rss_2.0History FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Historyhttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/HIhttps://www.sciendo.comHistory Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/History.jpg700700Maps from (1750): a listing of plates and stateshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcr-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper sets out to attempt identification of all known plates used to print maps included in the <italic>Atlas Silesiae</italic> and of all identified states of these maps. While the early states of the <italic>Atlas</italic> maps are relatively well studied (though far not in every detail), printings pulled from the same though deeply reworked plates, published in Nurnberg in the first two decades of the 19<sup>th</sup> c., are not always recognised as the late states of the same maps. For each of twenty maps from <italic>Atlas Silesiae</italic> listed are all identified states together with the most distinctive differences between them. Eleven copies of <italic>Atlas Silesiae</italic> were also examined in search for possible regularities of their composition in terms of states of the included maps. Public collections with exemplary copies of the <italic>Atlas</italic> maps in each state identified in the paper are listed in the Appendix.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Verifying and improving map specifications of river network selection for automatic generalization of small-scale mapshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcr-2022-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Automated generalization is highly desired for effective map production. This research focuses on the initial stage of generalization, namely object selection. The study aims to conduct river network automatic selection based on map specifications contained in the Minister of Internal Affairs and Administration regulation. The research covers river network selection from the General Geographic Objects Database from 1:250,000 to 1:500,000 detail level. Within the research scope, three selection variants were designed. The first was a basic variant that only included the implementation of the specifications contained in the regulation. The other two were experimental variants: an extended variant and an extended-modified variant with the parameters and data enrichment proposed by the authors. The extended variant has been supplemented with the Id_MPHP index usage, derived from the Map of Hydrographic Division of Poland (MPHP), which defines the hierarchy of watercourses in the river network. The extended-modified variant was implemented according to the guidelines of the regulation, with the use of the Id_MPHP index and additionally with the help of the parameter denoting “priority” watercourses, which was assigned by the authors. The results of the work constitute the generalization models designed in ArcMap 10.8. with the use of Model Builder functionality as well as the maps presenting the selection variants output visualizations. The results were compared visually as well as verified with the reference atlas map generalized by an experienced cartographer. As a result, the map specifications concerning the selection process presented in the regulation proved to be insufficient to generalize river networks properly. The variants proposed in this research made it possible to improve the selection results and enabled the automation of the river selection process. Additional specifications and parameters proposed in this work may constitute an essential supplement to the guidelines contained in the regulation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Military organisations and emerging technologies – How do unmanned systems find a role in future navies?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jms-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fewer qualified platforms and reduced personnel within the navy are the reality for many nations, although operational requirements might have remained the same or increased over time. At the same time, research is advancing in unmanned and autonomous systems, which have also found application in military use. Therefore, navies need to develop approaches for effective technological transformation. To fulfil this need, this study aims to identify and describe the relevant research from different disciplines and their respective relation to the design of future navies. The study commences with a literature review related to knowledge support for understanding how emerging technologies, such as maritime autonomous systems (MAS), find their place in a military organisation. The findings suggest that the armed forces should be categorised as a sociotechnical system, built of systems-of-systems that together enable capability, and that it is as a capability enforcer that the overall system should be developed. This highlights the importance of structural and organisational changes in making the best use of the technology, as well as in making the sociotechnical system as efficient as possible. Therefore, the armed forces need to be learning organisations, exercising joint planning, where there is room for knowledge sharing and flexibility within the organisation despite different hierarchical layers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Contemporary national movement and the problem of migrationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pn-2021-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the article is to present the position of the contemporary national movement towards the problem of the influx of immigrants to Europe, with a particular emphasis on the threats arising from this fact for Poland. The article uses opinion journalism, political programmes and the press of the contemporary national movement. Content analysis and, to a lesser extent, comparative studies were used as a research method.</p> <p>During the migration crisis, there was a strong protest against the attempt to accept a refugees into Poland. Activists of the national movement recorded a film Stop for Refugees in which they put forward the idea of holding a referendum during which Poles would decide whether to stop the influx of refugees.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Book Review: Rafał Prostak, , Wydawnictwo Naukowe Chrześcijańskiej Akademii Teologicznej w Warszawie, Warszawahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pn-2021-0015ARTICLE2022-09-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Integral Ukrainian nationalism in the comparative contexthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pn-2021-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents main analytic problems that Victor Polishchuk tackles in his book <italic>Ideologia nacjonalizmu ukraińskiego</italic> [The Ideology of Ukrainian Nationalism]. Key features of integral Ukrainian nationalism in Dontsov’s version have been presented here on the background of the nationalisms of two neighbouring countries, Germany and Poland, in order to identify the similarities and differences between them in the realm of axiological systems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-12T00:00:00.000+00:00National self-identification of students of the Faculty of Orthodox Theology at the University of Warsaw (late 1920s-1930s)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pn-2021-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the article, the data about national structure of students of Faculty of Orthodox Theology of the University of Warsaw in the late1920s-1930s is analyzed. The features of national self-identification of different groups of students are designated. Conclusions are made about the reasons for the disproportionate representation among future theologians of persons self-identifying as Russian and Orthodox Poles.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Real breakthrough or pragmatic continuation? The Polish People’s Republic in the assessment of German diplomacy on the eve of imposing martial law in Poland – discussion theseshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pn-2021-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The author of the following Contribution text was interested in whether December 13, 1981 – it means also the Martial Law in Poland – really changed anything for West Germany from the point of view of its own foreign policy. The answers of this Question, formulated on the basis of the Research in the political archives of the West German Ministry of Foreign Affairs, aim at explaining the reasons for the behavior of certain institutions or politicians in West Germany after the breakthrough of 1980-1981. The main Thesis of the author are: The West German primacy of stabilisation meant doing everything to avoid a soviet military intervention in Poland. How? Through diplomatic and military messages stating that the intervention would be too costly. Besides, in agreement with the US State Department, West Germany tried to avoid doing anything which could give the Communist Party of the Soviet Union arguments for an invasion. Last but not least, General Jaruzelski, as a figure publicly referring to national and patriotic feelings, but also enjoying some form of support in Moscow, was able to provide a difficult, but real stabilisation, even with the use of violence. The diplomacy of West Germany needed nothing more. Therefore was the message given to the authorities of the Polish People’s Republic after December 13 was crystal clear. Unless blood was shed, West Germany would not condemn General Jaruzelski’s government more than the country’s loyalty to NATO required it to.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Mainstreaming the right-wing radicalism and extremism: basic approaches and perceptions from Georgian academiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pn-2021-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Unlike some European countries, the involvement of radical right-wing forces in Georgian politics and the support of a certain part of the society for them is a relatively new phenomenon in Georgia’s politics. This has resulted in a growing interest in the study of the topic among Georgian academic circles. However, the defining and applying the concepts of radicalism and extremism regarding Georgian right-wing forces are different. By comparing the major approaches to the concepts of right-wing radicalism and extremism this paper aims to critically review and analyze perceptions from Georgian academia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Ukrainian nationalism and Viktor Polishchuk as its historianhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pn-2021-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article deals with the problem of Ukrainian nationalism and its significance in Polish-Ukrainian relations. It considers the role of the Ukrainian Nationalist Organization (OUN) established in 1929, and its militia, the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), and the genocide committed by these organizations and the Ukrainian population supporting them during the World War II on Poles living in the south-eastern voivodeships of the Second Polish Republic. At the same time, it presents the scientific achievements of the recently deceased Ukrainian political scientist and historian, Associate Professor Viktor Polishchuk, who, on over 2,579 pages of his works, documented the ideology, organizational structures and genocidal activity of those organizations which, according to the calculations of the Polish side, murdered about 200,000 Poles using the most atrocious methods. The article also lists very critical opinions of the Ukrainian bishop Khomyshyn on the contemporary Ukrainian nationalism, as well as detailed documentation of the crime of genocide carried out by the OUN and UPA on Poles as compiled within the five volumes listed in the bibliography.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The national team – shaping the nation’s representation in footballhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pn-2021-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The national football team represents the nation and speaks for it. The football team plays an important role in the reproduction of national identity and nationalism. It is also used as a tool of public diplomacy. The team is managed by the national football association, which is autonomous from the state authorities. Thanks to its dominant position, the national football association can impose its vision of the representation of the nation. However, the vision of the selector is not received passively. The composition of the national team – an important aspect of the team as a metonymy of the nation – is sometimes contested by the public, especially sports journalists or fans.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Creedal Nationalism in early American labor movementshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pn-2021-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the United States during the late 1820s, the labor movements formed that faced public accusations of being un-American and potentially puppets of European influence. These accusations often came from politicians or organizations sympathetic to ethnic nationalism. Partially in response to these charges, labor movements began to espouse versions of Creedal Nationalism. As a country without a natural nation, the United States has maintained for over two centuries two competing narratives within political ideologies concerning who should be allowed to be members of the American Nation. This paper presents research that continues to refine the history of Creedal Nationalism in the United States, a more precise construction of nation than the more ambiguous concept of civic nationalism. Specifically, the article is part of an effort to refine the usually vague and undocumented claims that social movements beginning in the late 1820s began using Creedal Nationalism to counter ethnic nationalism, using a mistaken or intentionally distorted interpretation of the Jeffersonian Creed of “all men are created equal”. While prominent uses by women’s and abolitionist movements are often cited (usually the same famous examples), the evidence of the use of Creedal Nationalism in public rhetoric by early labor associations is less documented. The ideological conflict between Creedal Nationalism and ethnic nationalism remains deeply embedded in American political culture and the political party system. The origins, development, and rhetoric of the category of Creedal Nationalism remain important for the framing of models of American political development and current political conflict.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria (MIR) and the armed resistance in Chile during the institutionalization of the dictatorship (1978-1990)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pn-2021-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria (MIR) was a political-military organization of Marxist ideology which between 1978 and 1990 defined and deployed in Chile a strategy of armed struggle to confront the dictatorship led by Augusto Pinochet Ugarte. Its objective was to prevent the dictatorship from completing its project of re-founding Chilean society (economically, politically, socially and culturally) and, in this way, to advance towards the development of a socialist revolution.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-12T00:00:00.000+00:00On the need to recognize the Greeks in Poland as a national minorityhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pn-2021-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Members of the Greek community living in Poland are making efforts to obtain the status of a national minority. Their ancestors have been present on Polish lands since the Middle Ages. Over the centuries, Greeks played an important role in the development of economic and scientific life of Polish cities. They were co-creators of Polish culture, art, and animators of the development of Orthodox religious life. Nowadays, the Greek minority is a permanent element of the Polish society, cultivating its own national and religious traditions. Its representatives are political and local government activists. Through the created organizational structures, they emphasize and cultivate their own national identity. The Greeks in Poland meet all the legal requirements for recognition as a national minority.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Framing as modus operandi for social movements: The case of Black Lives Matterhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pn-2021-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>From a symbolic and cultural approach to the social movements, framing theory has contributed to explain meanings and strategies for mobilization. Also, the theory has evolved in the media research, and media frames have to be also considered in the collective action. This paper clarifies how frames work in this context and describes their ability to give legitimization and congruence to the movement. The case of Black Lives Matter is an example of the use of framing and its consequences for the movement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Sami identity in the face of climate changehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pn-2021-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Global warming is accelerating, thus irreversibly changing the human environment, and most of the measures taken to halt this phenomenon seem to be the result of wishful thinking. Policies meant to combat climate change fail to bring about the desired effect. Arctic indigenous peoples are particularly vulnerable to climate change, and their cultural identity is under threat. However, owing to the actions taken by state authorities and European Union institutions, there is a chance that the Sami languages will be preserved.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The consequences of the 1989 changes in the socio-political activity of Lemkos in Poland and the United States of Americahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pn-2021-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>During the communist period, the Lemko community did not have its own separate ethnic organization in Poland. In the USA, the Lemkos were able to conduct social and political activities without any obstacles. Even before World War II, two important organizations were established: the Russophile Lemko-Soyuz and the Ukrainophile Organization for the Defense of Lemkivshchyna in America. The social and political transformation initiated by the elections of June 1989 changed the situation of national and ethnic minorities. The period of political transformation in Poland also activated the Lemkos, who also took advantage of these changes to formalize and develop their activities. The first postwar Lemko organization was the Lemko Association. As a counterbalance for Lemkos Association, Ukrainophiles created in Gorlice their own organization – Union of Lemkos. American activists also had to find their way in the new political circumstances. When the Soviet Union collapsed, not only did the ideological base of Lemko-Soyuz fall into ruin, but also its financial base. OOL found itself in a much better position than Lemko-Soyuz during the period of political transition in Eastern Europe. The anti-Moscow stance of the Ukrainianophile organization allowed it to remain credible and continue to fight for the interests of Ukraine. However, the organizations, both Polish and American, in their multifaceted activity still contribute to consolidation and preservation of Lemkos’ cultural identity and preservation of their traditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Conditions of the foundation of Ukrainian nationalismhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pn-2021-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The consequences of implementing the assumptions of the ideology of Ukrainian nationalism were especially tragic for the Polish population living in Volhynia and Eastern Lesser Poland. The number of Poles murdered by the OUN-UPA and other armed Ukrainian nationalist formations in 1939-1948 is not known exactly, but it is estimated that it was from 80,000 to 150,000 people. This article is an attempt to answer the question of what the determinants of Ukrainian nationalism were. For this purpose, it refers to the historical, civilization and cultural background on which the Ukrainian soul have been shaped for centuries. This foundation prepared the space for the emergence of a criminal ideology, and then for its implementation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Conformal projections of a tri-axial ellipsoid based on isometric coordinates: history, methodology, and exampleshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcr-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents a review of the conformal projections of a tri-axial ellipsoid and the methodology of creating these projections with the use of isometric coordinates. The concept is very simple and has been known for a long time; if isometric coordinates are introduced on the surface of the original and on the plane of the image, then any analytical function of the complex variable, i.e. a function that has a continuous derivative, creates a conformal projection. The introduction presents the history of conformal projections. Then, existing projections are presented, including the Bugayevskiy projection and several projections developed by the author that apply selected functions of the complex variable. Scripts were prepared in the Octave software with the use of the presented methodology. Programming in Octave offers a possibility of a simple implementation of complex variable functions, which is also briefly discussed in the paper. The developed scripts were then used to perform calculations and to draw cartographic grids and distortion isolines in the selected conformal projections. The test object was the tri-axial ellipsoid that represents Phobos.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-08T00:00:00.000+00:00The „hard” borders in the Baltic Sea Region, 1917-1922https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/rjbns-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The British sociologist Gerard Delanty’s conception of “boundary and identities of exclusion” in European history shall be remembered when approaching “hard borders.” This concept takes into account the “cultural dynamics of self-identification through exclusion” and is germane when considering the interwar interactions between the countries of the Baltic area and Russia. The works of Reece Jones and Alec Murphy on “the hardening of borders” and “the fetishization of territory” as national traits are equally pertinent to the perception of frontiers during the duration of the 20th century, including the years 1917 to 1922. In every occasion in which war and violence (ultimatums, threats of force) were employed in the Baltic Sea Region to award borders in favor of one state or another or to settle accounts, the arrangements were not permanent and a cycle of warfare with terrible effects on local people followed. The combination of universalist ideologies (such as Communism) with imperial goals frequently resulted in both domestic and international conflicts. Civil unrest (sisällissota) and clashes with and between foreign troops (Russian and German) marked Finland’s journey to independence. Comparable conditions existed in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. In each case, the upshot was not just an obsession with boundaries, but also an increase in otherness and loss of life.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-20T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1