rss_2.0Geosciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Geosciences Feed Integrated Approach for Water Quality Modelling of Soan River Using HEC-RAS<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Water quality modeling has been shown to be a useful tool in strategic water quality management. In this study, HEC-RAS model was employed to assess the water quality of Soan River. The model was calibrated and validated successfully by evaluation through NSE and R<sup>2</sup> values. The simulated BOD and DO values were found to be in agreement with the measured values. Furthermore, the findings revealed that the Soan River was polluted downstream of the Kaak Bridge due to industrialization and urbanization along the River’s banks. The HEC-RAS model is a useful tool for managing water quality and making decisions. Furthermore, many situations were investigated in order to provide appropriate options for River water quality management. Sewage effluents, agricultural runoff and industrial effluents were found to be responsible for the high nutrient levels in the River which in turn reduced DO levels and increased BOD. The requirement for comprehensive integrated models that can be used to make defensible decisions is now important for the long-term management of aquatic ecosystems. The uncertainty surrounding the outcomes of integrated modelling studies makes it difficult for water resource managers to execute them.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00An Approach to Real-Time Collision Avoidance for Autonomous Vehicles Using LiDAR Point Clouds<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper proposes a novel approach for solving the problem of collision avoidance for autonomous vehicles starting from data provided by LiDAR sensors. Rather than attempting the actual recognition of pedestrians or other moving or static objects – as in the solutions based on machine learning - we define “safety bubbles” around the vehicle and all the other moving entities identified within the on-vehicle LiDAR sensing area, and issue a signal for the upper control layers when the boundary of the vehicle’s safety bubble intersects with other objects’ bubbles. The shape and size of these safety bubbles are dynamically adjusted depending on the speed of the objects. This solution is an extension/adaptation of an idea successfully applied in one of our previous works in the context of the problem of obstacle avoidance for mobile robots. The proposed algorithm was tested using CARLA simulator with promising results, as it reduces the required computational load, so that it can be used in real time, with commercially available LiDAR sensors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00A Simplified Numerical Approach to Predict Bearing Capacity of Soil for Shallow Foundation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For the safe and economical design of a foundation under any civil engineering structure, precise estimation of the ultimate bearing capacity (UCB) of soil beneath the foundation is of significant concern. Numerous researchers have contributed to these field and proposed theories and equations to predict the subsoil’s ultimate bearing capacity. But determining the approximate value of bearing capacity depends on soil type and its characteristics, groundwater table, types of loads, loaded area of footing, depth of footing, etc. Moreover, deciding the appropriate depth and size of footing is a crucial task. This paper aims to propose a simplified numerical approach to predict the bearing capacity of soil beneath the foundation (NABBSF) using MATLAB software. Considering shear failure and excessive settlement criteria, this model will predict the ultimate, safe, and allowable soil bearing capacity beneath an isolated footing at different depths. The validity and accuracy of the proposed model is verified by comparing it with real field data.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00User Expectation and Benefits of Implementing Artificial Intelligence in the UAE Energy Sector<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Energy is one of the most fundamental elements to drive economic development. Therefore, it is a significant element of the economic development of UAE. United Arab Emirates (UAE) is keen to exploit the benefits of AI to deliver clean, secure, affordable energy. Thus this paper studied the benefits and user expectations if AI is adopted in the energy sector. This was achieved through a questionnaire amongst the personnel working in the energy sector. From the analysis of 350 completed questionnaire form, this was found that “AI able to increase employees’ job performance”; “AI able to improve the customer retention” and “AI bring positive impact to the organization” are three significant benefits of AI implementation in energy sector. Similarly, “Using AI Technology fits well with the way I work”, “Interacting with AI Technology is often frustrating” and “Assistance is available if facing difficulty using AI Technology” are three major expectations of the users. Further, the difference of the opinions amongst the respondent groups with different level of working experience and working positions was presented based on comparing means. The findings of this study will encourage the practitioners to implement AI in energy sector. This will also enhance the performance of the energy sector.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Static Parametric Stress-Strain Analysis for Asphaltic Concrete Core of Rockfill Dams<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study was conducted to investigate the effect of variations in the asphaltic concrete core Rockfill dam geometric parameters on the core behavior at different upper, middle, and lower points under two-dimensional static stress-strain analysis. The mentioned analysis was performed using SIGMA/W software. In the modeling and analysis process, the geometry of a large number of dams constructed around the world was studied and many numerical models with variations in eight classes of height, three dams upstream/downstream slope modes, and three different asphaltic core positions and thicknesses on a rigid foundation were created and analyzed. In addition, for each of the above models, four dam operation stages including “End of Construction”, “Full Reservoir”, “Half-Full Reservoir”, and “Rapid Drawdown” were considered. The results show, in four different stages of construction and impounding and three different slope modes, the maximum stress as well as horizontal and vertical displacements at the upper, middle, and lower points of the core increase with increasing height. In all models, increasing upstream and downstream slopes results in an increase in the amount of vertical displacement for all construction and impounding stages at the upper, middle, and lower points of the core. In the middle and lower points of the core, with increasing height, the amount of deviatoric stress increases for all construction and impounding conditions. In addition, for all operation cases, the maximum strain increases in all points of the vertical and tilted cores as the core thickness increases. Additional results are presented in the next sections.