rss_2.0General Interest FeedSciendo RSS Feed for General Interesthttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/GLhttps://www.sciendo.comGeneral Interest Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/General_Interest.jpg700700Editors’ Notehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cttr-2022-0006ARTICLE2022-05-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Estimated Public Health Gains From German Smokers Switching to Reduced-Risk Alternatives: Results From Population Health Impact Modellinghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cttr-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Smoking is associated with cancer and cardio-respiratory mortality. Reducing smoking prevalence will lead to fewer deaths and more life-years. Here, we estimate the impact of hypothetical introduction of reduced-risk products (heat-not-burn products and e-cigarettes) in Germany from 1995 to 2015 on mortality from lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischaemic heart disease, and stroke in men and women aged 30–79 years.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>We used a previously described population health impact model, with individuals with a defined baseline cigarette smoking distribution followed under a “Null Scenario”, with reduced-risk products never introduced, and various “Alternative Scenarios” where they are. Transition probabilities allow product use to change annually, with the individual product histories allowing estimation of risks, relative to never users, which are then used to estimate reductions in deaths and life-years lost for each Alternative Scenario.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>In the Null Scenario, we estimated 852,000 deaths from cigarette smoking (42,600 per year), with 8.61 million life-years lost. Had everyone ceased smoking in 1995, and with no use of reduced-risk products, these numbers would reduce by 217,000 and 2.88 million. Compared to the Null Scenario, the estimated reductions would be 159,000 and 2.06 million with an immediate complete switch to heat-not-burn products and 179,000 and 2.34 million with 50% of smokers immediately switching to heat-not-burn products and 50% to e-cigarettes. In four Scenarios with a more gradual switch, the estimated decreases were 39,800–81,000 deaths and 0.50–1.05 million life-years, representing 17.5%–37.5% of the effect of immediate cessation in 1995. These estimates assume that switching to heat-not-burn products and e-cigarettes involves risk decreases of 80% and 95% of those from quitting, respectively. The reductions in mortality would be greater with more diseases and a wider age range considered or with a longer follow-up period, as the decreases increased markedly with time. Various limitations are discussed, none affecting the conclusion that introducing these new products into Germany in 1995 could have substantially reduced deaths and life-years lost.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Deaths from cigarette smoking could be substantially reduced not only by cessation but additionally by switching to reduced-risk products. Respective public health campaigns might increase such switching.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Estimated Public Health Gains From Smokers in Germany Switching to Reduced-Risk Alternatives: Results From Population Health Impact Modelling by Socioeconomic Grouphttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cttr-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>We previously estimated the impact of introducing heat-not-burn products and e-cigarettes in Germany on smoking-related disease mortality in men and women aged 30–79 years between 1995 and 2015. Here, we estimate the impact by socioeconomic group.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>Individuals with a defined baseline cigarette smoking distribution were followed under a “Null Scenario” (no reduced-risk products) and “Alternative Scenarios” (reduced-risk products introduced). Transition probabilities allowed estimation of annual product use changes, with individual product histories used to estimate reductions in deaths and life-years lost. Here, however, individuals were classified into two socioeconomic groups defined by income and education, with allowance for variation by group in initial smoking prevalence and the probability of changing product use, or of changing socioeconomic group.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>With no allowance for socioeconomic group, deaths would have reduced by 217,000 (from 852,000 for continued smoking) had everyone immediately ceased smoking in 1995 and by 40,000 to 179,000 had one or two types of reduced-risk products – the heat-not-burn product and the e-cigarette – been adopted by smokers to varying extents. With such allowance, we estimate substantial drops in each socioeconomic group. Where all cigarette smokers switched immediately, half of them to heat-not-burn products, half to e-cigarettes, the estimated drops in deaths were 60,000 in group A (higher socioeconomic group) and 122,000 in group B (lower), about 82% of the drops associated with immediate cessation (73,000 in A and 148,000 in B). With more gradual conversion, the drops were 26,648 in A and 53,000 in B, about 35% of those from cessation. The drops in deaths and life-years saved were about 2 and 1.5 times higher in group B, respectively, associated with its greater numbers, older age, and higher smoking prevalence. The estimated reductions would increase upon considering more diseases, a wider age range, or longer follow-up. Methodological limitations would not affect the conclusion that introducing these products in 1995 in Germany could have substantially reduced deaths and life-years lost in both groups, more so in B.