rss_2.0History FeedSciendo RSS Feed for History Feed methodological problems of creating a digital thematic repository of historical cartographic and textual sources. Case study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper discusses the activities involved in the process of creating a digital thematic repository focusing on historical cartographic and textual sources. On the basis of the thematic repository created as part of the project “Shaping the borders of Independent Poland in the light of cartographic documents”, the author presents proposals for solutions aimed at effective management of the various materials, as well as allowing users easy access to specific information. It provides an overview of the issues identified in the context of identifying, selecting, digitising and sharing digital copies of sources of relevance to humanities and social sciences research. With regard to the digitisation of cartographic sources, the article examines the challenges of adapting the technology to meet the diverse needs of information retrieval. In addition, it addresses issues related to the development of metadata and the integration of different types of sources. The article also addresses issues related to maintaining and updating the digital repository, with a particular focus on ensuring the sustainability of the project. The conclusions of the completed project allow us to identify best practices in the process of creating and managing a digital thematic repository, which can be a valuable tool for researchers, students, and cultural heritage institutions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue’ contribution to the transformation of contemporary warfare<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The introduction of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in contemporary battlefields constitutes a transformation in warfighting. The consequences of such an innovation can be traced not only to the level of strategy but also in political, economic as well as ethical terms. So far, UAVs have demonstrated decisiveness in non-military contested environments and in conflicts that involve failed states. UAVs, however, have been proved to be militarily effective, but not militarily decisive in conventional wars. Simultaneously, a series of limitations makes over-reliance on them to look faulty. Time will tell whether their further technological advancements will be able to revolutionise the conduct of war.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the call of duty: Reimagining military service through hero narratives in the US Army’s ‘The Calling’ campaign<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study employs Erwin Panofsky’s iconographic analysis to decode the 2021 US Army recruiting campaign ‘The Calling’, situating it against the historical backdrop of military recruitment since the all-volunteer force’s inception. Panofsky’s framework allows for a dissection of the campaign’s layered narrative and its animated aesthetics, which notably diverge from prior campaign’s emphasis on the warrior archetype. The analysis progresses from a description of visual and narrative element’s (pre-iconography), to an investigation of symbolic meanings (iconography), culminating in an interpretation of underlying societal attitudes (iconology). ‘The Calling’ reimagines military enlistment as a heroic pursuit, echoing the superhero genre’s origin stories, and emerges as a response to waning interest in military careers. The campaign targets the zeitgeist of the young American population, offering a sense of heroism as compensation in a challenging recruitment climate marked by a robust economy and low unemployment. By presenting service as a ‘calling’, the Army navigates the complex terrain of contemporary cultural values, seeking to resonate with potential recruits on an ideological level, particularly within race and gender minority communities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of kinetic orbital bombardment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper, the possible impact effects of orbital bombardment systems and their feasibility are studied. These effects are the projectile penetration into concrete and steel targets and seismic effects. The equations of motion for the re-entry of a projectile and the penetration were solved numerically. The projectile penetration is modelled using the Alekseevskii–Tate model. By varying the altitude (<italic>h</italic>), projectile length (<italic>L</italic>), manoeuvre velocity (Δ<italic>V</italic>) and the target properties, the flight time (<italic>t</italic>), earthquake magnitude (<italic>M</italic>) and penetration depth (<italic>P</italic>) are calculated. The calculations show that the impact of a tungsten alloy rod with a length of 8 m and a 0.4 m diameter results in an earthquake with a seismic magnitude of only 2.5 on the Richter scale. For concrete, the optimal result is obtained for a projectile with a length of 0.56 m. It penetrates 1.79 m with a minimal Δ<italic>V</italic> trajectory. These results show that a kinetic orbital bombardment system is not feasible without major technological developments, the impact angle being a bottleneck of the concept. Moreover, one has to accept very high costs. Without any means to change the attitude of the projectile, using ICBMs or bombers shows a better penetration performance than re-entry.</p> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Highlights</title> <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><p>Weapons in orbit may provide a strategic advantage. However, they are restricted by international space laws.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>Impact angle of the projectile is a bottleneck for kinetic orbital bombardment.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>Larger impact angles can be achieved, but at the expense of a larger mass-to-orbit.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>A hypersonic drag device may be used to optimise the impact angle and thus improve the system.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>Alternative projectile delivery methods (Bomber, Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM)) show better performance for both steel and concrete targets.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>Essentially, only penetration phenomena matter because the seismic effects are not significant. Therefore, orbital bombardment systems don’t even resemble weapons of mass destruction (WMD).</p></list-item> <list-item><p>Given their limited effect, destroying a particular target requires a guidance and flight control system, which, given the high velocities, may not be feasible.</p></list-item> </list> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Peasants, Undesirables, Refugees: Central and Eastern European Immigration to Canada<DIV align=justify>The collection of essays in this volume of HJEAS Books explores the history of immigration to Canada from Central and Eastern Europe, spanning a period of approximately one hundred years and adding fresh perspectives and methodological approaches that enrich scholarly discourse in the field. The chapters written by authors from the USA, Canada, Belgium, France, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, and Hungary highlight differences in the migration trajectories of people from various countries of the region, while also shedding light on the shared experience of immigrants of different time periods. The chapters provide valuable insights for migration studies, as well as the history of the Americas and Europe, and study the topic of immigration to Canada from a broad array of vantage points, among others, exploring the complex migration pathway from the places of emigration to Canada, the impact of race, ethnicity, and religion on migration, inter-American aspects of immigration to Canada, the contributions of immigrants to the evolving image(s) of Canada in Central and Eastern Europe, and the representations of immigration in literature, arts, and music.BOOKtrue policy in small towns of Zamojszczyzna region, Poland, in the post-socialist period<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Small cities have attracted less attention from researchers of transformation processes, although in some countries they are an important part of the social landscape, as they are in Poland. I present the results of research on the public space and symbolic politics in three small towns in Zamojszczyzna, a region in southeastern Poland. All are characterized by interrupted or disturbed historical continuity due to the extermination of their Jewish communities, which made up the majority of the population until World War II. After 1945, the Jewish past was silenced, while the symbolic space was dominated by the memory of the resistance movement. I show in my text that since the 1990s there have been significant transformations in the aforementioned towns. In some of them, firstly, interest in Jewish heritage and efforts to preserve it are becoming more apparent. Second, there is a noticeable shift from commemorating anti-fascism to promoting the so-called struggle against communism, a reflection of the current politics of remembrance at the central level. I argue that the use of cultural heritage in small towns serves largely to gain recognition. Local authorities often use not only elements of the past that fit into national narratives, but also local traditions or even fictional literary heroes, for this purpose.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Market or a Chance to Be Different? Micro Independent Presses in the UK<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article looks at small independent publishers in the UK and explores whether there is room for them in the overcrowded UK publishing scene. The literature review considers contradictory press reports about the health of the UK publishing industry during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. A questionnaire allowing in-depth responses was sent to six micro-publishers and four independent bookshops. The responses were analyzed and supplemented with publicly available interviews with the publishers and personal conversations with the booksellers. A case study of the recently founded publisher of translated crime fiction Corylus Books confirms many of the issues reported by the surveyed micro-publishers. This research offers an inside look at the UK micro-publishers’ challenges and creative approaches, providing practical and applicable insights not only for the UK market but also for small publishers in other countries, especially agents or publishers looking to sell rights to those markets.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and the Children's Book Market at the Crossroads: the Foundations for Creating a Romanian House of Children's Literature<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Society has always relied on education for the building of progress ever since the dawn of history, and books have always been strong agents of change no matter the shape they came in (papyrus, codex, handwritten manuscripts, printed books, digital books, etc.). For this reason, analyzing the interplay between education and books is valuable and necessary if we wish to get a better sense of society at any moment. This paper explores how education and the book industry intersect in today's Romanian society. However, it also proposes a possible solution for strengthening their relationship and opening new horizons for culture and research. More specifically, my analysis focuses on children's literature since children's education is considered an investment into the future of society in modern democratic states. In the case of Romania, it is unfortunate that this type of literature is somewhat neglected compared to other countries, but this should never be a good enough reason for not trying to create more creative contexts to improve the situation. Drawing inspiration from what other countries are doing to develop bridges between education and the children's book market, but at the same time highlighting essential initiatives in Romania that can become reliable engines of change, I strongly advocate for the necessity and possibility of creating a Romanian House of Children's Literature, open to supporting researchers, professionals, and families in their shared mission to ensure quality development of children.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Pages, Facing Challenges: Unveiling Business Inactivity and SMEs' Challenges in Romania's Book Publishing Market<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Book publishing companies navigate the interplay between localization and globalization seamlessly, yet the cadence at which global dynamics infiltrate local markets unfolds at different rhythms. Using publicly available data about the performance of Romanian book publishers, this paper explores the local market and its dynamics from 2018 to 2021. The results indicate "an inactivity trend" among enterprises: more than 40% of companies could not generate a net profit, and more than 50% had no employees. The prevalence of SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) over big companies is an intrinsic characteristic of the Romanian market. Although compared to bigger companies, SMEs manage to translate sales into profitability, over 70% of small and medium-sized companies have a turnover below 60,000 Euros. The paper concludes by highlighting growth opportunities, such as tapping into the Romanian diaspora and exploring the correlation between book sales, university locations, and the role of academic institutions in shaping reading habits.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Like You’re Living in a Better World: Creative Writing as a Means for Building the Societies We Wish to See<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The following article explores a proposed educational programme premised on writing for utopias. Specifically, through facilitated dialogue, participants would collectively engage in creative writing as a mechanism for envisioning alternative futures grown out of divergent political ideologies or social norms to those they experience today. Participants are encouraged to question their current mentality, reflect on why society operates as it does today, and consider what changes they would want to bear witness to. The contribution outlines core concepts for the programme, whilst offering a sample twelve-session guide with suggestions on how to adapt it based on previous knowledge or the participants' ambitions. The ambition of such an undertaking is that students are supported - and support each other - to break with traditional formulaic tasks and, instead, develop their creativity and vision. Their works then serve as a starting point for further tasks predicated on critical dialogue over why they hold particular beliefs, rely on their stated visions to be utopian, and, ultimately, what steps are required to build towards the society they wish to see. The premise is non-prescriptive to enable writers to take their narratives in whichever directions they see fit - for example, whilst science fiction permits us to consider far flung futures, and fantasy enables perspectives to emerge from any source (flora, fauna, or otherwise), historical fiction enables us to revisit significant moments in time to ask what could have been had different choices been made. Throughout the submission, several literary and cinematic fiction examples are drawn upon to help demonstrate the relevant points.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Manuscript: Unraveling Author-Publisher Dynamics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years, customer experience and satisfaction have become more critical than ever before. Companies focus on these two elements to retain and acquire customers in a highly competitive environment. The relationship between authors and publishers has always been complex, with dynamics deeply rooted in the social and cultural environment. At the same time, the success of their collaboration significantly impacts the local creative and sociocultural landscape. It is essential to understand the factors that determine author satisfaction and ease of collaboration, both generally and industry-specific, to support the growth and development of the book sector. This paper analyzes the collaborative dynamics between authors and publishers using the Customer Satisfaction (CSAT) and Customer Effort Score (CES) metrics based on a survey of 133 authors from various literary fields and geographic areas in Romania. The research findings provide insight into the key drivers behind authors' satisfaction and ease of collaboration with publishers. Moreover, we suggest practical recommendations from authors to publishers that can improve their collaborative processes, enhancing positive experiences for authors and potentially improving the overall quality of published works. This study's insights shall benefit authors, publishing houses, various organizations operating in the publishing field, policymakers, and regulatory bodies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Between Industry and Culture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Photojournalism as an industry has experienced a highly dynamic development in recent years. The present study aims to provide an encompassing image of this industry and its emergence, as well as its challenges in the current context. The cultural dimension of this sector, as well as its prevalent connection to the book industry, constitute two of the main perspectives elaborated in this study. Lastly, an entrepreneurial perspective on photojournalism as a profession is adopted, while a detailed DESTEP analysis is provided further to illustrate the practical implications of this field of work.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Post-Pandemic-Era: Another Crossroad for the Book Industry? Archives: How Western Newspapers Frame Our Remembrance of the Gezi Park Protest<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We analyze the coverage of the Gezi Park protests by two major Western newspapers—<italic>The New York Times</italic> and <italic>The Guardian</italic>—through the lens of media framing, rhetoric, and collective memory. We argue that these digital archives frame Turkey’s Gezi Park protests as a challenge to an authoritarian government by promoting the themes of unrest as a conflict of ideologies, oppression of citizens, and the park as a site of memory. In a concluding section, we focus on the significance of digital archives as repositories of collective memory and the role of media framing in shaping these reconstructions of events in the past.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue issues on Polish maps prepared for the Paris Peace Conference 1919–1920<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The military and political outcome of World War I, and the deliberations of the Paris Peace Conference, offered a real chance for the rebirth of Polish statehood. A key issue was the justification of Poland’s future territorial shape, in which ethnic issues played a significant role alongside historical, economic and strategic criteria.</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to show and discuss selected archival nationality maps, often of an expert nature, produced by Polish scholars for the purpose of negotiating the territorial extent of Poland during the Paris Peace Conference. To what extent were they an attempt at an objective representation of the national reality of the Polish territory, and to what a subjective perception and experience of space by the authors of the maps? What were the aims and ideas of their creators, what did they want to achieve? To what extent did the political reality of the time determine their behaviour?</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Geographic Information Systems in analysing the selection of cichociemni drop zones based on a case study of the “Mewa 1” drop zone<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article discusses the possible use of GIS tools in detailed spatial analysis of materials and old maps showing the activities of Polish soldiers during World War II. The research was based on information regarding the military operations of the “Silent and Unseen” paratroopers (in Polish: cichociemni) in the General Government (GG), available in the archives of the Polish Underground Movement Study Trust (in Polish: Studium Polski Podziemnej) in London, as well as on prewar maps of the Polish Military Geographical Institute (in Polish: Wojskowy Instytut Geograficzny – WIG). The authors present the historical background to, and important details of the cichociemni airdrops. They also describe how these operations were organised and suitable airdrop sites selected. The main part of the article is devoted to an analysis and assessment of the extent to which selected drop sites of the cichociemni complied with the criteria contained in the instructions of the Staff of the Commander-in-Chief in London (in Polish: Sztab Naczelnego Wodza w Londynie). The article presents a case study of the “Mewa 1” drop zone located in the GG. The authors used calibrated WIG maps, which they then converted into vector versions. They also made use of modern DTM and a slope map created on its basis. All the criteria for selecting drop zones included in the historical instructions were analysed. Based on the example of the drop zone in question, as well as on the authors’ own spatial analyses, it was concluded that this particular drop zone met some of the criteria formulated in the guidelines of the Commander-in-Chief’s Staff, but only partially met others or failed to meet them at all. In addition, the authors noted a number of limitations regarding these criteria. For example, they did not take into account the locations of the occupiers’ garrisons or anti-aircraft positions, which are particularly important for the success of airdrop operations. The analyses and the results thereof constitute the first study of the armed operations of the cichociemni in GG areas using digital maps and spatial analyses based on GIS.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Curtain in Aš: Socialist Heritage and Its Destiny after 1990<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents collaborative interdisciplinary research on the mixed natural and cultural heritage of the former Iron Curtain in the Czech town of Aš. Sociocultural anthropology, history, and geobotanical and environmental studies were the main disciplines that were equally involved. The former Iron Curtain is one of Europe’s longest linear landscape features and an exceptional symbol of European history. The researched area covers the Czech-Bavarian and Czech-Saxonian borders, mainly the Aš spur. The research investigates the impacts of the long-term existing isolated strip of land of the Iron Curtain both on natural and sociocultural levels. It further examines the post-socialist transformation of the given area and the elements and processes of redefining local memory and identity through handling the local Iron Curtain heritage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Tijana Vuković, Regaining the Yugoslav Heritage vs. Culture Crisis Regaining the Past. Yugoslav Legacy in the Period of Transition: The Case of Formal and Alternative Institutions of Art and Culture in Serbia at the End of the 20th and the Beginning of the 21st Century, Warsaw–Bellerive sur Allier, Wydawnictwo DiG 2022, ss. 343 the Ratio of the Main Agricultural Sectors in the Urban Economy of the Principality of Moldavia (The End of the 16 Century – Beginning of the 18 Century)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article considers the ratio of the leading agricultural sectors in the economic structure of Moldavian cities in the period from the end of the 16<sup>th</sup> century to the beginning of the 18<sup>th</sup> century. The study attempts to systematise the available historical material (various sources of that era) based on the mathematical method and mathematical modelling tools. The results of the study confirm the well-established facts that agricultural and trade and handicraft activities were basic in the urban economic infrastructure and were closely interconnected. The dominance of the agrarian factor in urban life and the semi-agrarian nature of the towns of the Principality of Moldavia contributed to significant functional changes in the evolution of the economic infrastructure of towns and cities, the formation of the urban market, trade and market relations, craft formations, and so on for the following centuries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Cesarzowych Cesarstwa Łacińskiego (1204–1261) (4). Berengaria Z Léonu<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>On the empresses of the Latin Empire</italic> (<italic>1204–1261</italic>) (<italic>4</italic>). <italic>Berengaria of Léon.</italic> This article is the fourth part of the series “On the Empresses of the Latin Empire (1204<italic>–</italic>1261)”. Its aim is to present the biography of Berengaria of León (Berenguela in Castilian), the third wife of John of Briene, mainly on the basis of Castilian and Old French sources. Information about her is laconic and scattered through various sources. Berengaria was the daughter of King Alfonso IV of Leon and his second wife, Berengaria of Castile. Born in 1204, in 1224 she married the former king of Jerusalem, John of Brienne. She became the Latin empress in 1231. She had three sons, her daughter Mary, as the wife of Baldwin II, also became the Latin empress, Little is known about Berengaria’s education and her language skills during the stay in Constantinople. She died there in April 1237, but was buried in Compostela. She was not politically active and did not play a significant role in the history of the Latin Empire.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue