of the marker and validated the position of the virtual electrode with ground truth data. The results showed that the proposed method can be employed for electrode placement guidance in the recommended range. We aim to use the proposed system for beginners. We will further test the system with human heads to evaluate the usability and determine key areas for application improvement.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Monitoring the skin biophysical parameters among coronavirus patients for three days in a row: a preliminary studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/joeb-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The coronavirus epidemic 2019 is spreading all over the world now. Several parameters are used to monitor the status of hospitalized patients; however, monitoring variations in biophysical properties of the skin has not been investigated yet. In this preliminary study, we seek to monitor skin biophysical parameters among coronavirus patients for three days in a row. Skin moisture, pH, sebum, and temperature during the three days were monitored in 30 coronavirus patients by using non-invasive portable instruments. Skin biophysical parameters were increased on the third day of monitoring compared to the first one. In addition, the increase in both skin moisture and temperature were statistically significant. According to the results of this preliminary study, skin biophysical parameters changed (increased) during the specified period in which the patients were monitored. However, changes in skin sebum content and pH were not significant. These skin parameters need to be further investigated until we know their indication ability for the health condition of coronavirus patients in clinical applications.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of acute water ingestion and prolonged standing on raw bioimpedance and subsequent body fluid and composition estimateshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/joeb-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study evaluated the influence of acute water ingestion and maintaining an upright posture on raw bioimpedance and subsequent estimates of body fluids and composition. Twenty healthy adults participated in a randomized crossover study. In both conditions, an overnight food and fluid fast was followed by an initial multi-frequency bioimpedance assessment (InBody 770). Participants then ingested 11 mL/kg of water (water condition) or did not (control condition) during a 5-minute period. Thereafter, bioimpedance assessments were performed every 10 minutes for one hour with participants remaining upright throughout. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine the influence of condition and time on raw bioimpedance, body fluids, and body composition. Water consumption increased impedance of the arms but not trunk or legs. However, drift in leg impedance was observed, with decreasing values over time in both conditions. No effects of condition on body fluids were detected, but total body water and intracellular water decreased by ~0.5 kg over time in both conditions. Correspondingly, lean body mass did not differ between conditions but decreased over the measurement duration. The increase in body mass in the water condition was detected exclusively as fat mass, with final fat mass values ~1.3 kg higher than baseline and also higher than the control condition. Acute water ingestion and prolonged standing exert practically meaningful effects on relevant bioimpedance variables quantified by a modern, vertical multi-frequency analyzer. These findings have implications for pre-assessment standardization, methodological reporting, and interpretation of assessments.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Research on the Environmental Impact of Industrial Noise Emitted By Mine and Mining Plantshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mspe-2022-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the results of measurements of environmental noise accompanying the operation of devices operated in surface facilities of hard coal mines and noise generated in technological processes related to the loading and transport of spoil and materials necessary for production. The research results presented in the article are part of the program of “Consequences of excessive noise in the mining environment of hard coal mines”, the overarching goal of which is to reduce the emission of industrial noise. The research described in the article, carried out using the sampling method, was introduced in order to determine the actual values of noise levels emitted to the external environment from mines and mining plants, as well as to identify the acoustic power levels of devices and processes constituting the main sources of noise in mines. The obtained results showed that mines and mining plants are often not fully aware of the scale of the environmental impact of undesirable noise they emit. Therefore, the current periodic measurements of environmental noise should be replaced with permanent monitoring, which will be beneficial not only for the environment, residents of housing estates located near mines, but also for the mining plants themselves.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Efficient Practices of Cognitive Technology Application for Smart Manufacturinghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mspe-2022-0023<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cognitive manufacturing (CM) provides for the merging of sensor-based information, advanced analytics, and cognitive technologies, mainly machine learning in the context of Industry 4.0. Manufacturers apply cognitive technologies to review current business metrics, solve essential business problems, generate new value in their manufacturing data and improve quality. The article investigates four powerful applications for cognitive manufacturing and their influence on a company`s maintenance. The study aims to observe kinds of cognitive technology applications for smart manufacturing, distinguish their prospective gains for manufacturers and provide successful examples of their adoption. The analysis is based on the literature and report review. Assessment of the cases of technology adoption proves that cognitive manufacturing provides both enhanced knowledge management and helps organizations improve fundamental business measurements, such as productivity, product reliability, quality, safety, and yield while reducing downtime and lowering costs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Optimizing the Provision of Public Services By Local Administration as a Component of the Smart City Concept on the Example of Zabrzehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mspe-2022-0024<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Surveys performed among the residents of Zabrze indicate that in 2021 the majority of respondents (67%), wishing to use public services provided by the local government, still preferred to visit the office in person. Residents noticed negative aspects of direct service, such as queues of people waiting for the case to be completed (26%), excessive bureaucracy (24%) or lack of parking spaces (18%). However, they counted on help in completing the necessary formalities by officials who should be: professional (20%), communicative (18%) and kind (17%). The use of the digital platform (ePUAP) dedicated to customer service was reported by 32% of respondents. At the same time, as much as 40% of the respondents, in order to save time and to simplify procedures, declared their will to use innovative methods of remote contact with public administration (e.g. via social media). The COVID-19 pandemic showed that it was possible to increase (even by 250%) the number of cases handled remotely, which with over 90% of households in Poland with access to a computer network creates opportunities for integrated development as part of the Smart City idea. The aim of the paper was to identify the residents’ expectations related to the provision of public services by local administration. Precise determination of the ways of perception of both direct and remote customer service has not only an application value. It also allows for further research study on the management of local government, including the organization of management control, as well as social communication of local governments.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Security and Privacy of Customer Data as an Element Creating the Image of the Companyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mspe-2022-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>COVID-19, mobility, socio-social changes have transferred to the world of social media communication, purchasing activities, the use of services. Corporate social media has been created to support clients in using various services, give them the possibility of easy communication without time and local barriers. Unfortunately, they still very rarely take into account the security and privacy of customers. Considering that the purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of social media on the company’s image, it should be remembered that this image also works for the security and privacy of customer data. Data leaks or their sale are not welcomed by customers. The results of empirical research show that the safety, simplicity and variety of services offered on social media have a significant impact on the perceived quality, which in turn positively affects the reputation. The authors proposed a methodology based on the Kano model and customer satisfaction in order to examine the declared needs and undefined desires and divide them into different groups with different impacts on consumer satisfaction. The interview participants were employees of 10 randomly selected companies using social media to conduct sales or service activities. 5,000 people from Poland, Portugal and Germany participated in the study. 4,894 correctly completed questionnaires were received.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Cognitive Technologies and Artificial Intelligence in Social Perceptionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mspe-2022-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cognitive technologies and artificial intelligence dynamize the development of the modern world in various spheres. Modern man is not always aware of how often he uses this type of technology, both in everyday life and at work. The conducted literature research has shown a growing interest in the discussed issues. The diagnostic survey allowed the assessment of the level of familiarity with the terms “cognitive technologies” and “artificial intelligence” in the perception of students, doctoral students and employees of a selected university. The auditorium survey technique was used for the research. The research shows that the distance between humans and an intelligent robot is decreasing. A man is inclined to let intelligent robots enter even the most intimate spheres of his life. The article contributes to filling the gap in knowledge about the perception and application of intelligent technologies and the readiness to use them. Furthermore, it sets out further directions for research on this phenomenon.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1