rss_2.0Industrial Chemistry FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Industrial Chemistry Chemistry Feed lighting systems and the method of implementing dynamically adjustable on-demand strategies – conclusions from research<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Street lighting is an important aspect of the operation of not just every city or municipality but also the operation of the roads and highways in every country. The search for energy-saving solutions has become a ubiquitous number-one topic and leads to the need for lighting management systems to make lighting more efficient and economical from a financial and environmental point of view. There are many important needs of cities and municipalities strictly connected with the type of roads and areas in cities and their surroundings. Highways, country roads, main city roads, parks, cycling paths and residential areas all have different requirements with regard to efficient lighting management. Lighting and power schedules, adaptive lighting schemes based on the density of road usage, dynamically adjustable on-demand lighting which lights up the way ahead of moving objects (vehicles or pedestrians). All of the above are important and can help in the achievement of the main goal, which is efficient energy usage properly managed for the given situation and which will ensure safety and comfortable lighting for all kinds of roads. This paper is focused on dynamically adjustable on-demand lighting, it proposes a solution capable of achieving optimal lighting management for cities and surrounding areas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of ABH secretor status: a cross-sectional study in Lagos, Southwestern Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The mucosa contains soluble antigens of the ABO blood group system. Secretor status as a trait has been linked to a variety of clinical diseases and is determined by the individual’s fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) allele. The distribution of secretor status in relation to ABO blood group phenotypes varies from region to region, with medicolegal significance. There is a dearth of information on the secretor status of the studied population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the secretor status of the ABH in a Nigerian population. To achieve this, fresh saliva samples (~5 ml) were collected from 325 (181 males and 144 females) apparently healthy individuals in the urban city of Lagos. Secretor status was determined by haemagglutination inhibition test with the saliva samples of participants. Results showed that 85% of the participants were secretors and 15% were non-secretors with no statistically significant differences (p&gt;0.05) between male and female gender. The frequencies of the Secretor, Se and Non-secretor, se genes were 0.543 and 0.457, respectively while the frequencies of the SeSe, Sese, and sese genotypes were 0.294, 0.496, and 0.209, respectively. The participants’ ABO blood group distributions were 65.5% group O, 16.6% group A, 15.1% group B, and 2.8% group AB. The incidence of secretors across blood group was 89% in group O, 85% in A, 79% in B and 67% in AB. However, there were no statistically significant variations in secretor status and ABO blood group (p&gt;0.05). In conclusion, the study shows that there are more secretors than non-secretors, and the ability to secrete the ABH antigens are independent of ABO blood of individuals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue bieneusi Infection in Livestock from selected farms in Lagos, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Microsporidia</italic> are enteric intracellular pathogens infecting animals and humans. It causes life-threatening diarrhoea in humans. <italic>Microsporidia</italic> species have been isolated from several domestic and wild animals, however, data on <italic>microsporidia</italic> infection in animals in Nigeria is still very scanty. This study was conducted to clarify and improve our knowledge of the possibility of the zoonotic origin of <italic>Enterocytozoon</italic> species in the environment. Two hundred and fifty (250) animal faecal samples from various farm animals were examined for their frequency of <italic>microsporidia</italic> spores using Weber’s chromotrope stain and Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT). <italic>Enterocytozoon bienuesi</italic> were detected in 6 (24.0%) turkeys, 2 (8.0 %) goats, 3(12.0 %) cattle, and 4(16.0%) rams. No reactivity was detected with other species of <italic>microsporidia</italic> by IFAT. This study confirms the presence of <italic>E. bienuesi</italic> in the animals examined and shows that animals can be a significant source of zoonotic transmission in the environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of proximate compositions and heavy metal concentrations of L. and (L.) Juss. harvested on some poultry dumpsites in Badagry, Lagos State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Poultry waste as enhancement for crop development has become a norm for nutrients’ source but their pollution potentials is a source for concern. Thus, this study aimed at assessing proximate compositions and heavy metal accumulation in organs of <italic>Amaranthus spinosus</italic> and <italic>Talinum fruticosum</italic> handpicked from three poultry faecal sites in Badagry, Lagos State. Leaves and roots of <italic>A. spinosus</italic> and <italic>T. fruticosum</italic> as well as soil samples were collected from Yafin, Agric and Badagry dumpsites in Badagry Local Government and these were subjected to proximate and heavy metal analyses using standard analytical procedures. Data obtained were analyzed using mean-standard deviation. Proximate analyses of <italic>A. spinosus</italic> and <italic>T. fruticosum</italic> from three faecal sites contained appreciable Moisture, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, ash, and fat contents. Also, heavy metal analyses of the vegetables from the three faecal sites ranged as follows: Cd: 0.01-0.05mg/100g in leaves; 0.04-0.12mg/100g in roots, Co: 0.04-0.05 in leaves; 0.04-0.12mg/100g in roots, Cr: 0.58-0.84mg/100g in leaves; 0.91-1.01mg/100g in roots, Cu: 0.27-70.51mg/100g in leaves; 0.50-58.55mg/100g in roots for <italic>A. spinosus</italic>; Cd: 0.04-0.07mg/100g in leaves; 0.06-0.12mg/100g in roots, Co: 0.02-0.06mg/100g in leaves; 0.08-0.34mg/100g in roots, Cr: 0.05-0.12mg/100g in leaves; 0.04-0.23mg/100g in roots, Cu: 61.55-121.81mg/100g in leaves; 48.45-147.45mg/100g in roots for <italic>T. fruticosum</italic> and Cd: 3.53-9.05mg/100g, Co: 0.14-0.69mg/100g, Cr:0.14-4.22mg/100g: and Cu: 2.59-8.11mg/100g in soils for all three dumpsites sampled. However, all metals analysed were below WHO limits for vegetable and soils except cobalt, copper and chromium. Thus, locals should be advised against consumption of vegetables from dumpsites since toxic substances often accumulates in the environment and maybe hazardous to man’s health.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue DNA methylation data for diagnostic classification of Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in Dogs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a common B-lymphocyte tumor in dogs, making up 60-70% of cases. We assessed the utility of DNA methylation data for the diagnostic classification of DLBCL in dogs. We also assessed the utility of the classification features identified in cDLBCL for diagnostic classification of DLBCL in humans. The GSE94913 cDLBCL DNA methylation dataset from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) was used for analysis. Differential methylation analysis was performed between the 37 cDLBCL and seven control lymph node samples in the dataset. 1701 differentially methylated probes were identified between the cDLBCL and control lymph nodes groups. Applying recursive feature elimination on the 1701 significant probes, 20 probes were selected for machine learning classification tasks. The methylation values of these 20 probes were used to build an SVM model and create the training and testing set. 100% of the test samples were accurately classified by the SVM model. The diagnostic classification utility of the identified differentially methylated CpGs/CDS was also assessed in humans using the GSE28094 human DLBCL dataset. 95% of 98 DLBCL and leukocyte samples obtained from this dataset was correctly classified using clustering techniques on 11 CpG sites of 5 genes (<italic>ERBB4</italic>, <italic>IGF2</italic>, <italic>PGF</italic>, <italic>PITX2</italic>, <italic>TJP1</italic>). The utility of DNA methylation data for the diagnostic classification of DLBCL in dogs is demonstrated. Further exploration of this data type for potential biomarker discovery in cDLBCL is necessary.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and detection of in ready-to-eat foods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Listeria monocytogene</italic>s is a pathogenic bacterium that causes listeriosis. Listeriosis is a serious and often fatal disease caused by the ingestion of contaminated foods. <italic>Listeria monocytogenes</italic> contaminates various types of food. It turns out that ready-to-eat foods can be a very common source of this pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of ready-to-eat foods. The main focus was given on evaluation of the presence of <italic>L. monocytogenes</italic> in this group of food. Total number of 50 samples were devided into three categories: pastries (<italic>n</italic> = 29), salads (<italic>n</italic> = 13) and others (<italic>n</italic> = 8). All samples were analyzed for presence of <italic>L. monocytogenes</italic> using a conventional cultivation method ISO 11290-1:2017. As confirmation tests were used API Listeria test and PCR. The presence of <italic>L. monocytogenes</italic> was detected in 3 (1.5%) samples. All positively tested samples belonged to the category pastries, specifically: Caesar wrap, Caprese mozzarella and dried tomatoes tortilla, Halloumi cheese and roasted pepper tortilla. The results of this study indicate that consumption of RTE foods can pose a risk of listeriosis, especially for consumers from susceptible risk groups.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Method for Fatty Acids Determination in Food, Superfood and Spice Samples by GC-MS Technique<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study was to modify and adapt to other matrices the fast and simple method for determining total lipid content expressed as fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) by performing the in situ transesterification. The primary method was published as a technical report for the FAME analysis in algae dry mass. Our modifications included the use of less toxic solvents, the use of an internal triglyceride standard and FAME determination by the gas chromatography technique coupled with the mass spectrometry technique in the Single Ion Monitoring mode (SIM). The modified method was validated for 37 fatty acids (saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated) containing from four to twenty-four carbons in the carbon chain (C4-C24), and was adapted to five food matrices: three solids (yeast, yeast flakes, biscuits), and two liquids (milk thistle (<italic>Silybum marianum</italic> (L.) Gaertner) oil and olive oil). Additionally, 14 samples of spices and superfood samples, rich in unsaturated oils were analyzed. The validation parameters: linearity, precision, recovery, limits of detections and quantifications, were assessed and additionally Certified Reference Material of olive oil was analyzed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Ozone Treatment on Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Sea-Buckthorn ( L.) Fruit<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>During storage, sea-buckthorn berries which are a valuable source of bioactive compounds, gradually lose their optimum mechanical properties and chemical characteristics. Mechanical and chemical properties of sea-buckthorn berries were examined in fruit exposed to gaseous ozone at a rate of 10 and 50 ppm for 15 minutes. Ozonation process did not impact mechanical properties (except for elastic modulus) or morphological characteristics, but it resulted in decreased water loss, on average by 5.21%, in fruit kept in cold storage for 14 days, as well as increased pH and reduced acidity of sea-buckthorn berries on average by 9.03% and 20.0% (for ozone concentration of 50 ppm) compared to the control sample. Polyphenol contents in sea-buckthorn berries were identified using UPLC-PDA-MS/MS. Out of all the identified polyphenols, the findings showed the highest contents of flavone glycosides, represented e.g., by isorhamnetin-3-<italic>O</italic>-rutinoside. The contents of bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total polyphenols or polyphenol profile) as well as antioxidant activity (measured using DPPH<sup>.</sup> and ABTS<sup>+.</sup> assays) were different, depending on the variety and possibly were affected by the timing of sea-buckthorn fruit harvest.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Assessment of Powder Enriched Peanut-Based Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Migratory locust has been widely reported as a quality protein source. However, there are food safety problems related with the usage of insects as food. In this study, migratory locust powder (MLP) was used as a protein supply alternative to milk powder (MP) in peanut-based RUTFs. Seven formulations were obtained at different substitution levels (0 – 30%) of MP with MLP. Pesticide residues, aflatoxins, triazine and toxic metals were analysed using a GC-MS system and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Formulation with 30% MLP and without milk have the highest level of organochlorine (3.22 µg/kg), organophosphorus (0.40-4.56µg/kg) amongst others. Aflatoxins of the therapeutic foods increased with increasing levels of MLP. The heavy metals, melamine, and cyanuric acid of the RUTFs were below the standard permissible limits. Migratory locust powder could be used as an alternate protein source in the formulation of peanut based RUTFs without posing health threat.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Substrate Composition on Yield and Antioxidative Activity of Exopolysaccharides From B62<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Exopolysaccharides (EPS) can not only give food a unique texture but also has antioxidant capacities. To select the medium composition that influences the yield and antioxidative activity of EPS, Plackett–Burman (PB) design was employed to appraise the effects of carbon sources, nitrogen sources, and inorganic salts on yield and DPPH free radical scavenging (DPPH-FRS) rate of EPS in MRS medium fermented by <italic>Lactobacillus fermentum</italic> B62. The result indicated that sucrose (p&lt;0.01), peptone (p&lt;0.01), and KH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub> (p&lt;0.001) had the most distinguishing comprehensive effects on yield and DPPH-FRS rate of EPS, and fructose also had a noticeable effect on the two factors (p&lt;0.05, p&lt;0.001, respectively). Additionally, glucose (p&lt;0.05), soy protein (p&lt;0.001), yeast extract (p&lt;0.01), KH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub> (p&lt;0.001) and Ca(H<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub> (p&lt;0.001) significantly positive affect the yield of EPS. And inulin (p&lt;0.05), tryptone (p&lt;0.001), beef extract powder(p&lt;0.001), NaH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub> (p&lt;0.01) and C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>3</sub>NaO<sub>2</sub> (p&lt;0.05) significantly positive affect the DPPH-FRS rate of EPS. Within the test ranges, sucrose, fructose, peptone and KH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub> all showed significant positive relativity to the yield and anti-oxidative activity of EPS.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Wheat-Mesquite ( L.) Composite Flour on Dough Rheology and Quality of Bread<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheat-mesquite composite flour on the rheology of dough and the quality of bread. The farinographic analysis showed a decrease in the development time and stability of the dough with an increase in the mixing tolerance index. The share of mesquite flour increased the value of loss and storage moduli and reduced the dough’s susceptibility to stress. The mesquite flour addition increased the bread volume by about 17% and the number of large pores &gt;5 mm. The brightness of the crumb containing mesquite flour decreased from 75.3 to 58.6 and the proportion of yellow colour increased from 19.9 to 26.4 in relation to the control bread. The bread with mesquite flour had a significantly softer crumb during storage in comparison with wheat bread, indicating a reduction in the staling. These observations were also confirmed by lowering the disintegration enthalpy of the retrograded amylopectin from 3.33 J/g for the control sample to 1.95 J/g for the bread containing 10% of mesquite flour.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue (uscle) Quality in Males of the Family Cervidae<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The quality of the <italic>longissimus lumborum</italic> muscle has been compared in male moose, red deer, fallow der and roe deer from wild populations. The results of this study indicated that Cervid meat had favorable chemical composition and high sensory quality but its properties were affected by the species of the animal. The highest quality was characterized roe deer meat. It was found that her meat had the best water-holding capacity and was most tender, and intramuscular fat had highest nutritional value. However, due to the high diversity and variation of factors affecting game meat quality, further research is needed to confirm the observed interspecific differences between members of the family Cervidae.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Maltodextrin, Arabic Gum, and Beetroot Juice Concentration on the Powder Properties of Spray-Dried Beetroot-Skim Milk Mixtures<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Milk products are widely consumed as a beverage and used as the main ingredient in many food applications. Beetroot is suitable as an ingredient for the natural red color in food products. Color stability of natural colorants is mainly affected by mixtures of materials and temperatures. The effect of beetroot juice concentration and types of carrier agents on the physical properties of the red-colored skim-milk powder and rehydrated powder at different temperatures were studied. Beet juice concentration significantly affects the redness (a*) and lightness (L*) of skim milk in both powders and reconstituted forms. Powder with mixtures of maltodextrin and Arabic gum showed better retention of redness, high solubility, low moisture content, water activity, and less hygroscopic. The finding from this study may benefit food product development, beverage, and confectionery in the food industry.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Characterization of Date Seeds ( L.) Cultivated in Algeria for its Application as Functional Ingredients<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Seven date seeds cultivars, Deglet Nour, Degla Baïdha, Fakht, Ghars, Hamraya, Tafezouin and Takermost were provided from Algerian Sahara. Some of these Algerian date seeds were studied for the first time (Fakht, Hamraya and Takermost). The biochemical characterization of these date seeds were studied, including fatty acids and minerals profiles. The results showed that date seeds are a good source of carbohydrates and crude cellulose, with averages of 66.63 and 13.20%, respectively. They are also a good source of proteins, with the cultivar Deglet Nour seeds as the richest one (9.27 ± 0.03%). The main fatty acid for all date seeds oils is oleic acid except for Deglet Nour in which lauric acid is the main one. However, the studied date seed oils could be classified as oleic-lauric oil. Potassium was the highest mineral in all date seeds cultivars, with values ranging from 2700 to 2900 mg/Kg, followed by sodium and iron. These results indicate that date seeds have good nutritional value with different compositions among cultivars. It could be concluded that date seeds could be considered as a good opportunity for their technological and industrial valorization.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, Characterization, and Application of Biosurfactant From OG8 Isolated From Fermenting Maize () Slurry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Biosurfactants have wide applications in several industries. However, high production costs and safety concerns have limited their comprehensive use. Twenty-five strains of lactic acid bacteria, isolated from fermenting maize slurry, were screened for biosurfactant production using the emulsification activity (E<sub>24</sub>) assay. The selected bacterium was identified molecularly using the 16S rRNA gene sequencing as <italic>Lactobacillus plantarum</italic> OG8. The effect of some cultural factors on biosurfactant production from the bacterium, using pineapple peel as a low-cost substrate, was investigated. The optimum yield of biosurfactant occurred at a 48 h incubation period, using glucose and peptone as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The biosurfactant was characterized to possess mostly carbohydrates, followed by protein and lipid contents. Optima pH 10.0 and temperature 60 °C were the best for the biosurfactant activity. The biosurfactant exhibited antimicrobial activity against bacterial pathogens <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic>, <italic>Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli</italic>, and <italic>Klebsiella pneumoniae,</italic> at a concentration of 5.0 mg/mL. The use of pineapple peel as a low-cost substrate for biosurfactant production from <italic>Lactobacillus plantarum</italic> OG8 will serve for cost-effective production. The biosurfactantt produced exhibited promising properties such as thermostability and antimicrobial activity against food spoilage and pathogenes that could make it suitable for food processing and preservation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, Pasting, and Hydration Properties of Flour from Novel Cassava Cultivars for Potential Applications in the Food Industry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cassava root flours from five different cultivars (C-MSAF2, C-P4/10, C-P98/0505, C-P98/0002, and C-UKF8) were studied for their potential application in the food industry. Proximate composition, functional, thermal, and pasting properties were investigated. Cassava flours were high in carbohydrates (85-86%) and their amino acid profiles varied. Cultivars C-MSAF2, C-P98/0002, and C-UKF8 showed high protein content (5.06%), mineral content (2.36%), and the largest particle size (72.33 µm), respectively. Solubility of cassava flours decreased as temperatures increased, however, swelling power and water absorption capacity increased. C-MSAF2 showed the highest peak viscosity, breakdown viscosity, and shortest peak time. C-P98/0505 showed the highest final viscosity, the highest pasting temperature, and the longest peak time. Cassava flours studied are promising candidates for utilization in the baking industry, however, their incorporation into baked product formulations needs further investigation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Quality Assessment of Biscuits Made from Mixture of Wheat, Soybean, and Sorghum Flour<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In most developing nations, there has been an increase in the consumption of wheat-based products, particularly biscuits, due to recent lifestyle changes and rapid urbanization. Due to this, there has been a sudden rise in research into creating flour from locally grown cereals or legumes to satisfy consumer demand. As a result, the potential for making biscuits with sorghum-soy composite flour was investigated. The flour blends and the corresponding biscuit products’ functional and physicochemical characteristics were established. The samples of biscuits’ organoleptic characteristics were also identified. The functional properties of the composite flours decreased while their proximate composition increased, according to the results. As the amount of sorghum-soy flour inclusions increased, the physical characteristics of the biscuit samples decreased. The moisture contents, protein contents, crude fats, ash, crude fibers, and carbohydrates were all within the ranges of 3.11 to 3.80%, 14.80 to 17.66%, 5.07 to 5.51%, 3.65 to 4.94%, 2.66 to 3.64%, and 66.11 to 70.71%, respectively. The sorghum-soy biscuits fared well compared to the wheat-based biscuits and were deemed acceptable. As a result, eating these biscuits will increase people’s nutrient intake, particularly that of children, as well as the utilization of sorghum and soybean in tropical nations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Potential and Yielding of Hybrid Wheat Under Varied Agronomic and Environmental Factors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of simplified tillage systems (RT, NT) in comparison with conventional tillage (CT) on technological grain quality and baking value, as well as of hybrid wheat grown under variable weather conditions. A three-year field trial experiment was conducted using a randomised block design, in triplicate. The factors studied were as follows: I - three tillage systems - no-tillage (NT), reduced (RT), and conventional (CT); II - two winter wheat cultivars ‘Hylux’ (cv. hybrid) and for comparison ‘Bogatka’ (cv. common). The use of CT and RT tillage systems compared to NT significantly increased yield by 8.9 and 7.7%, respectively, and selected grain quality parameters along with a more favorable gluten protein profile. The flour obtained, with water absorption above 58.0%, can be classified as strong flour with good farinographic and alveograph parameters. The genetic characteristics of the wheat cultivars determined the technological quality of the grain and the baking value, as well as the grain yield. For ‘Hylux’ cv. hybrid wheat, there was a higher yield and better grain quality, which contained significantly more gliadins and glutenins, and the flour was characterised by higher parameters that determine the preferred viscoelastic properties of the dough. The common ‘Bogatka’ wheat cv. accumulated higher contents of ω gliadins and LMW and HMW glutenin subunits in the grain, while for α/β and γ gliadin contents the difference was not significant. A fairly dry period (June–July) of wheat ripening reduced the grain yield but was favourable for higher values of quality characteristics, gluten protein fractions, as well as the farinographic (WAF, DDT, DS) and alveograph (W, P, L) parameters.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Diversity of Six Commercially Available Kefir Grains<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Natural kefir grains are rich in beneficial bacteria, and analysis of their microbial diversity is a necessary condition for developing and applying kefir grains. In this study, six commercially available natural kefir grains were used as raw materials to explore their microbial diversity by metagenomics. The results showed that there were 14794 genes in 6 kinds of natural kefir grains, and the number of unique genes of X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6 were 111, 11, 0, 1899, 552, 1, respectively. From the relative abundance table of boundary, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species, the microbial diversity at each level was analyzed.The two dominant genera at the genus level are <italic>Lactobacillus</italic> and <italic>Lactococcus</italic>, and the dominant species at the species level are <italic>Lactococcus lactis</italic> and <italic>Lactococcus kefiranofaciens</italic>, <italic>Lactococcus crispatus</italic>, and <italic>Lactococcus helveticus</italic>, etc. Species distribution and species diversity of each sample were analyzed by species heat map, principal component analysis and non-metric multidimensional calibration methods. The results showed that the microbial diversity of natural kefir grains from 6 different sources were different. The research can provide reference for the development and application of natural kefir grains in the field of dairy products.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue combined effect of time and temperature during oven drying on red grape pomace polyphenols, pigments, and antioxidant properties<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study had as a goal to carry out the drying of red grape pomace (RGP) using a 2 × 3 factorial design. The design of the experiment included combinations of time and temperature in order to achieve the lowest possible moisture levels and examine losses in precious polyphenols, but also the effect on the antioxidant properties of RGP extracts. Drying for 6 hrs at 80°C (D6/80) provided RGP with a satisfactory moisture level (11%). A comparison with untreated (fresh) RGP revealed that drying significantly decreases the polyphenol and anthocyanin pigments’ content. This decline was accompanied by a decrease in both the ferric-reducing power and antiradical activity of the RGP extracts. Although necessary for long-term RGP stability, drying should be implemented with caution because improper drying may have severe effects on the polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue