rss_2.0Geosciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Geosciences Feed of Geomorphological Processes and Phytoclimate Conditions Change on Forest Vegetation in the Pomeranian Bay Coastal Zone (Wolin National Park, West Pomerania)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The functioning of plant associations, including forest associations, in the coastal cliff edge zone of the Pomeranian Bay in the Wolin National Park (WNP) is determined by short-term factors related to the dynamics of erosion and denudation processes and long-term phytoclimatic conditions' changes. The study presents a temporary analysis of the occurrence of sea abrasion and water and aeolian erosion, based on the applied hydrometeorological threshold values. The influence of changes in phytoclimatic conditions on the development and productivity of coastal forests with the dominant species of <italic>Fagus sylvatica</italic> was also presented. Assessments of spatial susceptibility to erosion of the cliff coast and the existing plant associations were also carried out in conditions of the risk of coast erosion. It was found that 55% of the cliff edge zone of the Pomeranian Bay of the WNP and the forest associations (mainly <italic>Luzulo pilosae-Fagetum</italic>) occurring there are in the zone of particular risk of increased erosion and denudation processes. In addition, unfavourable trends in changes in phytoclimatic conditions in the 21st century were found, which reflect climate changes unfavourable to the development of beech forests on Wolin Island.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Analysis of the Urban Growth, Case Study: Inter-Communal Grouping of Batna, Algeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper focuses on the analysis of the urban macroform in terms of urban compactness and dispersion (urban sprawl) in the inter-communal grouping of Batna, which is composed of four adjacent interconnected communal districts: Batna, Tazoult, Oued Chaaba and Fesdis. First, the urban macroform is examined by mapping the urban areas that are characterised by morphological changes over a period of 36 years utilising remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) through satellite images taken from Landsat TM and ETM +, Sentinel 2 (1984, 1996, 2008 and 2020). Next, the Shannon entropy method is utilised to determine compactness or dispersion of urban growth over time. In addition, a fractal analysis based on the box-counting method is used to assess the complexity and to explain the morphological reality of the macroform through urban changes. In order to predict the future change scenarios and spatial distributions of land use and land cover in the coming years the hybrid cellular automata (CA) – Markov method is used. The results of the remote sensing, Shannon entropy values and fractal indices demonstrate that Batna inter-municipal grouping has experienced moderate urban development according to the observed urban sprawl between 1984 and 2020. These data are helpful in the urban planning and to provide decision-making tools.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Role of Geomorphosites in the Local Economy Development of the Carpathian and Sub-Carpathian Area of Vrancea County, Romania<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The development of geotourism already represents an element that must be taken into consideration by the Administrative Territorial Units (ATUs) in order to obtain a sustainable economy. This study was divided into three main stages. In the first part of the study, an assessment of geomorphosites from the Carpathian and Sub-Carpathian area of Vrancea County was done, resulting in the ranking of geomorphosites. The second stage focussed on an analysis of the local economies in the studied area at the level of each ATU and four-digit Classification of National Economic Activities (NACE) code for a period of 19 years (2000–2018) using four economic indicators to determine the share of the tourism sector in the economy of each ATU. The data was used to generate trend matrices and relevant cartographic materials about the contribution of tourism to each ATU's local economy in the analysed area. The last stage consisted in drawing a parallel between the concentration of geomorphosites in the analysed area, the score obtained by them in the evaluation and the tourism sector's share trend in local economies. This study shows how the ATUs with a positive share trend in the tourism sector of the economy are directly influenced by the presence of geomorphosites in their administrative territory or in their proximity. It also emphasises the significance of geomorphosites in increasing tourism complexity in the study area, as well as in the development of tourism and local economies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Adversarial Approach to Urban Areas’ NDVI Estimation: A Case Study of Łódź, Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Generative adversarial networks (GAN) opened new possibilities for image processing and analysis. Inpainting, dataset augmentation using artificial samples, or increasing spatial resolution of aerial imagery are only a few notable examples of utilising GANs in remote sensing (RS). The normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) ground-truth labels were prepared by combining RGB and NIR orthophotos. The dataset was then utilised as input for a conditional generative adversarial network (cGAN) to perform an image-to-image translation. The main goal of the neural network was to generate an artificial NDVI image for each processed 256 px × 256 px patch using only information available in the panchromatic input. The network achieved a structural similarity index measure (SSIM) of 0.7569 ± 0.1083, a peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) of 26.6459 ± 3.6577 and a root-mean-square error (RSME) of 0.0504 ± 0.0193 on the test set, which should be considered high. The perceptual evaluation was performed to verify the method's usability when working with a real-life scenario. The research confirms that the structure and texture of the panchromatic aerial RS image contain sufficient information for NDVI estimation for various objects of urban space. Even though these results can highlight areas rich in vegetation and distinguish them from the urban background, there is still room for improvement regarding the accuracy of the estimated values. The research aims to explore the possibility of utilising GAN to enhance panchromatic images (PAN) with information related to vegetation. This opens exciting opportunities for historical RS imagery processing and analysis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Impact of the Polish Renewable Energy Sector on Employment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Subject and purpose of work:</bold> This study analyses employment in the renewable energy sector. The aim of this research was to explore the impact of obtaining energy from renewable sources on the labor market in Poland.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods:</bold> This study is based on secondary data from the Central Statistical Office, Eurostat, and EurObserv’ER. During the literature review, research papers on the labor market, published in Poland and internationally, were examined. The analyzed data was processed using an Excel 2007 spreadsheet. The number of people employed in relation to 1,000 toe of primary energy obtained in individual RES industries was the measure of the impact of the RES sector on employment. The results of the present research were presented using descriptive, graphical and tabular methods.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> In Poland, the use of renewable energy sources between 2010 and 2020 doubled, from 6,892 ktoe to 12,518 ktoe, and is projected to further double by 2030 compared to 2020.It is generally agreed that obtaining energy from renewable sources has a significant positive impact on the labor market. In the period of analysis, the number of individuals employed in the RES sector increased from 36.8 thousand to 110.8 thousand. The highest labor intensity was reported for the RES sectors of solar power, heat pumps, and liquid biofuels.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> I f t he r enewable energy sector continues t o develop a s projected, t he demand for employees in this industry will more than double by 2030.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Methods of Working time Management in a Flexible Labor Market<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Subject and purpose of the work:</bold> Working time management has become particularly relevant by mid-20th century. It has now become one of the top areas of interest for scientists who conduct research on management. This study is designed to review and evaluate selected new forms of work organization in the reality of today’s digital economy.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods:</bold> This research was based on literature review covering scientific publications exploring working time management and forms of work organization in the digital economy. A descriptive method was used.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The latest information technologies, computerization and digitization, the use of mobile devices and smartphones, and advanced geolocation technologies add a new dimension to the modern types and methods of working time management. The development of the digital economy accelerates and drives the transformation of the labor market, promoting the uptake of flexible employment systems, which produces multiple types of remuneration and working time systems, and leads to a variety of forms of employment contracts and their reduced duration.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Digital technology creates a virtual labor market which is dominated by informal and flexible forms of employment based on outsourcing programs, individual orders, and fixed deadlines with are not accompanied by any regulations of the contractor’s working time. Under these conditions, flexibility and multifunctionality, and the ability to adapt to changing conditions are the key features that make a particular employee competitive.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Social Enterprise Within the Meaning of the Social Economy Act in the Context of Economic Theory and Practice<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Subject and purpose of work:</bold> This study explores the characteristics of a social enterprise as laid down in the relevant act currently in force, and analyzes how the tendencies to normatively define a social enterprise have changed over the years with subsequent amendments and modifications of the applicable draft laws.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods:</bold> The study is based on draft laws that concern social enterprises from respective years, as well as specialist literature concerning social entrepreneurship. A selective analysis of the market practice of social enterprises operating in Poland was also carried out.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> There is a clear discrepancy between and restriction of the definitions of a social enterprise provided in the Social Economy Act, as revealed in the analysis of the act itself, its drafting process and subsequent amendments, and taking into account the perspective of social enterprises as described in the relevant literature, as well as the activities of enterprises pursuing social goals.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> On the one hand, the current definition of a social enterprise organizes this concept for administrative purposes, but on the other hand, it does not cover all entities having a real impact on social development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Costs and Price Spread for Selected Fruit Crops in Haryana State: A Study of Selected Districts<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Subject and purpose of work:</bold> The study aims to analyse the existing marketing system along with marketing channels, costs, margins, and marketing efficiency.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods:</bold> The study was conducted in the districts of Sirsa, Sonipat and Yamuna Nagar in Haryana during the year 2020–21. The study was based on primary data collected from a field survey with the help of a pre-tested questionnaire. A simple tabulated method, price spread, and market efficiency analyses were employed.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The study revealed that the producer share in terms of consumer rupees is the highest in Channel VI, followed by Channels IV, V and II. Channel VI is the most efficient channel due to the absence of intermediaries. Channel I is the least efficient due to the greatest number of intermediaries present in this channel.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The study has suggested that the government should regulate the fruit trade so that the involvement of mediators in the fruit market may be reduced. Cold storage should be provided at a reasonable price. The government should provide transportation facilities (refrigerated lorries) for fruit products at a reasonable cost.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue’ Preferences as to Product Delivery Methods on the E-Commerce Market<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Subject and purpose of work:</bold> The article’s goal was to discuss consumers’ preferences as to product delivery methods on the e-commerce market. Detailed goals were to identify the delivery methods chosen most often, and to indicate factors determining such decisions and their associations with selected variables.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods</bold>: An on-line questionnaire survey was conducted among 302 respondents. The questionnaire served as a measurement tool. Associations between variables were studied in a series of analyses employing Pearson’s χ2 tests, and comparative analysis was made using Mann- Whitney U tests.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: InPost parcel lockers proved to be the most popular method to deliver products purchased online. Among the factors determining the choice of the delivery method, those valued most included delivery price, parcel collection flexibility, and no need to wait for a courier at home. Statistical associations were noted between the place of residence and frequency of online shopping, and the delivery methods chosen most often.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The study results are useful for companies offering deliveries on the e-commerce market. They provide valuable information concerning popularity of particular methods, as well as factors determining decisions to choose various delivery methods on the e-commerce market.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Review Of The Book “The Application Of The Analogy Method In The Search For Common Areas Of Cognition In Biology And Economics” By Wiesław Musiał And Kamila Musiał. The Publishing House Of The University Of Agriculture In Krakow, 2021, 215 Pp Financing from EU Funds as a Factor of Local Development on the Example of the Włodawa Town and the Włodawa Commune<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Subject and purpose of work:</bold> The subject-matter of this paper are local government investments and their role in local development. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the use of EU funds for the implementation of local investments on the example of the Włodawa town and the Włodawa rural commune. Investments are evaluated in the context of development strategies being pursued for these units.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods:</bold> The paper is based on the literature of the subject of research and our own surveys among randomly chosen inhabitants.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> This paper specifies the role of local government investments in local development and presents an outline of the development of the Włodawa town, the current state of the town and the commune and an outline of the strategy of development of these units. We have analysed investments carried out with the support of EU funds in the years 2007–2014 and 2014–2020. The co-operation between governments of the town and the commune in the pursuit of investments has been evaluated, too. In the opinion of inhabitants, governments of the town and the commune used EU funds quite efficiently in development projects. The important role of these funds in the pursuit of investments regarding the repair and construction of roads, the revitalisation of cultural facilities and recreation, has been confirmed.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The need for the further support of investments within the scope of the labour market, social infrastructure and tourism.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Role of International Internships in the Vocational Education of Technical Secondary School Students<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Subject and purpose of work:</bold> This study focuses on vocational education. It explores the role of international internships in the vocational education of the students of technical secondary schools.</p> <p><bold>Materials and Methods:</bold> This study is based on a survey conducted on a sample of 77 students participating in international internships. The survey covered all students of the Technical and Vocational Schools Complex in Suwałki attending vocational internships in Italy.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The analysis validated the hypothesis that international internships improve the practical skills of secondary school students and contribute to the development of practical skills and social competences in the international context.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The surveyed students declared they were satisfied with their vocational internships and were happy to attend them. They believed that the experience gained in an international environment would definitely have a positive impact on their future career. During the internship, they improved not only the skills specific to their field of expertise, but also their personal and social competences, as well as foreign language skills, specifically in terms of technical vocabulary.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in the Functioning of Primary Agricultural Cooperative Societies in Haryana State, India<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Subject and purpose of work:</bold> T he s tudy a ims t o identify t he constraints in t he f unctioning of PACS in Haryana, India.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods:</bold> The study was based on primary data collected from nine PACS managers through schedule. The purposive sampling technique was employed for the selection of PACS. The percentage was used for data analysis. The data were collected in the second quarter of 2022.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The study found that 100 % of PACS managers regarded lack of adequate funds, a low level of deposits, and increased day-to-day government intervention as constraints in the functioning of PACS. Subsequently, the respondents mentioned inability to mobilise resources (77.77%), lack of managerial skills (77.77%), lack of trained staff (55.55%), improper channel of recovery system (44.44%), untimely repayment and poor recovery percentage of the loan (44.44%), political interference (33.33%), difficulties due to low educational level of borrowers (22.22%), and uncooperative attitude of borrowers (11.11%).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Main constraints in the functioning of PACS are lack of adequate funds, a low level of deposits, increased day-to-day government intervention, inability to mobilise resources, and lack of managerial skills.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Repayment Hardships: Evidences from Farmers in Haryana<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Subject and purpose of work:</bold> The paper focuses on the problems faced by farmers in obtaining and repaying loans from institutional and non-institutional sources.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods:</bold> The study was conducted in Haryana state, India. It was based on a field survey involving 600 farmers. Proportionate sampling technique was employed and pre-tested schedules were filled during vis-a-vis interviews.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> T he f indings o f t he s tudy h ighlight m ain p roblems f aced b y f armers i n a cquiring a nd repaying loans. They include: no loan without security, ambiguous terms and conditions, the time-consuming procedure of granting loans, not farmer friendly bank officials, and the request for bribes. In the case of non-institutional sources, main problems include: lack of security, deterioration of social status, and hesitation in mortgaging agricultural land. Furthermore, low price of agricultural produce, crop failure, and the high-interest rates charged by non-institutional sources were major constraints in the timely repayment of loan amounts.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Several constraints existed in granting loans to farmers. Government should support and provide hassle free loans to farmers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Accessibility Challenges, and Implications on Children in Rural Border Communities of Oyo-Kwara State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Subject and purpose of the work:</bold> This study examined water accessibility challenges, and the implications on children in rural border communities of Nigeria.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods:</bold> Primary data were used, and children (5-16 years) were respondents to the interview and questionnaire.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The study revealed there were more male children (58%) than female children (42%) and many of them were in the age bracket 11–15 years with about (53.9%) of them without formal education. The results further revealed that 69.9% of the respondents indicated that their major source of water is a stream and river. Also, the majority of the respondents (71%) trek long distances and (82.9%) spend more than 30 minutes travelling to collect water in distant villages especially during the dry season. This situation usually takes them away from their education and even affect their school attendance.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The study recommended the need for the equitable provision of an improved water supply and ensure children are secured in collecting water for their households.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Potential of Show Caves in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the modern world, tourism is a very dynamically growing industry with significant impact on the economic prosperity of many regions or even countries. The paper presents the geotourism potential of the 12 show (commercial) caves in Poland before and during the current pandemic time. Survey results demonstrate that caves are major geotourist attractions. In 2019, they were visited by a total of almost 950,000 people. The attendance might have exceeded even a million if the popular Mroźna Cave in the Tatras had not been temporarily closed to visitors due to a rockfall in winter period 2018/2019. In 2020, all the show caves combined were visited by a more than 390,000 people, which amounted to about 41% of the total attendance recorded for 2019. The most visited cave proved to be Smocza Jama (Dragon's Den) in the centre of Kraków, which recorded almost 422,000 visitors in 2019. A preliminary assessment of the attractiveness of the caves as geosites is given. The most attractive caves as geosites were identified as: Bear Cave, Upper Wierzchowska Cave, and Bat Cave. It is possible to confidently assert that the celebration of the International Year of Caves and Karst (IYCK) in 2021–2022 will increase interest in caves and translate into a revival of cave tourism.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Course of Climate Change and Its Hydrological Consequences in the Greater Poland Region in 1951–2020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents effects of changes in climatic elements in the Greater Poland region (Poland), their causes and consequences for shaping the water balance of this area, copying with the most severe water deficit in Poland. The study period covers 70 years (1951–2020). The research identified an abrupt and significant change in the climate of Greater Poland, which started between 1987 and 1989, concerning not only air temperature but also a wider spectrum of climatic elements. The change in the state of the climate, which covers the entire Atlantic-Eurasian circulation sector, results from a sudden change in the macro-circulation conditions in the middle troposphere (500 hPa). The reason for the change in the mid-tropospheric circulation is an equally abrupt and simultaneous change in the intensity of the ocean heat transport by the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (NA THC). Climate change observed in Greater Poland is manifested in an increase in sunshine duration (SD) and air temperature, a decrease in relative humidity, a change in the cloud structure, and an increase in the degree of sky coverage. The main, physical reason for an increase in air temperature is a rapid and strong increase in SD in the warm half-years, which began after 1988, and a significant increase in the frequency of positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phases in winters. The ongoing climate change entails various effects, among which the most important is considered to be hydrological consequences. The water balance of Greater Poland is becoming increasingly unfavourable, mainly as a result of a rapid increase in field evaporation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis of Single Pile with Embedded Beam Row and Volume Pile Modeling under Seismic Load<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Indonesia is located between the Eurasian, Pacific, Philippines, and Indo-Australian plates. Various tectonic processes in the world and collisions between large plates and several small plates trigger many earthquakes in Indonesia. This study aimed to evaluate the response of bored piles in the Auditorium Building of Brawijaya University toward seismic loads through analytical and numerical approaches based on finite elements with 2D (embedded beam row) and 3D (volume pile) modeling, where the analysis approach of pile deformation and lateral resistance with numerical methods will depend on idealization of the model used. In addition, the lateral resistance was compared based on combination lateral loads, pile stiffness, and soil stiffness when the values were different. The 2D finite element analysis reduces lateral resistance but overestimated the deflection on the pile surface. This is because in the 2D finite element modeling with an embedded beam row that the friction factor represented by the spring can reduces the stiffness and the pile–soil is tangent, so that there is no slipping against each other. In addition, the 3D finite element analysis with volume pile modeling increases soil stiffness at greater depths and the friction factor (interface) can improve the interaction between the soil and pile.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and horizontal dynamic response of suction caisson foundations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this article, the dynamic response of suction caisson foundations is studied using a three-dimensional finite element model with an absorbing boundary. The adopted formulation is based on the substructuring method. This formulation has been applied to analyze the effect of soil–structure interaction on the dynamic response of the suction foundation as a function of the kind of load. The suction caisson foundations are embedded in viscoelastic homogenous soils and subjected to external harmonic forces. For each frequency, the dynamic impedance connects the applied forces to the resulting displacement. The constitutive elements of the system are modeled using the finite element volumes and shell elements. The numerical results for the dynamic response of the suction foundations are presented in terms of vertical and horizontal displacements as well as vertical and horizontal dynamic impedances. The results indicated that the overall dynamic response is highly affected by the suction caisson diameter, the soil stiffness variation, and the suction caisson length.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and ductility factors of XBF structures with pinned and fixed supports<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In today's time, most seismic design codes are based on a linear elastic force-based approach that includes the nonlinear response (ductility and overstrength) of the structure through a reduction factor (named behavior factor <italic>q</italic> in Eurocode 8 [EC8]). However, the use of a prescribed <italic>q</italic>-factor that is constant for a given structural system may fail in providing structures with the same risk level. This paper focuses on the estimation of actual values of <italic>q</italic>-factor for X-braced steel frames (XBFs) designed according to the European codes and comparing these values to those suggested in EC8. For this purpose, a nonlinear pushover analysis has been performed. The effects of specific parameters, such as the stories number, the brace slenderness ratio, the local response of structural members, and the support type, are evaluated. The results show that the most important parameter that affects the <italic>q</italic>-factor is the brace slenderness ratio, while the support type has less effect on this factor. Furthermore, a local strength criterion has been proposed to implicitly ensure that the suggested value of the <italic>q</italic>-factor is conservative.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue