rss_2.0Geosciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Geosciences Feed Debris Capture - About New Methods of Tethered Space Net Opening by Tubular Booms<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nowadays, space debris is one of the main subjects of discussion regarding satellites in Earth's orbit. Right now, there are about 26,000 orbiting satellites and only few of these satellites are operational. Recently, the Polish space sector has been strongly growing and delivering instruments working in space. The first part of this paper describes the several space instruments designed in the Space Research Centre Polish Academy of Science (SRC PAS). Instruments such as SWI, RPPWI, LPPWI, Ebox or Pre-boxes have been created for a mission to Jupiter named “JUICE”. After fulfilling their scientific mission, these instruments can increase the amount of debris in space. This is one of the reasons for taking up the topic of space debris reduction and the use of technical solutions used in this mission for the proposed solution presented later.</p> <p>The second part of this paper describes the new methods related to space debris. The activities can be related to the space debris removal programmes. The paper describes two methods developed by Polish scientists used for removal of space debris. One of them is the new capture method and mechanism designed for it. The special mechanism is based on tubular boom application for opening the net, to capture the space debris. The main parts of the mechanism are mechanisms which have been used in the JUICE space mission. The paper describes the main idea for these new methods, and for the design part prepared the strength confirmation by structural analysis. The main function of the mechanism has been verified by simulations and tests performed in laboratories.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Conceptual Open Pit Mine Architecture for the Moon Environment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>In situ</italic> resource utilization (ISRU) activities are receiving increasing attention, both from space agencies and among the international science and industrial community. Prominent examples of ongoing ISRU space programs are the NASA Artemis program and the Terrae Novae program run by the European Space Agency. In technical sciences, there are at least three groups of activities related to ISRU: prospecting bodies in the context of space missions, technological investigations related to surface infrastructure and operations, and conceptual analyses of future mining activities. The present paper belongs to the third group and brings new insights into a potential open pit mine operating on the Moon. There are several novel contributions: the definition of the objectives of the mine, based on economic indicators; a conceptual description of a pit architecture dedicated to excavating ilmenite-rich feedstock; and a qualitative and quantitative description of the chosen processes and the mine’s topology. In the paper, there are also added links to other papers connected with ISRU activities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the modified clothoidal (MCL) shape of composite dowels against the background of fatigue and technological issues<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Composite dowels opened new possibilities for engineers designing composite structures. The fundamental and most important characteristic of composite dowels is the shape of the cutting pattern (called line). It is important to understand why only one particular shape of the cutting line, the modified clothoidal (MCL) shape, is being used in bridge engineering, while so many different shapes have been investigated by many researchers. The essential part of the process of developing composite dowels – the development of shape of the cutting line – is presented in this paper. The investigation, development, and evolution of the MCL shape, which is the final form of composite dowels for bridges and has been widely introduced in bridge engineering, are presented. The results of comparative tests of different shapes under cyclic loads are discussed. The background for the design formulas for the steel part and the fabrication aspects are highlighted.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Protected Areas to Mitigate the Effect of Landscape Fragmentation in Slovakia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main aim of the research is to identify landscape fragmentation (LF) in Slovakia with special emphasis on the contribution of protected areas (PAs) to mitigate the effect of LF. Results are presented in the final raster output (10 m grid). The raster contains 490,321,151 individual 10 m raster grids, with the LF average value of 59.12 % (where 0 represents fragmented landscape, 100 represents fully connected landscape by natural or semi-natural ecosystems) on the national level. Most of the territory of Slovakia falls within the range of values 55 – 65 %, which confirms the presence of significant continuous unfragmented areas. Based on the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) statistics results, there is a positive correlation of lower LF within the PAs network (p &lt; 0.05, Table 1) in comparison to the unprotected part of Slovakia. The results of geographically weight regression (GWR) proved a medium positive correlation (r2=0.36; r2adj=0.36; n=49,003), thus confirming to a certain extent the role of PAs in the mitigation of the effect of LF. On the other hand, the level of protection does not correlate significantly with fragmentation values, where a higher level of protection is not significantly connected with a lower level of LF. For each category of PA, individual statistics of quality and quantity of LF are estimated and subsequently compared with unprotected parts of Slovakia. The comparison of all PAs with each other resulted in 1,132 unique assessments. The overall average value of LF of unprotected parts is still rather high (56.42 %) and it shows that there are still significant areas existing, which are situated in unprotected parts of the country. Spatial analysis revealed, that these important parts are covering 93,065 hectares, and are variously spread across the whole of Slovakia. The average value of LF for these newly identified areas is 68.5 %. As output, the results of this research present a comprehensive national map of the level of LF and lists of PAs ranked according to the overall assessment of LF.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Survivors: Using Tree-Trunk Wells from Archaeological Excavations to Inform Reconstructions of Medieval Deforestation, and Future Reforestation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper represents an attempt at a detailed analysis of woodland presence and dynamics during the Middle Ages (AD 500-1500), as a contribution to the current debate on large-scale reforestation in the Netherlands. Palynological data for this particular period are scarce and allow only global reconstructions. To widen our search for historical woodland proxies, we investigated the potential of archaeologically excavated tree-trunk wells. We carried out a nation-wide inventory of this type of well, in which the shaft is formed by hollowed-out tree trunks, typically large oak trees. Our suspicion that such trees indicate the local presence of (old) woodland in the past was confirmed by a marked positive correlation with spatial reconstructions based on other sources of information: archaeological (charcoal kilns) and non-archaeological (place names and historical references). The observed correlations suggest that mapping the distribution of precisely dated tree-trunk wells can indeed contribute to achieving fairly detailed reconstructions of medieval woodland cover.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Habitats: Modelling Landscape Connectivity for Large Mammals in Omo-Shasha-Oluwa Forest Reserves, South-West Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Preserving landscape connectivity in the Omo-Shasha-Oluwa Forest Reserves is crucial due to human-induced fragmentation, shrinking habitats, and disrupted migration routes for wildlife. From 2014 to 2016, we conducted surveys to gather large mammal presence data, mapping their distribution using the MaxEnt algorithm. Employing Circuitscape software and circuit theory concepts, we predicted connectivity patterns for six large mammal species. Our results consistently showed robust predictive performance, with Area Under the Curve (AUC) values exceeding 0.75 for species distribution models. Notably, we identified suitable habitat patches for seven key species, spanning 1760 km<sup>2</sup> for <italic>C. civetta</italic>, 1515 km<sup>2</sup> for <italic>T. Scriptus</italic>, 729 km<sup>2</sup> for <italic>L. cyclotis</italic>, 1693 km<sup>2</sup> for <italic>P. porcus</italic>, 1350 km<sup>2</sup> for <italic>C. mona</italic>, 1406 km<sup>2</sup> for <italic>P. maxwellii</italic>, and 1379 km<sup>2</sup> for <italic>C. torquatus</italic>. Our analysis highlighted distance to human settlements as the most significant predictor for habitat models concerning <italic>T. Scriptus</italic>, <italic>C. civetta</italic>, <italic>P. maxwellii</italic>, <italic>C. torquatus</italic>, <italic>P. porcus</italic>, and <italic>C. mona</italic>, whereas land use type emerged as a critical factor for <italic>L. cyclotis</italic>. Furthermore, examination of maximum current flow patterns revealed varying degrees of connectivity among habitat patches, indicating potential bottlenecks to species movement, particularly across major rivers and in areas affected by human activities. These findings offer crucial insights for conservation efforts, guiding strategies to preserve wildlife metapopulation dynamics in the Omo-Shasha-Oluwa Forest Reserves landscape</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Soil-Plant and Soil-Insect Interactions: A Mathematical Modeling Approach<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Pev and Rv functions were introduced as a way of summarizing the mechanical phenomenon of root-soil interactions and the effect of root growth on soil volume. The Mohr-Coulomb criterion was applied to the Rv function to demonstrate the relationship between root morphology, soil mechanical properties, and soil stability. The theory of elasticity and plasticity was applied in the analysis of the Bio-Geo Interface, which showed that the force F generated by the roots increased with time due to the growth of the roots and the increase in their volume. The forces acting on the Bio-Geo Interface were represented mathematically through the use of vector arithmetic, which helped to calculate the direction of the forces acting on the system. The Pev function was used to study the evolution of the plant and how it affected the Rv function. The results showed that the interplay between plant growth and soil mechanics is crucial in understanding the behavior of the Bio-Geo Interface, and can provide valuable insights into the interactions between plants and soil in natural and engineered systems. In the study of soil-insect interaction, a mathematical function, Iev, was proposed to represent the insect’s evolution in the soil environment. The function takes into account factors such as food sources and void ratio, which are important indicators of the biological and geotechnical aspects of the soil respectively. Despite the potential impact of insects on the