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigating the Response of Single Pile Under Pure Torsion<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The single pile is a structural element that has an important role in supporting any part of the superstructure. This paper adopted three dimensional finite element modelling by using ANSYS to discover the influence of soil size domain on pile diameter, pile length, load eccentricity and torsion magnitude. One type of soil was used and described by Drucker-Prager model. The numerical analysis has been performed to show how the variation in soil size domain effects on the behaviour of single pile under torsion load. The procedure which is adopted in the investigation depends on fixing all variables and changing one variable to show the impact of this variable on the pile response considering soil domain variation. From the investigation, it is obvious that the pile diameter, eccentricity and torsion load have a major influence on the pile response, while the pile length has a minor influence on the pile response. Here, the increase in pile diameter reduces the load transfer to the soil; also the increase in eccentricity increases the load transfer to the soil while the increase in soil domain reduces the pile response. When the torsion load increases the pile response increases too. The pile response refers to displacement, rotation, shear force and bending moment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00An Automated Algorithm for the Sectional Analysis of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Columns<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article aims to describe an automatic calculation algorithm developed for the analysis of reinforced concrete and / or prestressed concrete cross sections. The sectional analysis consists in the generation of two characteristic curves: the bending moment - curvature (<italic>M-1/r</italic>) and the axial force - bending moment (<italic>N-M</italic>), the calculation approach and the implementation of the algorithm being briefly described by the mathematical equations used. To verify the calculation algorithm, the results were compared with those obtained from experimental tests in the laboratory but also with numerical simulations using commercial computational software based on the finite element method (FEM). The algorithm was written in the MATLAB programming language. The results obtained with the developed algorithm show conservative results when compared to the experimental ones. Moreover, the bending moment resistance for prestressed concrete columns using bonded tendons is better estimated with at least 10% when compared with the one obtained with a fiber based cross section nonlinear analyses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Prediction of Fresh and Hardened Properties of Self-Compacting Heavy-Weight Concrete Using Response Surface<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study is to investigate the fresh and hardened properties of the self-compacting heavy-weight concrete (SCHWC) and to develop a mathematical model for the prediction of these properties. The binder was the Portland cement and fly ash (FA). Barite aggregate was used to achieve the heavy-weight concrete (HWC). A polycarboxylate based super plasticizer was used to increase workability and reach self-compacting feature. To research the fresh and hardened properties SCHWC many concrete mixes were prepared accordingly with “water-cement ratios”, “total aggregate-cement ratios”, and “fly ash-cement ratios”. These samples were tested to get the slump-flow, V-funnel, 7 and 28-day compressive strength values. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to develop regression equations using these experimental results. It is observed that the estimated values obtained with RSM are compatible with those obtained by the experimental method for the fresh and hardened properties of SCHWC.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparative Studies and Research on Energy Optimization of Non-Residential Buildings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Statistics confirm that in the EU, buildings consume approx. 40% of final energy, which accounts for 36% of total European greenhouse gas production after energy consumption. Energy efficiency measures are urgently needed to effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Decreasing fossil fuel consumption would have a major impact on declining energy demand per unit of gross domestic product. In 2014, European leaders adopted the ambitious Climate and Energy Framework 2030, in which the three key targets were raised: a 40% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030, a 27% reduction in RES and a 27% increase in energy efficiency. Then, in November 2016, the European Commission (EC) proposed the Clean Energy for All Europeans package, designed to support and accelerates the transition to a carbon-free energy system. This paper comprises a case study of the current situation of these matters in Romania and focuses on steps and methodology of what actions are reliable and available to be put into practice on this matter.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Post COVID-19 Access-Egress Attributes for Urban Metro Transit Users in Delhi<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The BLUE line of Delhi Metro (DM) has been examined to identify the post COVID-19 access–egress attributes of users. An on-board survey of metro commuters is conducted in February and March 2021. The respondents reported six different modes for access and egress trips to nearest metro stations with 38.7% and 43% users opting for walking for access-egress trip respectively. The E-rickshaw is observed to be most preferred para-transit mode whereas private vehicle has small mode share for access-egress trip. It is revealed that 46.5% of respondents are captive riders whereas 51% owns at least one motorized private vehicle. The average access and egress distance covered by walking is (0.81+ 0.32/0.35) Km respectively. The average access and egress trip time by walking is (11.19+3.73) and (11.07+4.45) minutes respectively. The average access and egress trip time by E-rickshaw is (13.21+4.09) and (12.56+2.95) minutes respectively. The access and egress trip time by motorized modes are in the range of (12.36-14.39) and (10.41-13.56) minutes respectively. The average main haul distance across all access-egress modes is observed to be (19.69+11.19) Km. To understand the factors influencing the access–egress mode choice multinomial logistic (MNL) regression models are proposed. The access-egress time and distance are observed to be significant factors in access-egress mode choice. Less parking facility offered by DM is significant factor in access mode choice. Occasional commuters are only significant factor in context with frequency of travelling in DM.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of Physical Chemical Drinking Water Quality Parameters in Sialkot<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to increasing in urbanization, agricultural and various human activities are being increased which caused the contamination of surface water and ground water. Present demand of drinking water is not sufficient which should be safe and clean but it is contaminated now a day’s coming from different sources. Various treatments and methods are adopted to upgrade the quality of drinking water. Water should be free from the various contaminations viz. Organic and Inorganic pollutants, Heavy metals, Pesticides etc. as well as all its parameter like pH, Conductivity, Calcium, Magnesium, Total Hardness, Carbonate, Bicarbonate, Chloride, Total Dissolved Solid, Alkalinity, Sodium Potassium, Nitrate should be within a permissible limit. For this purpose, different samples were collected from different sources. Category 1: piped water, Category 2: Boreholes with hand pump average depth is 30m, Category 3: Society supply line, Category 4: Simple open hand dug wells that do not sealed walls average depth 5m, Category 5: Surface water. These samples were analyzed for their physical-chemical and microbiological quality (pH, Conductivity, Turbidity, Hardness &amp; Total dissolved solids) in order to identify the rate of contamination and suggest appropriate solutions. Different diseases are accrued in human body which is identified due to the contaminated water. By chemical testing, it can be identified and then suggested some methods of treatment to purify the water for drinking purposes. All parameters are confirmed by comparing with World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Results concluded that quality of drinking water have been adequate of category 3 in which drinking water coming from society treatment plant but category 2 also lies within the acceptable range.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Modelling of in Earthen Dam Under the Effect of Seismic Loading, Case of the Taksebt Dam (Algeria)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The prediction of displacements in earthen dams after seismic loading is necessary to ensure their proper functioning. In this study, the finite element software plaxis 2D is used to model the nonlinear dynamic behavior (elasto-plastic) of the embankment dam solicited by real seismic records. The earth dam considered in our case study is the Taksebt dam located in the north-east of Algeria. The main steps of the modeling are the following: first the dam of Taksebt was analyzed under seismic stresses without water (empty). Then the dam of Taksebt is subjected to the same seismic records with water (full). The comparison of the study cases allows us to estimate the displacements in the two main directions (horizontal and vertical).The results obtained show the ability to estimate the displacements in an embankment dam under seismic excitation. In addition, the analysis time will be reduced considerably by considering the two extreme cases of seismic loading.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparative Studies and Research on Optimizing Electric Consumption of Water Supply Systems<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Water Supply Systems (WSS) can very well be dubbed as the backbone of every major human settlement for thousands of years at this point as every major human settlement throughout history has, regardless of time period or rural/urban erection or evolution has had its emplacement close to if not dead center over a significant water source that can provide this valuable and desperately needed resource to the populace. Of course, with the passage of time and the ever increasing number of the population and their life style, new techniques and technologies were incorporated within the grand design of the water supply pipeline, mainly automation and operation reliability boosts by means of electricity. It is a given that electrical current is not cheap to produce and maintain, although it is a field of ongoing study and research when it comes to optimizing the energy consumption of any system that runs on this costly resource, both for making the overall operation of the entire system more reliable but also more economical, all the while taking inspiration of multiple specialty works published within this field and, of course, already established local and European Union standards within Romania.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Building Information Modeling in Construction Industry of Pakistan: Merits, Demerits and Barriers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years, Building Information Modelling (BIM) is much popularized as construction design approach. It is very useful in providing the necessary information for any project before it is built. BIM implementation has demonstrated several merits; however practitioners have also reported some demerits and barriers which restrict the adoption of BIM in the construction industry. This study assessed the merits, demerits and barrier to implementation of BIM in the construction industry of Pakistan. Data collected form 42 practitioners involved in handling construction BIM based construction projects was analyzed statistically with average index method. The results showed that significant merits of the BIM as perceived by the practitioners are BIM helps in improving quality of Work; BIM is useful in controlling time and cost of the project; and helps in achieving client satisfaction. At the same time, the respondents mentioned BIM adds work for the designer and Interoperability as the significant demerits. Assessment regarding the barriers to BIM showed that top 3 common barriers are: lack of competent staff to operate the software; unawareness of the technology; and not ready to distort normal operational structure. These findings will help the practitioner to take necessary measurement for enhancing the implementation of BIM in the construction industry.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Compact Testing of Total Station Instruments Using Folded Optics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An optimized compact-based method is introduced that verifies the distance measuring precision of surveying instruments. The paper describes the improvement of the compact based method not only in establishing a compact facility by using shorter lengths and folded path but also in the assessment process by implementing the official ISO standard for electronic distance measuring equipment (ISO 17123-4). The method produces statistically comparable results to ISO standards and is suited for regular instrument checks in institutions with limited space available.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Methods for Estimating Water Flows from Storms and Melting Snow – Case Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents a case study for the evaluation and comparison of three calculation methods in terms of taking the water flows resulting from storms and after melting snow for a metropolitan area, whose rainwater catchment system is the most often completely over run, with frequent flooding in the area. The study compares the results of three calculation methods by correlating the relationships and values used in the literature with the real situation determined on several calculation sections, on different water courses in the proposed area. Based on comparisons for the obtained results, the paper presents a series of conclusions that could be useful in urban systems projects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Based Concrete: Workability and Compressive Strength with Different Dosages and Curing Ages<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>To reduce the consumption of cement in construction industry has been a hot area of consideration now days due to high evolution of CO2 gases during its production. Since decades efforts are made to replace cement with cementitious materials; minerals, agricultural, industrial by products etc. A few are fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume, rice husk ash etc. These cementitious materials are often adopted as partial replacement of cement. However, their effectiveness and suitability as cementitious material depends upon their properties and the source of the production. Pakistan is an agricultural country and one of the major crops is Rice crop. It produces a substantial amount of rice husk during the processing g of the rice. A substantial amount of Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is produced on the burning of rice husk used as fuel in the rice mills while generating steam for parboiling process of rice grains. This ash causes the environmental problems also if not dumped properly. RHA is believed to have siliceous properties which may be used as supplementary cementitious material in concrete. As the suitability of supplementary cementitious materials is dependent upon the source of rice husk, temperature of burning of husk, its fineness and other properties. This study is focused on to determine the effect of rice husk ash produced by burning of the rice husk obtained from the local rice mills. Experimental investigation carried includes the determination of workability and compressive strength of concrete with different dosage of RHA from 5% to 30% with an increment of 5% tested at 1day, 3days, 7days and 28 days of the age of concrete. The results are compared with corresponding concrete without RHA and tested at the same ages. The results show the reduction in both the parameter; workability and compressive strength due to RHA particularly at its higher dosage beyond 10% by weight of cement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Risk Level of Design and Procurement Factors Causing Construction Waste Generation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Construction waste is a global concern among the practitioners and has got attention of the researchers for many years. This issue is serious in construction industry of Pakistan also and various researchers have contributed in addressing it. This paper identified design and procurement related factors and assessed their risk level in causing construction waste. Data was collected through questionnaire survey amongst the practitioners from client consultants and contractors working on construction projects in Karachi and Hyderabad division of the Sind province. A total of 72 completed questionnaire forms were analysed and the results shows that 8 of the 20 factors are highly important factors and fall in the red zone of the risk matrix. It was also observed that last minute client requirements is reported as most important factor in design related issues while “items not in compliance with specification” is the most risk factor in the category of the procurement. Besides these, “last minute client requirements” and “Mistakes in quantity surveys” are the key factors which have significant effect on project cost. The findings of this study will be helpful for the practitioner to improve design and procurement quality for controlling the waste generation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00The freedom to be sustainable, from the past to the future<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to investigate the historical evolution of the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR), with a particular focus on the main theories and events that led it to no longer be a voluntary choice but a necessity for the company’s long-term survival. The article will first analyze the main definitions in the literature to determine the aspects that characterize it. Subsequently, using a theoretical approach, a literature review will be performed to describe its historical evolution, starting from its birth during the Industrial Revolution period (1760-1840) up to the present day. The analysis results show that, in the scientific debate, the CSR concept was initially focused on the workers’ well-being and, subsequently, it expanded its scope and significance to include all stakeholders’ categories. Furthermore, it emerged that CSR become a necessity for the companies’ long-term survival, especially in the post-pandemic period. For this reason, companies must develop new business models to face sustainability issues and meet social needs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Aged people and tourism<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The increase in the elderly population is a phenomenon of growing importance with various repercussions on the economic side, both in terms of costs that society has to bear from a social and health care point of view, and in terms of opportunities for the various economic sectors that can see the third age as a possible market. The change in attitudes towards ageing has led to an increase in the proportion of older people who are actively living in the third age. Travelling, visiting new places and/or spending time away from home, even abroad, are activities that are now part of the lives of older people, at least those with an adequate income level. Consequently, the elderly have become potential users of the tourism sector: this article attempts to outline the dimensions and characteristics of this phenomenon.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1