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Although cessation is optimal for reducing mortality, switching to reduced-risk products also provides substantial health gains. A public health approach encouraging lower socioeconomic group smokers to switch to reduced-risk products could diminish smoking-related health inequalities relative to continued smoking.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-05T00:00:00.000+00:00A Simultaneous Analytical Method to Profile Non-Volatile Components with Low Polarity Elucidating Differences Between Tobacco Leaves Using Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Detectionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/cttr-2016-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>A comprehensive analytical method using liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry detector (LC/APCI-MSD) was developed to determine key non-volatile components with low polarity elucidating holistic difference among tobacco leaves. Nonaqueous reversed-phase chromatography (NARPC) using organic solvent ensured simultaneous separation of various components with low polarity in tobacco resin. Application of full-scan mode to APCI-MSD hyphenated with NARPC enabled simultaneous detection of numerous intense product ions given by APCI interface. Parameters for data processing to filter, feature and align peaks were adjusted in order to strike a balance between comprehensiveness and reproducibility in analysis. 63 types of components such as solanesols, chlorophylls, phytosterols, triacylglycerols, solanachromene and others were determined on total ion chromatograms according to authentic components, wavelength spectrum and mass spectrum. The whole area of identified entities among the ones detected on total ion chromatogram reached to over 60% and major entities among those identified showed favorable linearity of determination coefficient of over 0.99. The developed method and data processing procedure were therefore considered feasible for subsequent multivariate analysis. Data matrix consisting of a number of entities was then subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis. Cultivars of tobacco leaves were distributed far from each cultivar on PCA score plot and each cluster seemed to be characterized by identified non-volatile components with low polarity. While fluecured Virginia (FCV) was loaded by solanachromene, phytosterol esters and triacylglycerols, free phytosterols and chlorophylls loaded Burley (BLY) and Oriental (ORI) respectively. Consequently the whole methodology consisting of comprehensive method and data processing procedure proved useful to determine key-components among cultivars of tobacco leaves, and was expected to additionally expand coverage that metabolomics study has ensured. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 27 (2016) 60-73]</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2016-05-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of Type and Amount of Carbon in Cigarette Filters on Smokers’ Mouth Level Exposure to “Tar”, Nicotine, 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Isoprene, and Acrylonitrilehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/cttr-2016-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Activated carbons are effective adsorbents for many volatile organic compounds and are used in cigarette filters to remove selected smoke toxicants. Polymer-derived carbon is more effective in removing many vapour phase toxicants found in cigarette smoke than coconut-shell-derived carbon. We compared mouth-level exposure to “tar”, nicotine and five vapour phase constituents (1,3- butadiene, benzene, toluene, isoprene, acrylonitrile) in two groups of Romanian smokers of 4-mg or 8-mg International Organization for Standardization (ISO) “tar” bands. Test cigarettes with 4 and 8 mg ISO “tar” were manufactured for the study with two target levels of polymer-derived carbon (30 mg and 56 mg), along with control cigarettes containing a target level of 56 mg of coconut-shell-derived carbon in both “tar” bands. No significant differences were found between mouth-level exposure to “tar” or nicotine yields obtained from control and test products (p &gt; 0.05) in either ISO “tar” band. Mouth-level exposure to each of the five vapour phase constituents was significantly lower from the test products with polymer-derived carbon (p &lt; 0.0001) than from control cigarettes with coconut-shell-derived carbon, by an average of 25% with 30 mg polymer-derived carbon and around 50% with 56 mg. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 27 (2016) 40-53]</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2016-05-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Nicotine Analysis in Several Non-Tobacco Plant Materialshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/cttr-2016-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Present study describes the determination of nicotine in various plant samples with a low content of this compound. Nicotine is found naturally in plants from the Solanaceae family. The plants from Nicotiana genus contain large levels of nicotine. However, only low levels are present in plants from Solanum genus including potato, tomato, eggplant, and from Capsicum genus, which are used as food. Because the levels of nicotine in these materials are in the range of parts per billion, the measurements are difficult and the results are very different from study to study. The present study evaluated the level of nicotine in a number of plants (fruits, roots, leaves, tubers) from Solanaceae family (not including Nicotiana genus) and from several other vegetables commonly used as food. The analysis consisted of the treatment of plant material with an aqueous solution 5% NaOH at 70°C for 30 min, followed by extraction with TBME containing d<sub>3</sub>-nicotine as an internal standard. The TBME organic layer was analyzed on a 7890B/7000C GC-MS/MS system with a 30 m × 0.25 mm, 0.25 μm film CAM column. The MS/MS system worked in MRM positive ionization mode monitoring the transition 162 - 84 for nicotine and 165 - 87 for d<sub>3</sub>-nicotine. Particular attention was given to the preservation of the intact levels of nicotine in the plant material. The plant material was analyzed as is, without drying and with minimal exposure to contaminations. Separately, the moisture of the plant material was measured in order to report the nicotine level on a dry-basis. Levels of nicotine around 180 ng/g dry material were obtained for tomatoes and eggplant (fruit) and lower levels were obtained for green pepper and potato. Similar levels to that in the tomato fruit were detected in tomato leaves. Materials from other plant families also showed traces of nicotine. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 27 (2016) 54-59]</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2016-05-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Cross-Sectional Relations Between Slim Cigarettes and Smoking Prevalencehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/cttr-2016-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Slim cigarettes were defined in the 2012 draft European Union-Tobacco Product Directive (EU-TPD) as cigarettes with a diameter of less than 7.5mm. Allegations that slim cigarettes may negatively impact tobacco control efforts led the European Commission to propose a ban on them in 2012, which was ultimately rejected. This study investigated whether there is any association between slim cigarettes and smoking prevalence rates, in order to see if these allegations are justified. Data was compiled on the market share of slim cigarettes and smoking prevalence rates from the years 2012, 2006 and 1996. The core 2012 sample (once data limitations were accounted for) consisted of 95 countries. Raw correlations between market shares of slim cigarettes and smoking prevalence rates were first examined, followed by multivariate cross-country regressions where various factors were controlled for. This was done for overall smoking prevalence, as well as for male and female prevalence separately. </p> <p>Although raw correlations between the slim cigarette market share and smoking prevalence were sometimes positive and statistically significant, this result disappeared in all cases except for one when potential confounding factors were fully controlled for. The correlation between slim cigarette market share and smoking prevalence remained significant only for males in 2012 at levels of statistical significance of 10% or above when cultural and socio-economic factors were fully controlled for. Importantly, for females no positive statistically significant correlations between the slim cigarette market share and smoking prevalence were found for any year. The cross-country variation in smoking prevalence was substantially explained by a number of regional and cultural dummies, as well as socio-economic factors. </p> <p>This study has found no indication that a higher market share of slim cigarettes was associated with greater smoking prevalence among females, and has failed to find a strong indication among males, once confounding factors were controlled for. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 27 (2016) 75-99]</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2016-05-18T00:00:00.000+00:00An Experimental Analytical and Approach to Bridge Between Different Heated Tobacco Product Variantshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cttr-2022-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Tobacco heating products (THPs) have reduced toxicant emissions relative to cigarettes. THPs are continually evolving, but safety and efficacy studies on each new variant involve considerable resources. As employed by the pharmaceutical industry, a “bridging” process could be used to demonstrate product equivalence.</p> <p>Therefore, we investigated the feasibility of a bridging approach by evaluating aerosol emissions and <italic>in vitro</italic> cytotoxicity of five variant THPs in relation to a base product. All products were compared to a reference cigarette and a commercial benchmark. Relative to smoke, chemical reductions in THP aerosols were comparable among the THPs at 94–97%. The aerosols showed similar cytotoxicity in human lung tissues exposed at the air-liquid interface (p = 0.8378) but were significantly less toxic than smoke (p = 0.04). Relative to the THP benchmark, variant THPs showed lower cytotoxicity (p = 0.0141). Emissions and cytotoxicity data demonstrated that the variant THPs were comparable to the base THP, irrespective of consumable format or flavour. This dataset demonstrates the feasibility of a bridging approach and can inform an evidence-based strategy in developing sufficient data to predict similarity against an already established dataset. Therefore, avoiding repetition of vast data generation could ease authorisation requirements of newer products. Finally, we propose that more work is required to understand chemical, biological (<italic>in vitro</italic>), human consumption, and clinical data before the equivalence of these products (and others) can be definitively demonstrated. Future studies maybe needed to assess additional chemical and biological outputs and all data will need to be contextualised against human consumption data in terms of a bridging framework.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Does the Level of NNK in Tobacco and Tobacco Products Depend on the Level of Pseudooxynicotine or of Nicotine-1′--Oxide?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cttr-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>4-(<italic>N’</italic>-methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is a potentially carcinogenic tobacco specific nitrosamine (TSNA) and an important compound in the Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents (HPHCs) list of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). For this reason, significant effort is being made for an understanding of the formation of this compound and for the reduction of its level in tobacco products. Formation of NNK is assumed to be the result of nitrosation of 4-(methylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (pseudooxynicotine or PON). Present study evaluated the correlation between the levels of NNK and those of PON in a variety of tobaccos and tobacco products. Since nicotine-1′-<italic>N</italic>-oxide can be involved in the formation of PON, the correlation of the levels of this compound with the levels of NNK was also evaluated. Two original methods were developed for the quantitation of PON in tobacco and tobacco products and a well-established method has been used for the analysis of NNK. The correlation between the levels of NNK with that of PON was proven to be very poor. The same result was obtained for the correlation between NNK levels and nicotine-1′-<italic>N</italic>-oxide. This indicated that a higher level of PON or of nicotine-1′-<italic>N</italic>-oxide in tobacco or tobacco products does not lead to a higher level of NNK. The study does not prove that NNK in tobacco or tobacco products is not generated via PON, but it demonstrated that the limiting factor in the formation of NNK in tobacco and tobacco products is not the level of PON or that of nicotine-1′-<italic>N</italic>-oxide, and other factors are responsible for the effectiveness of NNK formation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Nicotine and Inflammatory Disease in Humans: A Systematic Reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cttr-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Previous studies have shown that nicotine interacts in inflammatory pathways and may have both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions. The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review of publications investigating the inflammatory effects of nicotine in models of human disease.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklists were followed during the design and implementation of this study. Searches were carried out across PubMed, Science Direct, and the Cochrane Library. Articles were included if they were published in English, in peer-reviewed journals, reported an effect of nicotine in the treatment of a clinical condition, experimental studies or clinical trials which investigated an effect of nicotine administration in patients with a clinical condition or epidemiological studies which investigated an effect of nicotine administration in patients with a clinical condition.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Thirty-eight studies were identified and categorized into disease areas before systematic review. Nineteen studies were related to digestive diseases (primarily Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis), six to atherosclerosis, five to skin and healing, four to pain and infection, three to pulmonary sarcoidosis, and three to multiple sclerosis (one study reported data on three disease areas). Risk of bias assessment was not carried out, but the general quality of the studies was low, mostly offering preliminary data in small numbers of participants. No consistent effects of nicotine treatment (primarily through use of transdermal nicotine patches or nicotine chewing gums) were reported across any of the disease models.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>No reliable evidence of a pro- or anti-inflammatory effect of nicotine was observed in patients with any of the diseases included in this study.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Daily Time-Restricted Feeding And Alternative Day Fasting For Weight Management: Comparative Analysishttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/prolas-2022-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The approach of limiting nutritional intake frequency, but without a large reduction of the amount of calories consumed, the so-called intermittent fasting, has gained growing popularity. Intermittent fasting is an umbrella term for meal timing schedules that cycle between voluntary fasting (or vastly reduced calories intake) and non-fasting over a defined period. In our study, we compared two of the most popular intermittent fasting regimens — 16/8 time-restricted feeding and 5/2 alternate day fasting. A total of 16 healthy young women (under 30 years of age) participated in the study, eight in each intermittent fasting group, for six consecutive weeks. Among anthropometric parameters, height, weight, umbilical waist circumference, sagittal abdominal diameter, and skinfold thickness were measured and body mass index and relative body fat were calculated. Differences between the initial values and the values after the six-week intermittent fasting period were calculated and compared between the two groups. We found no statistically significant difference (<italic>p</italic> &gt; 0.05) between 16/8 time-restricted feeding and 5/2 alternate day fasting regimens in differences over the six-week period for the tested parameter, including weight loss. As there were no significant differences for overall changes in parameter values in the six-week period between the two intermittent fasting regimens, we concluded that both were equally suitable for weight loss programmes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Body Muscle Mass Metabolic Data Analysis in Association with Crohn’s Disease Activityhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/prolas-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Malnutrition is a common complication of Crohn’s disease (CD) patients and it is correlated with alterations of the body composition and disease activity. Our prospective pilot study included hospitalised CD patients, age ≥ 18 years. Patients were assessed using the Nutritional Risk Score (NRS2002), the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), and body bioelectrical impedance analysis. Twenty-three hospitalised patients (median age 36.5, interquartile range (IQR): 28.5–51.5 years) were enrolled; the median CD activity index was 128 (IQR = 6.0–207.0). The study group comprised 48% (n = 11) patients with low CD activity and 52% (n = 12) with high disease activity. According to NRS2002 and MUST, 70% (n = 16) CD patients had malnutrition risk and were in need of nutritional support. The median BMI was lower for the CD group (21.10 [IQR = 19.2–23.3]) than for the control group (23.4 [IQR = 21.5–25.8]) (p = 0.014). In terms of deviation from standard weight, 39% (n = 9) of CD patients showed reduced % body fat. Reduced muscle mass was observed in 48% (n = 11) of CD patients. CD patients with high disease activity had a noticeably increased risk of malnutrition. Identification of the reduction in soft lean muscle mass in CD patients can be used as an anticipatory indicator of disease activity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of The Roast Level on Chemical Composition of Coffee from Colombiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/prolas-2022-0022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>During the roasting process, a cascade of chemical reactions occur, from which non-volatile compounds degrade and form new compounds with potential aroma attributes. Considering that the roasting process significantly influences the biologically active compound concentration and some unwanted compound formation, such as acrylamide, it is crucial to understand the roasting process from both positive and negative aspects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition changes in different roast level coffee samples from Colombia. The moisture, pH, acrylamide, total phenolic, and flavonoid content, and the volatile compound profile were analysed for coffee samples roasted at three different roast levels (light, medium, dark). The results showed a decrease of total phenolic and flavonoid concentration with increased roast level. Acrylamide concentration reached the highest peak in the medium roasted and the lowest in dark roasted coffee. With increasing roast level, the volatile organic acid concentration decreased, while furan and phenol compound concentration increased in the dark roasted coffee. Dark roasted coffee had the lowest acrylamide and organic acid concentration, and the highest pH in brew, which would be more suitable for coffee consumers with a sensitive stomach.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Sprouted Hulless Barley Grains and their Application Possibilities for the Functional Sweet Snacks Developmenthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/prolas-2022-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Currently, consumption of confectionery continues to grow, and there is a tendency to supplement snacks with ingredients that can be considered as functional products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits of sprouted barley grains and their potential use in barley-fruit-vegetable snack production. Several samples of sweet bars with hulless barley variety ‘Kornelija’ flour and sprouted, crushed barley grain, dried fruit and vegetables were prepared. The chemical composition including the concentration of biologically active compounds (total concentration of phenols, flavonoids and tannins, as well as antioxidant activity) of untreated and sprouted grains was determined. The results showed that protein concentration of barley-fruit-vegetable bars varied from 8.65% to 10.85% and ß-glucans concentration varied from 0.77% to 2.19%. Their nutritional value varied from 1079.33 to 1430.41 kJ. Total fibre concentration of unsprouted, 24 h and 36 h sprouted grains was 26.30%, 25.80%, and 24.60%, respectively. Total phenol concentration of unsprouted barley grains was on average 273.14 mg·100 g<sup>−1</sup> and flavonoid concentration was 290.25 mg·100 g<sup>−1</sup>, and for sprouted grains — 258.98 mg·100 g<sup>−1</sup> and 256.19 mg·100 g<sup>−1</sup>, respectively. The evaluators preferred bars made from ground sprouted hulless barley grains ‘Kornelija’ — 7.4, according to the sensory analysis — hedonic scale.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Quality of Different Coloured Tomatoes Depending on the Growing Seasonhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/prolas-2022-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Tomatoes have been widely used in nutrition, as well as in nutritional medicine. Red tomatoes are used for the treatment of anaemia, they contain the antioxidant lycopene, and the high concentration of organic acids promotes digestion. Yellow tomatoes have valuable amounts of ß-carotene, the pigment that gives orange and yellow tomatoes their colour, and helps to neutralise free radicals that may damage cells. The size of brown tomatoes is smaller than an average tomato, but they are sweeter, due to higher concentration of fructose. Cherry tomatoes are among the smallest tomatoes commercially available, but they are known for being rich in carotenoids, lycopene and phenolic compounds. The aim of the study was to evaluate how the concentration of biologically active substances differs depending on the tomato growing season. The study examined four varieties of tomatoes (Bolzano F1 — yellow, Chocomate F1— brown, Encore F1 — red, Strabena F1— red cherry) grown in an industrial greenhouse “Mežvidi” (Latvia) using additional light. The concentration of biologically active substances (lycopene, ß-carotene, total phenolic compounds, and soluble solids) was determined in two vegetation periods — autumn (November) and spring (March). The obtained results showed that tomatoes harvested in autumn contained more biologically active substances than in spring, as many biological processes in plants occur more rapidly at the beginning rather than in the middle or at the end of the vegetation season. Therefore, the concentration of secondary metabolites in tomatoes is higher at the end of the season. In autumn, cherry tomatoes Strabena contained the highest amount of pigments, total phenols, and soluble solids, and therefore the taste index of this variety also was the highest. In spring, pigment concentration was significantly lower (on average by 20–30%), and phenols and soluble solids concentration (<sup>o</sup>Brix) was not significantly lower — on average by 2–4%. Of the large-fruit tomatoes, at the beginning of vegetation season (autumn), the highest amounts of pigments were in red tomatoes (Encore) — lycopene concentration 4.63 ± 0.04 mg·100 g<sup>−1</sup>; yellow tomatoes Bolzano were rich in phenolic compounds — 128.46 ± 3.25 GAE mg·100<sup>−1</sup>, and brown tomatoes Chocomate had the highest soluble solids concentration — 4.48 ± 0.05 <sup>o</sup>Brix. In spring, the concentration of biologically active substances was lower on average by 10–15%, regardless of the colour and variety of the tomato.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Concentration of Bioactive and Mineral Compounds in Enteral Tube Feed Products Made of Plant-Based Ingredientshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/prolas-2022-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nowadays available products for enteral nutrition are supplemented with synthetic ingredients. The effectiveness of these products is undeniable in the medical industry, but there is concern about bioavailability of synthetic vitamin and mineral compounds in comparison to naturally occurring ones. The aim of this study was to create plant-based formulations for enteral tube feed and to determine their bioactive compound and mineral compound concentration in comparison with the values recommended by the European regulations for special medical purpose food that is not meant to satisfy the nutritional requirements of infants. For this study, five enteral tube feed formulas were made from fruit, berry, and vegetable semi-finished products with added whey protein isolate, canola oil, cod liver oil, iodised salt, and ascorbic acid. The samples were thermally processed and concentration of vitamin C, total carotenes, total phenols and mineral compounds: P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Se was determined. All samples showed &lt; 20 mg·kg<sup>−1</sup> per sample of Se, and also concentration of Zn was under the (EU) 2016/128 requirements. However, concentration of Mg (345.2 to 420 mg·100 kcal<sup>−1</sup> of product) and K (29.2 to 39.2 mg·100 kcal<sup>−1</sup> of product) exceeded the maximum levels. Also, the concentration of vitamin C exceeded the maximum, by average two times per sample, as L-ascorbic acid was added in response to previous experiments showing unsatisfying levels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-03T00:00:00.000+00:00The 3 International Conference “Nutrition and Health”, 9–11 December 2020https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/prolas-2022-0025ARTICLE2022-03-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Biodegradable Packaging on the Shelf-Life of Pasteurised Whole Egg Masshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/prolas-2022-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the effect of two types of packaging on the change in quality indicators of pasteurised liquid egg mass. Traditionally, the shelf-life of pasteurised liquid egg mass is up to 28 days. The increase in shelf-life would increase the exportation options of this product. The liquid egg mass was pasteurised on the equipment Ovobel AR56SH; the pasteurisation process continued for 60 minutes, reaching a maximum temperature from 65 °C to 68 °C (hold time: 360 seconds). This paper focuses on two main packaging materials: high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and Tetra Rex® Bio-based. Forty-two samples of each packaging material were used to study the contents. Changes in the quality of samples during storage were estimated by measuring the total bacterial count (CFU/g) from 200 at the start of shelf-life up to 30×10<sup>5</sup> units (LVS ISO 4833-1:2014). Data in the test was explored with Anova: Single Factor statistical model and correlation method. Data that was obtained emphasises the importance of packaging type, which could provide stable quality of ready-to-use products for a duration of up to forty-five days.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Quality Parameters of Horizontally Spray-Dried Fermented Cabbage Juicehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/prolas-2022-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the production of fermented cabbage, cell juice of cabbage is released, which is highly saturated in biologically active compounds, but is considered as a by-product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality parameters of dehydrated fermented cabbage juice using maltodextrin as a coating agent at various concentrations. In this experiment, fermented cabbage juice was used — spray dried on a horizontal spray-dryer and maltodextrin, in different concentrations (0; 5; 10%). Physical (water activity, solubility, salt content, and moisture), chemical (total phenolic concentration, antiradical activity, and organic and titratable acid concentration) and microbiological (total plate count and lactic acid bacteria) analyses were carried out. The major acids identified were oxalic, quinic, lactic, and acetic acid. Total phenol concentration was influenced by the concentration of maltodextrin used with higher values in the samples with no coating agent. The total viability of microorganisms and lactic acid bacteria (8.9·10<sup>3</sup> – 4.2·10<sup>4</sup> colony forming units (CFU)·g<sup>−1</sup>) did not reach the probiotic potential according to FAO and WHO. Salt concentration ranged from 8.9% to 14.3%, moisture content was 5.3 % to 7.03%, solubility in water — 81.74% to 82.8%. Horizontal spray drying with maltodextrin as a coating agent proved to be a suitable solution to obtain an innovative product — dehydrated fermented cabbage juice.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Socioeconomic Factors and Changes in Food Choice and Availability During COVID-19 Restrictions in Latviahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/prolas-2022-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The COVID-19 pandemic changed the life of many. The study aimed to identify fragile groups of the population regarding nutrition during the COVID-19 restriction period. An online survey was conducted from 26 July to 3 September 2020. A total of 1173 answers were received from persons aged 18–68 years living in Latvia. The results showed that food availability mainly was not limited, although for 15.3% responders restrictions caused increased worries about not having enough food, and 12.2% noted a decrease in the ability to eat preferred food. Responders aged 40–54 noted that they ate less, and that their food stocks were scarce in comparison with other age groups. Almost 50% of responders increased food consumption. One-fifth of responders increased consumption of foods of low nutritional value, especially among 25–39 year old persons and in households where the economic situation became worse. Fragile groups regarding nutrition in times of COVID-19 restrictions included households whose economic situation became worse during the COVID-19 restrictions, younger people who increased food consumption together with consumption of food of low nutritional value, and persons aged 40–54 years. The data from the study serve as an indicator that more detailed research is needed to determine whether crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic are changing dietary habits and food availability in the population.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-03T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1