rss_2.0History FeedSciendo RSS Feed for History Feed quantitative analysis of the impact or consequences of the US Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Act of 2006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study examined whether the Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Act of 2006 affected the United States (US) Coast Guard performance characteristics with respect to incident response. The periods analyzed consisted of a decade before versus a decade after implementation of the legislation. Using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the <italic>p</italic>-value approach (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05), six hypotheses were tested to determine whether statistically significant differences in response attributes existed during the 10 years before versus the 10 years following the passing of the legislation. Four significant hypothesis-testing outcomes represented differences in the number of incidents, incident responses, cumulative lives lost, and lives lost after notification.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Role of “Folk” Costume in the Sustainable Development of Ethnic Communities from Tulcea County, Romania. Case Study: Ukrainians and Russian Lipovans<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article addresses the influence of traditional costumes on the identity development of two Slavic ethnic groups from Dobruja: the Ukrainians and the Russians Lipovans (Old Believers or Starovery). Adhering to certain traditional patterns, or on the contrary, adopting historical and modern symbols from Ukraine and Russia, these groups try to differentiate themselves, although at one time there was a great degree of isomorphism between their costumes. The investigation attempts to reconstruct old costume models, worn in Dobruja, elements with identity marker value, and also discusses the evolution of clothes over time, in relation to the cultural influences and the specific socio-economic environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Traditional Crafts in Sustainable Development and Building Community Resilience: Case Stories from India<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Concepts of sustainability build on slow fashion, local production, recycling, and reuse. These principles are quite inherent in traditional crafts. The paper shares examples of how traditional crafts can support the transition into a more sustainable and resilient way of living. It shares how a quilting tradition called Kantha has been developed, refined, and transmitted to rehabilitate women refugees and has over a span of a few decades led to women’s empowerment and the promotion of sustainable fashion. It also examines the potential of developing a traditional craft-based green economy for fostering inclusive, resilient, and sustainable development. Natural fiber-based crafts for making mats and basketry based on locally sourced raw materials reflect the long-term relationships between people and their environments. The paper shares how strategies for safeguarding a fine mat weaving tradition based on a kind of water reed called Madurkathi contributed to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Can Traditional Crafts Help Us Save the World? Crafts: Incentive of Sustainable Rural Development. The Contribution of the ASTRA Museum<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Although there is a renewed interest in contemporary society in the simple and natural life in rural areas, the rural intangible heritage, including the traditional crafts, is slowly disappearing. Craftsmen get old and the younger generations seem not to be too open to continuing the craftsmanship. Therefore, stimuli of various types are necessary to action for the revival of traditional crafts. The present contribution presents the strategy of ASTRA Museum, one of the most important open-air museums in Romania, regarding the sustainable development of traditional crafts. It argues how a museum could educate and stimulate cultural tourism through crafts, but also determine and support entrepreneurship in the domain of traditional crafts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Crafts. What About?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The (re)connection of contemporary society with traditional knowledge and its expression, traditional crafts, is a contradictory endeavor in itself. On one hand, traditional crafts are socially perceived as a burden, as a useless part of social life, and in the best case, as an exotic remanence of the past, good only for the hobbyists. On the other hand, as UNESCO and WIPO stated, traditional knowledge, and, by extension, traditional crafts are (or should be) an essential part of humankind’s history, part of the present, and the potential keepers of answers for future challenges. The presented paper aims to point out, mainly for general public use, the characteristics of traditional crafts and their richness. Traditional crafts might possess valuable answers for the present and future, related to sustainable use of natural resources; techniques and technologies for restoration and preservation of cultural heritage; holistic approaches in education; social and economic cohesion, especially for challenged communities. One of the main challenges in the active preservation of traditional crafts is that their protection and further acceptance at a social scale are connected with communities and not with individuals. In this respect, societies must find those instruments to address the communities of knowledge bearers and not companies or individuals. This understanding of the exceptional significance of communities in the present and future of traditional crafts is part of the solution for a desired sustainable life on this planet. Modern technologies will not offer all the answers to a dramatically fast-changing environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Crafts. A Literature Review Focused on Sustainable Development<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We witness a revival of the crafts due to complex changes in mentalities and society, but also related to the benefits and positive implications that traditional crafts could offer to contemporary societies and economies. Also, traditional crafts are compatible with the concept of sustainable development, which gives them another boost. The present paper represents one of the very few literature reviews in the field of traditional crafts aiming to map the knowledge we possess on traditional crafts. It documents a significant gap between professional and academic research, with the former being visible at local/national levels, but also an increased interest in the field, especially in understanding the future role that traditional crafts could play in communities and economies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Sub-Africa: Reflecting on the Failure of International Global Governance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper studies the phenomenon of poverty in underdeveloped/third-world countries, particularly within the context and the failure of international organizations in Sub-Saharan Africa. The article analyzes that the increasing problem of poverty in the region’s countries/Africa is a replication of the failure of the organizations such as the IMF and the World Bank policies such countries. Despite some projects such as Millennium Development Goals (MDG), Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), and many more by the United Nations. Many of these programs have failed to eradicate or reduce poverty. Instead, the situation has worsened most, especially in Africa, where the rate of poverty is increasing, with several regions in the continent experiencing the worse hunger epidemic in recent times. Therefore, the research posits that the failure of international institutions, the World Bank, and IMF policies have immensely become a significant contributing factor to the poverty level in Sub-Saharan Africa.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Silesian Factory of Nicotine Preparations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The state-owned enterprise under the name of Lower Silesian Factory of Nicotine Preparations (Dolnośląska Wytwórnia Preparatów Nikotynowych; DWPN) with its registered office first in Szalejów Dolny and then in Góra Śląska existed in the years 1952–1958. It produced, above all, nicotine sulphate used by farmers for plant protection (primarily to combat extremely widespread aphids). The plant was managed by the Polish tobacco industry, which supplied the raw material in the form of tobacco waste and waste from tobacco plants. The article first presents the post-war demand of Polish agriculture for nicotine preparations and the plans of the tobacco industry to concentrate their production in one place. Initially, nicotine preparations were manufactured in plants in Szalejów Dolny, Góra Śląska and Kraków-Czyżyny. Finally, under the auspices of the tobacco industry, the DWPN company was established, which produced nicotine preparations for the entire Polish agriculture. DWPN produced approximately 40 tons of nicotine sulphate annually. The plant employed an average of 60–70 employees. Economic reasons and a reduction in the demand for nicotine sulphate resulting from the appearance of cheaper and equally effective insecticides on the market made it necessary to liquidate the plant. The company’s facilities were taken over by the Provincial Union of Enterprises of State Industry in Wrocław.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue from the Academic Session “Human and Nature: Between Destruction and Creation” Organized as Part of the 23rd International Congress of Historical Sciences in Poznań on 24th August 2022 Art, Industry and Entrepreneurship: Artistic, Design, and Managerial Activity of Professor Zbigniew Horbowy in 1959–1989<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Zbigniew Horbowy (1935–2019), a graduate of the Faculty of Glass of the State Higher School of Fine Arts in Wrocław, conducted from the end of the 1950s, throughout the next several decades, exceptionally fruitful and original artistic, academic, design and managerial activities on the intersection of art and industry. His artistic achievements quickly found recognition in the national art circles and in the international arena. At the same time, as the only glass designer in the times of the Polish People’s Republic, he managed to combine artistic and commercial success. The utility glasses designed by him and mass-produced and sold on a mass scale were a symbol of Polish glass in general in the public awareness. He carried out his entrepreneurial activity with amazing efficiency in spite of the conditions of the industry in the People’s Republic of Poland. And this, in principle, was extremely difficult to effectively use innovation or design. As a lecturer at the PWSSP (State Higher School of Fine Arts), then a member of the university’s management and at the same time the head of design units of the leading Lower Silesian glassworks, he played an extremely important role in educating design staff and development directions of Polish industrial design.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue’ Activities Aimed at Improving the Economic Condition of Rural Farms in the Years 1918–1939 (On the Example of Kielce Voivodeship)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Large landownership was one of the main market players in the interwar period. It was a specific enterprise, legally and economically separated. It had its own organisational structure, human, financial and material resources. It carried out production and commercial activities with the aim of making a profit. The number of landowners in Kielce Voivodeship was estimated at 711, and together with their family members they made up a collective five times that number. The landowners were entrepreneurs, who coped with the economic reality with more or less success. The list of landowners was headed by owners of large estates – the Myszkowski, Drucki-Lubecki, Wielopolski, Łubieński, Czartoryski, Radziwiłł, Potocki, Tarnowski and Zamoyski families. However, farms consisting of a single manor, with an area of 180–300 ha, predominated. Apart from a small group of farm owners who wasted their fortune, the landowners were attached to the land and wanted to keep it in good economic condition. Owning a farm entailed responsibility for it. It obliged the owner to manage it properly and not leave it to its fate. My aim is to characterise the activities of landowners as entrepreneurs aiming to improve the economic condition of their property. I have in mind modernisation, which manifested itself in modern technical procedures, mechanisation, selective crop-animal production and the industrialisation of landed estates</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue from the Academic Conference “Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurs and Enterprises: Between Synthesis and Case Study. On the 100th Aniversary of the Chair and Department of Economic History at the University of Poznań and the University of Adam Mickiewicz” in Poznań on 22–23 September 2022 Portrait of the Galician Oil Entrepreneurs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>When presenting the careers of entrepreneurs operating on Polish soil at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, researchers usually focus on individuals operating in the most industrialised areas, especially the Kingdom of Poland. Much less attention has been paid to successful entrepreneurs in Galicia. Studies on Galician entrepreneurship have mainly taken the form of biographical entries in encyclopaedias and lexicons and in the Polish Biographical Dictionary. These are profiles of individual business leaders of the Austrian partition, while far fewer works deal with the issue of entrepreneurs as a group, despite the fact that there are many sources for such research. This article is an attempt to create a group portrait of a number of Galician oil entrepreneurs who played an exceptional role in the economic, the social, and the political life of Galicia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Sport: Sport in Business, Using Professional Football as an Example<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The issue of entrepreneurship in sports joins the more general trend of catching up with the long Renaissance period of “reflecting” on the character of the professional sportsman (athlete), so peculiarly overlooked, and one of the main protagonists of the culture of antiquity, alongside the artist or philosopher. The author of the article adopts the convention of the ‘corporate athlete’, for which he sees a contemporary exemplification in football, the most popular sport. The examples cited from the economic history of football, preceded by an outline of the basic categories of entrepreneurship, are an attempt to show the essence of an economic, two-way view of these issues. The description of the institutionalisation of analytics and football’s ‘information bank’, highlights the effectiveness of an interdisciplinary approach to entrepreneurship in sport. In contrast, the characterisation of the re-engineering carried out at FC Barcelona is a case of an approach that treats sport as a natural economic environment. Providing a wholesome, inspirational building block, grounding some elements of management and entrepreneurial.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Review: Decade of Wonders 1988–98. This is How Polish Capitalism was Born [Dekada Cudów 1988–98. Tak Się Rodził Polski Kapitalizm], legal and religious conflict in Montenegro – genesis, course, last clash<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Contemporary Montenegro was created as a result of the break-up of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Although this country was for a short time an integral part of Serbian Republic and functioned on the international arena as the so-called new Yugoslavia, Montenegrin society decided in a referendum to proclaim independence in 2006. Despite the fact that the separation took place in a peaceful manner, the frozen conflict between these countries slowly began to intensify. The areas it covered were legal, political and especially religious issues. The dispute reached its climax during the Covid-19 epidemic, when the Montenegrin authorities put to a parliamentary vote a draft of the Law on Religious Freedoms, which would <italic>de facto</italic> deprive all property of the Serbian Orthodox Church that has been operating in Montenegro for centuries. This led to mass protests by the indigenous Serb population identifying with the Serbian Patriarchate. The regulations against which the supporters of the pro-Serb opposition protested provided that religious communities would have to prove the transfer of ownership of real estate and land they had acquired before 1918, when Montenegro became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes – a state created after the World War I, which was renamed Yugoslavia on January 6, 1929. The main goal of the article is to present the genesis and development of the conflict summarized above, as well as to show its legal, religious and political consequences not only for the Montenegrin state, but indirectly for the entire region. The article consists of two main parts. The first one covers a short description of the Montenegrin nation/regional/ethnic group with the general problem of its identity outlined. The second describes the genesis, essence and recent events of the Serbo-Montenegrin conflict, which is taking place on the legal, political and cultural-religious level. The text includes an introduction and final conclusions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue (in)dependence of Arctic indigenous peoples on the example of Greenlanders<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Climate warming is causing ice in the circumpolar zones to melt, making it easier to access the natural resources there. It is not only individual states but also international corporations that are seeking to take control of these deposits. In the vast majority of cases, the indigenous inhabitants of the Arctic have little influence over the exploitation of the deposits. This is due to the economic and political superiority of the authorities of the countries they live in. Very frequently, even their autonomy is only apparent, and it concerns merely a few aspects of economic activity. It is only in the case of the Inuit living in Greenland that the situation is different. They have real control over their own territories. They have a wide autonomy within the Kingdom of Denmark and no option of Greenland gaining independence would be beneficial for them. The article constitutes an attempt to analyze the possibility of their economic independence.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in remembering, contradictions in commemoration. Main narrative trends in conflict of memories in Poland after 1989<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this article is to present how the concept of conflict of memories can be understood (referring to Poland after 1989), and to show what are the main directions of narratives in this conflict, formulated within the framework of several areas fundamental to Polish public discourse. It was also of great importance to discover what types of narratives construct each of the narrative trends about a particular past event. This made it possible to formulate conclusions concerning the shape of the featured conflict, its course and potential for permanence.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue initiatives in Turkey as an example of environmental movement<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As one of the developing countries, Turkey’s demand for energy is increasing. This demand has led Turkey to the use of renewable energy sources after the 2000s. In this context, HEPPs (Hydro-electric Power Plants) have come to the fore in energy production. However, the widespread use of HEPPs has led to an increase in environmental problems. The problems experienced were protested by various social segments and created social opposition in the process. As a result of these protests and social opposition, an anti-HEPP social movement emerged in the context of environmentalism, which is a social movement in Turkey.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue