rss_2.0Geosciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Geosciences Feed and coenotic features of the Syrovatka river basin in the Emerald network of the Sumy region, Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A number of studies were undertaken in the territory of the “Syrovatka river basin of the Emerald Network of Ukraine (UA0000428 Syrovatka river basin). Based on the data gathered from field work surveys of the area, the characteristics of the habitats (C1.222, C1.224, C1.32, C1.33, C2.33+, С2.34, C3.4, C3.51, D5.2, E1.2, E2.2, E3.4, E5.4, F3.247, F9.1+G1.11, G1.21+G1.41, G1.A1, G1.7, G1.8, G1.A4) are presented according to the area covered and their ecological features. Phytosociological characteristics of habitats were given. As a result of the analysis of the distribution of certain species of sozophytes, a brief description of the status of the identified populations was presented. Populations of vascular plant species protected in Europe (<italic>Ostericum palustre, Iris hungarica)</italic>, Ukraine (<italic>Epipactis helleborine, Lilium martagon, Platanthera bifolia</italic>), and at the regional level (<italic>Carpinus betulus</italic>, <italic>Campanula persicifolia</italic>, <italic>Calla palustris</italic>, <italic>Dryopteris cristata</italic>, <italic>Inula helenium</italic>, <italic>Utricularia vulgaris</italic>) have been studied in detail. The main threats to the existence of the natural complex of this area, which may appear in the situation of increasing economic impact are drainage and ploughing of floodplains, terracing, and afforestation of meadow-steppe slopes of the ravine. The typological characteristics of artificial and natural forest plantations of the territory were described based on the generalization of details gathered from information on their local management.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Relationship between densification and NDVI loss. A study using the Google Earth Engine at local scale<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Latin American cities are amongst those with the highest rates of urbanization in the world. This process has involved their territorial expansion as well as the densification of some of its neighborhoods, in mainly central areas. This is the case of the city of Santiago del Estero (Argentina) that increased its population by 33% between 1991 and 2010 with the consequent transformations of the local space. In this context, this study analyzes the evolution of vegetated areas and densification of the central area of the city using satellite data. We analyzed two indices: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and Urban Index (UI) time-series data, for the 1992–2011 year period, using the Google Earth Engine for processing Landsat 5 TM images. We found that the NDVI showed a decreasing trend in the timelapse under consideration, while the UI performance registered the opposite trend. The mean NDVI decreased from 0.161 (1992) to 0.103 (2011) while the UI mean increased from 0.003 to 0.036 in the same timelapse. Further, the NDVI has a strong negative correlation with UI (R-squared = -0.862). The results are consistent with the census information that recorded an important demographic and housing growth for the entire city in this period.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Observed climate trends, perceived impacts and community adaptation practices in Côte d’Ivoire<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Climate change is a serious threat to local communities in West Africa. This study evaluated climatic trends and the perceptions of farmers to climate change in central Côte d’Ivoire. We surveyed 259 households across three agro-ecological zones. The knowledge of farmers about climate change was compared to observed trends of various climatic parameters from meteorological records (1973-2016). Results from trend analysis and descriptive analysis showed that the minimum, maximum and mean temperatures and rainfall showed a significant upward trend in all ecoregions. The average temperature and amount of rainfall increased by 3.2% (0.89°C) and 166.58% (645.5 mm) respectively over the 44 years. Local farmers perceived an increasing trend in temperature (all respondents) and a decreasing trend in rainfall (91.51%). Most of the respondents identified deforestation (76.83%), natural climate variation (50.97%) and wildfires (31.27%) as the main causes of these climatic disturbances, which induced plant dieback (92.66%), poor crop growth (59.46%) and crop loss (20.46%). The impacts on people and their assets encompassed a decrease in household income (63.71%), demolition of roofs (44..4%) and walls (43.91%) of houses, the scarcity of water points (39.38%) and the emergence of new diseases (30.89%). These climatic disturbances resulted in specific endogenous on-farm and off-farm strategies to adapt to the impacts of observed changes on their livelihoods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Societal perception on environmental and socio-economic implications of (Hemsl.) A. Gray invasion in an Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Tithonia diversifolia</italic> (Hemsl.) A. Gray is an emerging and little studied plant invader in North East India, an Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. Identifying the impacts of its invasiveness in terms of both harmful and economically beneficial facets is required for the formulation and implementation of sustainable management options. An environmental and socio-economic implication survey through the pragmatic questionnaire method is a useful approach to explicitly elucidate the holistic influence of <italic>T. diversifolia</italic> on ecosystem resilience. The interaction of <italic>T. diversifolia</italic> with the local people of Mizoram was assessed in this study in terms of its effects on their livelihoods, socio-economic, and ecological factors. Results of the survey in relation to agricultural implications revealed that 42.68% of the respondents opined that the dried litter of <italic>T. diversifolia</italic> can improve soil fertility. Also, 63.41% people during their interview perceived <italic>T. diversifolia</italic> as an effective tool to prevent. However, 70.73% of rural people did not consider <italic>T. diversifolia</italic> to be a good source of livelihood for income generation or socio-economic status. Since, the respondents were not aware of chemical and biological control measures to regulate the spread of invasive alien plant species, physical methods such as slashing (46.34%), burning (13.41%), chopping and burning (29.27%) were widely applied for the control and management of invaded areas of <italic>T. diversifolia</italic> at selected study sites. Thus, the survey gave a brief idea to the other local people, farmers, and agriculturists of Mizoram to control the invasive spread of <italic>T. diversifolia</italic> in forestry and agroforestry systems. Also, other Himalayan landscapes infested with <italic>T. diversifolia</italic> can generate awareness and identify the sustainable strategy for their management to conserve the indigenous biodiversity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Anthropogenic and natural factors influencing African World Heritage sites<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents anthropogenic and natural factors influencing African World Heritage sites. The analysis was based on the data contained in the Conservation Outlook Assessments for 2020, including all sites on the African continent where natural values are protected, i.e., both natural (38) and mixed sites – natural and cultural (6). The assessment of current and potential threats and effectiveness of protection and management included 57 items, each of which was analyzed concerning all African properties. The results show that the African World Heritage sites are subject to various pressures from human activity and natural factors. The most common current threat is hunting and trapping, found in 33 sites. The spread of invasive (alien) species in 21 areas is second. Common threats (reported in 15-17 sites) include livestock farming and grazing, logging and wood collecting, fires, tourism, mining, and crops. The most frequently mentioned potential threats are mining, oil/gas exploration, construction of dams, and various effects of climate change – droughts, flooding, temperature extremes, and habitat shifting. The effectiveness of protection and management is not satisfactory. There are serious concerns related to law enforcement, sustainable finance, staff capacity, training, and development. Some concerns are directed to monitoring, tourism and visitation management, boundaries, and effectiveness of the management system. Results of a review show that, of all natural and mixed World Heritage sites in Africa for three areas, the conservation outlook is assessed as good, 15 – good with some concerns, 14 – significant concerns, and 12 – critical. In 2020, as many as 11 “in danger” sites were listed in Africa. At that time, there were 17 sites around the World in danger, i.e. as many as 70% of them were in Africa.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Resonance of a structure with soil elastic waves released in non-linear hysteretic soil upon unloading<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>High-frequency motion is often observed in small-scale experimental works carried out in flexible containers under simplified seismic loading conditions when single harmonic sine input motions are introduced at the base of a soil specimen. The source of the high-frequency motion has often been sought in experimental inaccuracies. On the other hand, the most recent numerical studies suggested that high-frequency motion in the steady-state dynamic response of soil subjected to harmonic excitation can also be generated as a result of soil elastic waves released in non-linear hysteretic soil upon unloading. This work presents an example of a finite element numerical study on seismic soil–structure interaction representative of an experimental setup from the past. The results show how high-frequency motion generated in soil in the steady-state response, apparently representative of soil elastic waves, affects the steady-state response of a structure, that is, it is presented how the structure in the analysed case resonates with the soil elastic waves. The numerical findings are verified against the benchmark experimental example to indicate similar patterns in the dynamic response of the structure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Maps from (1750): a listing of plates and states<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper sets out to attempt identification of all known plates used to print maps included in the <italic>Atlas Silesiae</italic> and of all identified states of these maps. While the early states of the <italic>Atlas</italic> maps are relatively well studied (though far not in every detail), printings pulled from the same though deeply reworked plates, published in Nurnberg in the first two decades of the 19<sup>th</sup> c., are not always recognised as the late states of the same maps. For each of twenty maps from <italic>Atlas Silesiae</italic> listed are all identified states together with the most distinctive differences between them. Eleven copies of <italic>Atlas Silesiae</italic> were also examined in search for possible regularities of their composition in terms of states of the included maps. Public collections with exemplary copies of the <italic>Atlas</italic> maps in each state identified in the paper are listed in the Appendix.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Verifying and improving map specifications of river network selection for automatic generalization of small-scale maps<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Automated generalization is highly desired for effective map production. This research focuses on the initial stage of generalization, namely object selection. The study aims to conduct river network automatic selection based on map specifications contained in the Minister of Internal Affairs and Administration regulation. The research covers river network selection from the General Geographic Objects Database from 1:250,000 to 1:500,000 detail level. Within the research scope, three selection variants were designed. The first was a basic variant that only included the implementation of the specifications contained in the regulation. The other two were experimental variants: an extended variant and an extended-modified variant with the parameters and data enrichment proposed by the authors. The extended variant has been supplemented with the Id_MPHP index usage, derived from the Map of Hydrographic Division of Poland (MPHP), which defines the hierarchy of watercourses in the river network. The extended-modified variant was implemented according to the guidelines of the regulation, with the use of the Id_MPHP index and additionally with the help of the parameter denoting “priority” watercourses, which was assigned by the authors. The results of the work constitute the generalization models designed in ArcMap 10.8. with the use of Model Builder functionality as well as the maps presenting the selection variants output visualizations. The results were compared visually as well as verified with the reference atlas map generalized by an experienced cartographer. As a result, the map specifications concerning the selection process presented in the regulation proved to be insufficient to generalize river networks properly. The variants proposed in this research made it possible to improve the selection results and enabled the automation of the river selection process. Additional specifications and parameters proposed in this work may constitute an essential supplement to the guidelines contained in the regulation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of Different Cryoprotectants, Cryoprotectant Concentrations and Extenders for Short Term Cryopreservation of African Catfish (Burchell, 1822) Milt<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Aquaculture of <italic>Clarias gariepinus</italic> is on the increase in Africa. Among the challenges to its production is the scarcity and high cost of broodstocks and sacrifice of the male during induced breeding. Cryopreservation of the milt of the species is a solution to this challenge. However, cryopreservation success depends on right extender, cryoprotectant and concentration. Phosphate buffered solution (PBS) and freshwater ringer solution (extenders), Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), glycerol and glucose (cryoprotectants) at 5% and 10% concentrations were used to investigate the best cryoprotectants, cryoprotectant concentrations and extenders for short term cryopreservation of <italic>Clarias gariepinus</italic> milt. Control using fresh milt was also set up. Fifteen each of matured male and female broodstocks of <italic>C. gariepinus</italic>, weighing between 1.1 – 2.0kg were used for the experiment. analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by comparison of means using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Percentage data were calculated prior to analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software (Version 16.0, 2005). Dimethyl sulphoxide + phosphate buffered solution (DP) had the highest fertilization rate of 65% and 78% for 5 and 10% cryoprotectant concentrations respectively. Lowest fertilization rate was in glucose + freshwater ringer solution (GF) with 5 and 10% concentration giving 5% and 8% fertilization. Fertilization in control was 88%. Hatching and survival followed fertilization trend with DP 10% &gt; DP 5% &gt; DF 10% &gt; GLP 10% &gt; DF 5% &gt; GLP 5 % &gt; GLF 10% &gt; GLF 5% &gt; GP 10% &gt; GP 5% &gt; GF 10% &gt; GF 5%. Good quality sperm used, non-toxicity and high permeability of DMSO, osmolality effect of PBS on milt were some of the factors responsible for the success of the cryopreservation. 10% DMSO and PBS are the best cryoprotectant and extender for short term cryopreservation of African catfish milt for at least 5 days.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Functional Connectivity of Naturally Valuable Habitats in the Jeseníky Protected Landscape Area<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper focuses on evaluating the functional connectivity of naturally valuable habitats within the territory of the Jeseníky Protected Landscape Area (PLA). Analysis of functional connectivity was carried out for individual zones of classified nature preservation. The methodological approach that is applied is based on determining indicators for expressing the degree of the natural character of individual landscape segments (Nd), the distance to naturally valuable habitats (Dn), and a composite index Distance to Nature (D2N). The results for the individual zones and the PLA as a whole are mutually compared and consequently confronted with values for the territory of the entire Czech Republic. All three research questions, i.e. whether naturally valuable habitats prevail in the most valuable area in the first protected zone of the Jeseníky PLA, whether the distance to naturally valuable habitats in the first zone of the Jeseníky PLA is the shortest, and whether the territory of the Jeseníky PLA is better functionally interlinked when compared with the remaining territory of the Czech Republic (CR), were answered positively. The results highlight the need to assess the connectivity of natural habitats in the least protected zones of other PLAs in the Czech Republic and EU, to decide whether planning measures to support the ecological network are necessary.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysing Effects on Ground Water Levels Due to Conversion of Rural to Urban Landscapes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Greater NOIDA evolved from 1991 with 101 villages to 2020 with 293 villages. This is an ideal case of rural to urban transformation in the immediate past. This transformation led to a decrease in recharging natural surfaces and an increase in impermeable surfaces. Along with the reduction in recharge areas, an increase in population has necessitated more and more extraction of groundwater resulting in an imbalance of water extraction and recharge. The result is depletion of groundwater levels in this area. The area is part of the wide Indo-Gangetic alluvium with sand, silt and clay layers resting on quartzite’s of Delhi Super Group. Geomorphological map prepared using digital elevation models of the area shows older and younger alluvial plains and active flood plains of the river Hindan. Time series analysis of key land use land cover classes shows that recharge areas were reduced from 77 % to 30 % from 2005 to 2019 and impervious surfaces have increased from 19 % to 65 % for the same period. Aquifers of the area are both phreatic and semi-confined. The aquifer parameters estimated through step drawdown test and long duration aquifer performance test indicates that the average coefficient of transmissivity of the area is 1752 m<sup>2</sup>/day and the average coefficient of storage is 4.84 x 10-4. Discharge of the wells shows a yield of 8 to 16 lps for a drawdown of 3 to 6 m. An attempt has been made to know the behaviour of groundwater levels during the same period as that of land use land cover. The results indicate a 74 % depletion in groundwater levels with an average annual depletion of 21 %. An interrelationship between urban growth and groundwater levels has been established in this study. This analysis indicates that as agriculture declined water levels also depleted and have a positive correlation of 0.852. On the contrary, as the built-up increased water level has depleted hence have a negative relationship with a correlation coefficient of -0.851. To make it a sustainable resource, these overexploited aquifers need careful participatory management by communities, Scientists, and policymakers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of Woody Species Diversity and Population Structure Along Disturbance Gradient in Babile Elephant Sanctuary, Ethiopia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study was conducted at Babile Elephant Sanctuary (BES), to identify and document the list of woody species, and to analyze the diversity, richness, evenness, and population structural status of woody species. The diversity of plant species and population structure of woody species were analyzed from 60 quadrats, each with 20 m x 20 m for trees and 5 m x 5 m for shrubs and climbers, using systematic sampling methods with three levels of disturbances regime, namely, low disturbed (LD), moderately disturbed (MD) and heavily disturbed (HD) sites. Vegetation parameters such as diameter at breast height (DBH), richness, evenness, and density of woody species were recorded. Shannon Weiner Diversity Index was used to analysis vegetation diversity and evenness. A total of 61 woody species were identified in the study area that falls within 29 families and 38 genera of which 50.8 % were shrubs, 39.3 % were trees and the rest 9.83 % were climbers. Fabaceae was represented by the highest number of species (14 species = 22.90). The highest plant species richness was recorded from the low disturbed sites, followed by moderately disturbed and heavily disturbed sites respectively. The population density of vegetation was significantly higher in the MD site, followed by the LD site. The total basal area of LD, MD, and HD were 27.2, 19.8, and 11.2 m<sup>2</sup>/ha, respectively. LD site had significantly (P= 0.04) highest Shannon’s diversity index value (3.21) than the others two disturbance levels. This result suggests that the consequence of human-induced disturbance on woody species diversity and population structure appeared to be negative depending on the type and intensities of the disturbances.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of Land Use/Land Cover Change on Soil Retention Service:<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Globally, urbanization changes land use/land cover (LULC) and alters ecosystem functions and services. Soil retention (SR) is a critical ecological service that is strongly related to LULC change. The topic of this study is assessment of LULC change on soil retention service (SRS) in a fragile seminatural-urbanized landscape of the Jajrood basin in Northern Tehran, Iran, from 2000 to 2020. To achieve the goal, the LULC maps and the other relevant datasets were imported into the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs tool (InVEST) using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). Calibration and validation were performed using Goodness-of-fit test for observational and modeled data. The results revealed that LULC change had both negative and positive effects on SR. The built-up area increased dramatically by about 133 percent, while the rangeland shrunk by approximately 5 % during the twenty-year, leading to an increase in soil erosion and reducing SR. On the other hand, the agricultural and gardening activities expanded by 41 %, which caused an increment in SR. Due to the outgrowth of man-made areas compared to the other land uses, the overall SR decreased by about 17,000 tons. Moreover, the result indicated that slope, elevation, and land management factors, respectively, had the highest correlation with SRS. The finding of this research can provide insight to land use planners to protect the areas with high soil erosion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Time History on Long-Term Deformation of Gypseous Soils<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The time-dependent behavior of three gypseous soils was investigated. The soils had gypsum content of 66%, 44%, and 14.8%. The mineralogical and chemical properties of the soils were determined. Two series of tests were performed. In the first, collapsibility characteristics were investigated for a long period (60 days) by conducting single and double oedometer tests. In the second series, the effect of relative density on collapse with time was investigated. The samples were compacted to 40%, 50%, and 60% relative density and then tested. The results of collapse tests showed that the relationship between the strain and logarithm of effective stress has two vertical lines. The first one represents the collapse settlement taking place within 24 h, while the second one represents the long-term collapse. The collapse potential (CP) in both single and double oedometer tests increases when the gypsum content increases from 14.8% to 66% and when the initial void ratio increases.</p> <p>The CP–logarithm of time relationship for soaked samples prepared at different relative densities under 800 kPa indicated that the CP increased with time for the soil sample compacted at 60% relative density and the increase was higher than those compacted at 40% and 50% relative density. The curves started with a straight line and then a concave downward curve was observed with a high strain. For samples compacted at 40% and 50% relative densities, the curves were interrupted by little soil collapses, while the third curve exhibited smooth relation following the collapse.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of suction on the mechanical behaviour of unsaturated compacted clay–sand mixtures<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this work, a series of unconfined compression tests at different water contents were performed to investigate the mechanical behaviour of clay–sand mixtures compacted in standard Proctor conditions. For studying the effect of water content and suction on unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and on strain secant modulus (<italic>E</italic>50 modulus) of these mixtures, drying–wetting paths were defined by measuring the soil–water characteristic curves (SWCCs) using osmotic and salt solution techniques and filter paper method. The results highlighted that an increase in sand content of the mixture leads to an increase in the maximum dry densities and a decrease in the optimum water content of the materials. However, at the given state, when clay is mixed with 25% of sand, the UCS and <italic>E</italic>50 modulus increase to 37% and 70%, respectively, compared to those of clayey samples. But when clay is mixed with 50% of sand, the UCS and <italic>E</italic>50 modulus decrease to 38% and 46%, respectively, compared to those of clayey samples. The results also indicate that the UCS and <italic>E</italic>50 increase with a decrease in the water content and an increase in suction, irrespective of the sand content.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Causes and Course of Climate Change and Its Hydrological Consequences in the Greater Poland Region in 1951–2020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents effects of changes in climatic elements in the Greater Poland region (Poland), their causes and consequences for shaping the water balance of this area, copying with the most severe water deficit in Poland. The study period covers 70 years (1951–2020). The research identified an abrupt and significant change in the climate of Greater Poland, which started between 1987 and 1989, concerning not only air temperature but also a wider spectrum of climatic elements. The change in the state of the climate, which covers the entire Atlantic-Eurasian circulation sector, results from a sudden change in the macro-circulation conditions in the middle troposphere (500 hPa). The reason for the change in the mid-tropospheric circulation is an equally abrupt and simultaneous change in the intensity of the ocean heat transport by the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (NA THC). Climate change observed in Greater Poland is manifested in an increase in sunshine duration (SD) and air temperature, a decrease in relative humidity, a change in the cloud structure, and an increase in the degree of sky coverage. The main, physical reason for an increase in air temperature is a rapid and strong increase in SD in the warm half-years, which began after 1988, and a significant increase in the frequency of positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phases in winters. The ongoing climate change entails various effects, among which the most important is considered to be hydrological consequences. The water balance of Greater Poland is becoming increasingly unfavourable, mainly as a result of a rapid increase in field evaporation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Geotourism Potential of Show Caves in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the modern world, tourism is a very dynamically growing industry with significant impact on the economic prosperity of many regions or even countries. The paper presents the geotourism potential of the 12 show (commercial) caves in Poland before and during the current pandemic time. Survey results demonstrate that caves are major geotourist attractions. In 2019, they were visited by a total of almost 950,000 people. The attendance might have exceeded even a million if the popular Mroźna Cave in the Tatras had not been temporarily closed to visitors due to a rockfall in winter period 2018/2019. In 2020, all the show caves combined were visited by a more than 390,000 people, which amounted to about 41% of the total attendance recorded for 2019. The most visited cave proved to be Smocza Jama (Dragon's Den) in the centre of Kraków, which recorded almost 422,000 visitors in 2019. A preliminary assessment of the attractiveness of the caves as geosites is given. The most attractive caves as geosites were identified as: Bear Cave, Upper Wierzchowska Cave, and Bat Cave. It is possible to confidently assert that the celebration of the International Year of Caves and Karst (IYCK) in 2021–2022 will increase interest in caves and translate into a revival of cave tourism.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Conformal projections of a tri-axial ellipsoid based on isometric coordinates: history, methodology, and examples<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents a review of the conformal projections of a tri-axial ellipsoid and the methodology of creating these projections with the use of isometric coordinates. The concept is very simple and has been known for a long time; if isometric coordinates are introduced on the surface of the original and on the plane of the image, then any analytical function of the complex variable, i.e. a function that has a continuous derivative, creates a conformal projection. The introduction presents the history of conformal projections. Then, existing projections are presented, including the Bugayevskiy projection and several projections developed by the author that apply selected functions of the complex variable. Scripts were prepared in the Octave software with the use of the presented methodology. Programming in Octave offers a possibility of a simple implementation of complex variable functions, which is also briefly discussed in the paper. The developed scripts were then used to perform calculations and to draw cartographic grids and distortion isolines in the selected conformal projections. The test object was the tri-axial ellipsoid that represents Phobos.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Reflectance Spectroscopy in Geology and Soil Sciences: Literature Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents a literature review of studies utilising reflectance spectroscopy in geological research. We describe a variety of available spectral libraries together with providing examples of spectral reflectance diagrams, and explain the basic spectral ranges. Geologists can use different methods of data collection, for example, sensors mounted on satellites, airborne [including unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms] or portable spectroradiometers, and different ways of data processing. Most geological mapping based on reflectance spectroscopy is performed in the Arctic region, where vegetation does not obscure images. However, mineral mapping, studies of hot spring deposits, and rock/soil weathering alterations are also performed in lower latitudes. The development, combination and unification of all spectral data acquisition methods open up new possibilities for applications in a variety of geological and soil studies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of Atmospheric Circulation on the Occurrence of Very Strong and Extreme Cold Stress in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The primary objective of the study was the determination of the spatial and multiannual variability of occurrence of days with very strong and extreme cold stress in Poland according to the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), as well as determination of baric conditions favouring their occurrence. The study was based on data from the years 1966/67 to 2018/19 from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute and National Centre for Environmental Prediction/National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR). The research showed a statistically significant decrease in the number of days with very strong and extreme cold stress on half of the analysed stations, and a slight tendency or no changes on the remaining stations. The occurrence of days with extreme cold stress in Poland, as revealed by the analysis was primarily related to the presence of high-pressure systems blocking zonal circulation. The study resulted in the designation of three circulation types, i.e. two types related to anticyclonic systems and one cyclonic type.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1