soil environment, it has been concluded that their force resulting from their movement and behavior is negligible according to theories of elasticity and plasticity. This means that the impact of insects on the soil is minimal and does not significantly affect the soil’s mechanical properties. However, the biological aspects of the soil, such as food sources, remain important factors in the study of insect evolution in the soil environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue elements of grain yield in triticale (х Wittmack) grown under organic farming conditions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>During the period 2018-2020 in the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute, Shumen, on calcic chernozem soil type, a field experiment with triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) was conducted. The experiment was based on the block method, in four replications with a size of the experimental plot of 10 m<sup>2</sup>. Sowing was carried out in October with a sowing rate of 500 germinate able seeds/m2 after the predecessor sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). In the appropriate periods treatments were made in 4 variants: 1) Control-untreated variant. 2) Treatment with biodynamic preparations: Preparation 500 (5% solution) + Fladen preparation (1.5% solution) + preparation 501 (1.5 g for 300 l H<sub>2</sub>O/ha). 3) Treatment with biological preparations: Heliosulfur (500 ml/ha) + Free N (500 ml/ha). 4) Combined treatment with the same biodynamic and biological preparations. The following indicators were studied: plant height, number of spikelet’s per spike, number of grains per spike, grain weight per spike. After the statistical analysis for the first year of the study, a proven positive difference was found in all indicators in the combined biodynamic + biological method of cultivation, as well as in the stand-alone biological. In the second year of the study, a proven positive difference was obtained in all studied indicators in the variants treated with biodynamic preparations and the combination of biodynamic + biological preparations, with statistical significance for p&lt;0.001. A positive correlation was found between all variants of the observed indicators at p&lt;0.05.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue medicines for treatment of socially significant diseases in current Bulgarian society<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Socially significant diseases are defined as widespread diseases causing great economic, social and demographic damage. Nowadays traditional health practices have gained increasing interest. The aim of this online survey was to establish the knowledge of a random sample of Bulgarian people about traditional medicines in order to find out: 1) the knowledge about the use of medicinal plants for some socially significant diseases; 2) the attitudes of respondents towards the medicinal plants safety; 3) the statement whether the herbs can replace conventional drugs. In present survey the most used medicinal plants reported was Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Allium sativum L., Valeriana officinalis L., Sambucus nigra L., Cinnamomum verum J. Presl and Curcuma longa L. Current scientific studies proved appropriate use reports of these plants. One of the reasons for the renewed interest in phytotherapy is the assumption that anything natural is safe, but there are data that herbal chemical constituents could exert toxic effects. The demographic features of our respondents revealed the importance of the level of education for the self-health care. So, more efforts should be focused on the spread of disease prevention information in low educated populations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue competency-bazed approach in the environmental education of the students - future biology teachers<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The contemporary trends of globalization and enhanced international cooperation, as well as the aim at building a knowledge-based society, have put higher education institutions in an ever-increasing public interest. The fast-developing digitalization, the implementation of artificial intelligence and especially the generational characteristics of the learners determine the need for new approaches in teaching and learning tailored to individual needs. One of them is the competence approach, which represents one of the leading pedagogical concepts of the 21st century and is the basis for the formation of ecological competence. Its application in pedagogical practice is a serious challenge for both teachers and students – future Biology teachers. The article analyses on a structural and functional basis the components of environmental competence. A theoretical model for the formation of ecological competence in the discipline “Forms and methods of ecological education and upbringing in Biology education”, included in the curriculum of Master degree students is presented. The model is aimed at updating the vision of the learning process in the relevant discipline, the main part of which is environmental education.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Note: Balkan Mountains – a symbol of liberty – Part I (Eastern Balkan) Sea Morphotectonic Nature<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The presence of oceanic crust on the Black Sea bottom indicates that this sea basin was a section - a Pontic Ocean gulf at the northern margin of the Phanerozoic Tethys Ocean. The late Phanerozoic subduction of the Tethys oceanic crust under the European continental massif in this area took place in the subduction zone, whose modern traces are found today south of the Crimean Peninsula. On the surface of the subducted oceanic crust were numerous fragments of the destroyed continental crust on the northern margin of the Gondwana continent. These relatively lighter than oceanic crust crustal fragments (or a significant part of them) were not subducted. They accumulate in the immediate vicinity of the subduction zone on the unsub ducted remnants of oceanic crust. Such is the case with the Black Sea. It is not an imposed subcontinental basin, but a last modern relict of the northern margin of the Late Phanerozoic Tethys Ocean.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue pandemic and urban green spaces: Shifting usage behaviours and perceptions in Leipzig (Germany)?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic challenge some established human-landscape interactions notably. In this article, we analyse whether the pandemic had an impact on the perception of urban green spaces (UGS) and usage behaviours in Leipzig, Germany. We use a quantitative survey to understand people’s attitudes. Our study is novel in that it firstly explores the relationship between UGS and visitors during the final phase of the COVID-19 pandemic (winter 2022/2023), contrary to the vast majority of already existing studies that relied on digitally distributed surveys due to the lockdown protocols. Secondly our study does not apply exclusively online methods to reach out to the participants. The survey results show that about 40% (of the 115 participants) use parks more frequently during the final phase of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to before 2020. Characteristics such as proximity to home, naturalness and cleanliness have become the most relevant. We see a notable increase in the demand for secure public green spaces, particularly among female visitors. Every second respondent confirmed experiencing considerable difficulties when accessing UGS, revealing the existing (spatial) deficits in environmental justice. These results should be considered by urban planners to adapt UGS to the changing demands of the citizens.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue or YIMBY? Understanding the complex relationships between foreign military bases and host societies<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Based on a scoping review of English-language scientific literature for the period of 1990–2022, the article presents a synthetic outline of previous research, focusing on factors influencing the specifics of foreign military bases (FMBs) as examples of facilities that mostly generate negative attitudes known as ‘Not In My Backyard’ (NIMBY). The specific characteristics of different categories of objects that generate various social attitudes are also presented. The results of the analyses include a classification of factors and aspects related to the local impacts of foreign military bases, which have not been analysed before.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue use of the urban riverscape: What brings people to the river?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Visiting urban green and blue spaces improves the quality of life in cities as it helps to preserve human-nature bonds. In this context, the role of urban parks and forests has been well-recognised; however, much less is known about the landscapes of inland water bodies. To fill this gap, the study aimed to identify spatiotemporal patterns of recreational activities in the urban riverscape in relation to the visitors’ residential proximity. Also, survey results were combined with spatial and remote sensing data to determine how the spatial characteristics of the riverscape affect its recreational use. The case of Warsaw, Poland, was used. The results indicated that the riverscape serves as a local park for the neighbouring communities, while it is rather a warm-weekend attraction for far-living ones. Visitors concentrate in the city centre, and spread out along the communication paths; however, spatial patterns of the magnitude of particular activities also show interbank differences. Spatial error models of drivers of riverscape recreation revealed (1) the multifaceted role of trees in densely visited areas and (2) the importance of physical availability for contact with the urban river. These findings expand knowledge on the recreational use of urban rivers by exploring its place-related motivations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue mobility of the inhabitants of the countries of NATO’s eastern flank in the event of a military conflict<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this article, we identify the spatial mobility of the populations of selected urban centres in Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Hungary. In total, 1,616 interviews were conducted. Additionally also interviews with the employees responsible for crisis management were conducted. Based on the analyses, five different clusters were identified, with different patterns of inhabitants in terms of their spatial mobility in the event of war. The most significant factors influencing their mobility in crisis situations are country of residence, age, number of people in the household and sex. This research can help develop evacuation strategies at different levels of governance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the deep learning recognition of cultivated terraces based on Lidar data: The case of Slovenia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cultivated terraces are phenomena that have been protected in some areas for both their cultural heritage and food production purposes. Some terraced areas are disappearing but could be revitalised. To this end, recognition techniques need to be developed and terrace registers need to be established. The goal of this study was to recognise terraces using deep learning based on Lidar DEM. Lidar data is a valuable resource in countries with overgrown terraces. The U-net model training was conducted using data from the Slovenian terraces register for southwestern Slovenia and was subsequently applied to the entire country. We then analysed the agreement between the terraces register and the terraces recognised by deep learning. The overall accuracy of the model was 85%; however, the kappa index was only 0.22. The success rate was higher in some regions. Our results achieved lower accuracy compared to studies from China, where similar techniques were used but which incorporated satellite imagery, DEM, as well as land use data. This study was the first attempt at deep learning terrace recognition based solely on high-resolution DEM, highlighting examples of false terrace recognition that may be related to natural or other artificial terrace-like features.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue revitalisation within the historical quarter: A comprehensive analysis of a medium sized city in Romania<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The public space environment is one of the critical influential factors for strengthening local identity and communities’ sense of belonging, while enhancing city life quality. This study focuses on the use of heritage buildings as a catalyst for reactivating public spaces and aims to explore to what extent the revitalization project for the historical centre of Craiova, a medium-sized post-socialist city, has succeeded. The three dimensions of revitalisation – physical, economic and social – were analysed using a mixed approach, including participant observation, field investigation, and a residents’ survey. Physical changes within the study area, improved accessibility, functional changes and economic restructuring were analysed, as well residents’ perceptions and use of the area (perceived changes, use of the place, types of places used by the residents, frequency, times spent). The results point to the fact that not all the three dimensions of the revitalization project were equally successful, proving once again that not all the actions are effective in delivering the best outcomes. The main beneficiaries are discussed and the outcome of the revitalisation project is analysed against similar projects in other countries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Logistics Sector on Poland’s Economic Growth 2018-2022<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work: </title> <p>Analysis of the impact of the logistics sector on Poland’s economic growth 2018-2022. The aim is to understand how logistics processes, including freight and passenger transport, sales of transport products and services, and warehouse management, affect key national economic indicators such as GDP and GNI.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>Economic and logistics dataset from CSO for Poland 2018-2022. The analysis methods used include correlation analysis, linear regression, cluster analysis and time series analysis, providing an in-depth understanding of the relationship between the logistics sector and economic growth.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>There is a significant positive correlation between the development of the logistics sector and Poland’s GDP growth, with a clear impact of freight and logistics efficiency on key economic indicators.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>Investment in and modernisation of the logistics sector is essential for Poland’s economic growth, suggesting the need to further develop infrastructure and innovation in this area.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Between University and Industry in Algeria: Beyond Geographical Proximity. Case Study of University Research Laboratories in Algeria<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work: </title> <p>This study explores the challenges and opportunities of collaboration between Algerian universities and industrial enterprises, emphasizing the influence of social and cognitive proximity on successful partnerships, irrespective of geographical proximity.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>: Utilizing qualitative methods, the study includes semi-structured interviews with 16 directors of university research laboratories across the nation. Its aim is to analyze whether cultural or cognitive disparities play a role in collaboration challenges.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>: The study revealed that cognitive proximity stands out as a pivotal factor, as shared or complementary skills and knowledge foster synergies, enhance mutual understanding, and facilitate effective communication. This, in turn, leads to successful research collaborations and tailored training initiatives aligned with market needs. Additionally, social and cultural proximity is highlighted as a significant element, simplifying exchanges and strengthening trust among stakeholders. The study underscores the importance of close social relationships in improving communication and facilitating the exchange of ideas, ultimately reinforcing collaborative efforts between universities and industry. This shows that geographical proximity is not truly a crucial element for successful collaboration.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>: This study proposes several measures to enhance collaboration. It sets the groundwork for future investigations by exploring the perspectives of industrial stakeholders, thereby enriching the discourse on collaborative initiatives between academia and industry in Algeria.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue