rss_2.0Industrial Chemistry FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Industrial Chemistryhttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/IChttps://www.sciendo.comIndustrial Chemistry Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/Industrial_Chemistery.jpg700700Mechanical characteristics of Biomaterial Particles Reinforced Epoxy Resin Composites for Automobile Accessorieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ast-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, rattan corncob composite materials were developed and their mechanical properties were determined. This was with a view to producing alternative composite materials for automobile applications. Dried corncobs and rattan cane were crushed, treated with caustic alkali NaOH <sub>(aq)</sub> and transferred into a water bath machine to reduce the hydrophilic nature of the fibres in the polymer. The shredded corncobs and rattans cane were sun-dried after the treatment to remove the moisture content and were further pulverized and sieved to obtain 400μm particle size. Compositions of the particles were varied for seven samples with the binder kept constant at 80wt% of the whole mixture and forming them into particle panels using a metal mould. The process was repeated in order to obtain three replicates to get the exact mean value. The produced panels were tested for density, water absorption, tensile strength and modulus, flexural strength and modulus, and optical microstructure. The results revealed that the densities ranged between 1.06g/cm<sup>3</sup> to 1.30g/cm<sup>3</sup>, the water absorption properties ranged between 0.87% to 4.55%, tensile strength ranged between 42MPa to 90MPa, tensile modulus ranged between 2.2GPa to 5.9GPa, flexural strength ranged between 50MPa to 70MPa and flexural modulus ranged between 1.5GPa to 2.7GPa. It was concluded that the developed composite materials have good mechanical properties and could serve as alternative materials for making automobile accessories like bumpers and spoilers. It could also help in solving the problem of environmental pollution caused by open burning.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Inventory management in food retail in Serbiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mjfst-2022-0001<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In this paper, the determinants (return gross margin on inventory, return gross margin on sales, inventory turnover ratio, firm size, capital intensity) of inventory management efficiency in Serbian trade are investigated. An econometric approach is used. The research established that the key factors in the efficiency of inventory management in Serbian trade are: return gross margin on sales (gross margin/sales) and inventory turnover ratio (sales/inventories). Their effective control can achieve the target profit of food retailers in Serbia.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of feeding of 10 % prefermented feed on fatty acid profile and oxidation changes in chicken breast meathttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mjfst-2022-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of addition of 10 % fermented feed (FF) into commercial broiler feed on fatty acid profile, chemical composition and oxidative stability of chicken breast meat fat. FF was prepared by the process of fungal solid-state fermentation. Application of FF into the commercial feed mixtures resulted in increased content of gamma-linolenic and oleic acid in broiler breast meat (P &lt; 0.05). Oxidative stability of meat fat was significantly higher in experimental broilers group fed diet with the addition of 10% FF (P &lt; 0,05) after storage period of samples for seven days at temperature of 4 °C.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Current Situation with the Sensory Quality of Gluten-Free Bakery Products from the Czech Market Networkhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mjfst-2022-0003<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>A large number of gluten-free baking mixes for making homemade bakery products can be found on the market, in addition to ready-made products – both unpacked and packed. The main objective of this study was to examine the current situation regarding the sensory quality of commercially available gluten-free bakery products on the Czech market. In total, 16 samples were analysed both individually and within groups of unpacked bakery products, packed bakery products, and bakery products made in a technological laboratory using baking mixes. Both a quantitative descriptive analysis and hedonic test of gluten-free bakery products were performed by 18 trained panellists, consisting of academic staff and students of University of Veterinary Sciences Brno, Czech Republic. The results were statistically evaluated by means of principal component analysis. A close correlation between descriptors of surface colour, saltiness, and overall pleasantness of the sample was established. Descriptors of surface colour (1.36–5.75), saltiness (1.22–4.12), sweetness (1.78–5.08), and yeastiness (1.93–4.52) showed the highest degree of variability in the evaluation of individual samples. Statistically highly significant differences were observed between the individual groups of samples of gluten-free bakery products. Based on hedonic testing, the group comprising samples of unpacked bakery products was evaluated as the best; in contrast, the group comprising packed bakery products was evaluated as the worst. The group comprising samples baked from purchased baking mixes was characterized by statistically significantly lower pleasantness of appearance and taste.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Resveratrol content in wine – resveratrol biochemical propertieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mjfst-2022-0005<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Resveratrol is one of the phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity. It occurs in nature in two forms, cis- and trans-. The cis- form occurs in grapes, but after being processed into wine, the trans- form is now present. The presence of resveratrol has been demonstrated in more than 72 plant species, mainly in the skins and on the surface of these plants. The physiological function is not completely known, but the highest values of resveratrol have been found in plants infected with microorganisms. Resveratrol is also a phytoalexin, a plant antibiotic that has a protective function in plants. A positive effect of resveratrol has also been observed in humans. According to research, the recommended daily dose should be 12.5 mg/kg body weight, which, according to the levels of resveratrol found in food, cannot be achieved with wine or any other food. Due to very poor bioavailability, where almost three quarters of resveratrol are metabolized in the body, consumption of the recommended daily dose is highly unrealistic. Despite its very low bioavailability, resveratrol has been shown to be an important cardioprotectant, has antitumor activity, is effective in the fight against aging and diabetes, and also acts as a neuroprotective agent. The main method for determining the resveratrol content in food is by high performance liquid chromatography. The aim of the review was to make an overview about chemical properties of resveratrol found in wine.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Nutrition and health functionality of hemp products in wheat cereal products – butter cut-out biscuits and leavened pastryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mjfst-2022-0006<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Native to China, hemp (<italic>Cannabis sativa</italic> L.) is an annual herb whose anatomical parts are widely used by for technical, food, and medical purposes. Hemp is traditionally considered a controversial crop due to its cannabinoid content. For industrial and food usage, however, the content of psychoactive tetrahydroxycannabinol (known as THC) is limited by EU Regulation (0.2%). In some countries, including the Czech Republic, the supportive and therapeutic effect of THC has led to the legalization of controlled cultivation (Elkoplast Slušovice, hemp with 6–19% THC) and the use of hemp on prescription. Due to the high content of proteins, fats, and fibre in hemp seeds, they are suitable for increasing the nutritional value of food. For cereal products, it is recommended to use wholemeal or defatted flour in dosages limited by the sensory quality of the final products, e.g., up to 10% for pastry. The use of the leaf and flower part in powdered form is acceptable in the amount of 4% max. Within the laboratory production of hemp-enriched cut-out biscuits and bread buns of standard consumer quality, the expected rise in the content of protein and dietary fibre was confirmed.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessing the risks in food processing to a healthy living environmenthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mjfst-2022-0004<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>One of the most important environmental factors, which affects the environment of a healthy life is diet. About 75% of new diseases that have occurred since 2000 in the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina have come from animals or products of animal origin. So-called zoonoses are diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans most often through food. In addition to zoonoses, contamination of soil, water, air and plants also affects, to a large extent, directly or indirectly the environment of a healthy life. Soil, air, water and plants can be contaminated with pollutants such as heavy metals in the soil or dangerous substances that produce certain types of mushrooms, all of which are transferred in many ways to food production processes. The research define the characteristics of a healthy living environment complemented with healthy food, then explain and demonstrate, on appropriate examples, what are the hazards or hazardous places in food production and show how to reduce the likelihood of their occurrence using the standard and applicable regulations.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-06T00:00:00.000+00:00An Evaluation of a Language Processor for an African Native Languagebased Programming Languagehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ast-2022-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The design and prototype implementation of a subset of an African indigenous language-based programming language has been carried out and reported. In this study, an evaluation of the processor developed for the native language-based programming language was carried out in order to assess its level of conformance to the characteristics required of a good software product as set by the international organization for standardization (ISO). The developed language processor was evaluated using some metrics for evaluating the quality of software systems including structural and time complexity. A usability test was also conducted to assess users’ perception of the system concerning its relevance and ease of use. The result of system evaluation indicated that the system contains 1558 lines of code, its cyclomatic complexity is 14 and its asymptotic time complexity is of order big oh O (n<sup>3</sup>), where n is the size of the input to the system. Over 86% of the participants in the usability test attested to the system’s relevance while the usability rating was 86%. The developed system can be inferred to be of good quality as the results of its evaluation are positively on the high side for satisfying most of the ISO criteria for adjudging a software product as being of good quality. Furthermore, the high usability rating for the system indicates that the programming language whose compiler was evaluated satisfies most of the criteria set by the Department of Defense (DOD) for assessing the ‘goodness’ or otherwise of a programming language.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Resistance of the welded joint of austenitic steel NEUTRONIT A 976 SM in the corrosive environment of boric acidhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/kom-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper deals with the influence of the operating environment on the safe resistance of the welded joint of the construction material used in the nuclear power industry in the production of spent nuclear fuel containers. This material contains a higher percentage of alloying boron and is used as a shielding construction material for neutron and gamma radiation. It is used to produce baskets for spent nuclear fuel containers. When the containers are being filled, the welded joint of the basket structure are briefly exposed to an aqueous boric acid solution. The aim of this work was to determine the effects of exposure to the corrosive boric acid environment on the mechanical properties of the material. Tensile tests on the original weld and post weld exposure in H<sub>3</sub>BO<sub>3</sub> and corrosion cracking tests on unexposed welds were performed. The evaluation of the results revealed that the exposure to the corrosive environment of boric acid did not significantly affect the strength characteristics of the tested material NEUTRONIT A 976 SM.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Dissimilar weld joint corrosion in simulated boiler water environmenthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/kom-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper is focused on the problematics of weld joint corrosive degradation in the boiler water environment. The boiler water is commonly used in power industry. The corrosion experiment simulated the boiler water environment during shutdown, when chemicals may be concentrated in the deposits, or as a result of evaporation. The corrosion experiment was performed on heterogeneous weldments made of P265GH//X6CrNiTi18-9 steels in the environment of stagnant boiler water with the addition of NaCl for 53 days. The data showed only minimal weight losses, and small changes in the measured fracture toughness of the welded joint. At the same time, a tendency for a mechanical weakening of the welded joint with the increasing aggressivity of the boiler water environment was observed. The metallographic analysis was performed to describe the nature of corrosive degradation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Prediction models for the kinetics of iron boride layers on AISI 316L steelhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/kom-2022-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The boronizing kinetics of AISI 316L steel has been analyzed by employing five prediction models. The boron diffusion coefficients as well as the growth rate constants in the FeB and Fe<sub>2</sub>B phases were firstly evaluated in the range of 1123-1223 K. Afterwards, the values of boron activation energies in FeB and Fe<sub>2</sub>B were secondly deduced by adopting the Arrhenius relationships.In addition, the prediction models have been validated experimentally for two boronizing conditions (1170 K for 1.6 h and 1210 K for 1.1 h). The predicted results were deemed very concordant with the experiments. Furthermore, advantages and limitations about the applicability of these models were also discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Innovative accident tolerant nuclear fuel materials will help extending the life of light water reactorshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/kom-2022-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nuclear power is a significant source of clean energy that can be used to mitigate climate change. In the western world, the average life of light-water power-reactors is increasing because no new reactors are being connected to the grid. In order to extend the life of the existing reactors innovative materials are being considered for the fuel of the reactors. The newer materials would be more resistant to a loss of coolant accident and allow for longer times between refueling plus permitting overall extended burn-ups, which will make the reactors safer and more economical to operate. This never used before in reactor materials include cladding concepts such as: 1) coated zirconium alloys, 2) monolithic iron-chromium-aluminum alloys, and 3) silicon carbide composites.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Growth kinetics of diiron boride (FeB) layer on a carbon steel by four approacheshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/kom-2022-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The pack-boriding kinetics of SAE 1020 steel has been addressed through utilizing four mathematical approaches in case of the formation of diiron boride layers. The values of boron diffusivities and activation energies in Fe<sub>2</sub>B were assessed in the interval of 1123 to 1223 K by using four models. Finally, the four models were experimentally verified by comparing the predicted results to the experimental value of Fe<sub>2</sub>B layer thickness determined at 1198 K for 6 hours. Finally, the simulated layers’ thicknesses agreed with the experimental result. In addition, similarities and differences observed in the models were also discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of the diffusion coefficient calculation on predicting FeB boride layer thicknesshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/kom-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, a single-phase boride layer thickness Fe<sub>2</sub>B is predicted on two different substrates (Armco iron and XC38 steel) by following the integral method. This method is a mathematical model based on a system of differential algebraic equations that help to deduce the diffusion coefficient, which is the key factor on predicting the layer thickness. Literatures cover different diffusion coefficients for each substrate, albeit researchers usually extract from experimental data, variations of growth rate constants within only one time treatment and deduce the diffusion coefficient from them. This deduction is done via an estimation of a frequency factor and an activation energy from the growth rate constants. Therefore, our main aim is to illustrate the impact of the deduction of the diffusion coefficient on predicting the boride layer thickness. Lastly, the impact with and without incubation time on the boriding kinetics of both substrates was also examined.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Experimental studies on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel by 1-(phenylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazol-5-yl)-3-phenyl-3-oxopropan complemented with DFT Modelinghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/kom-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>1-(Phenylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazol-5-yl)-3-phenyl-3-oxopropan (PTPO) was selected as the investigated material for studying the protection performance for mild steel in 1 mol L-1 hydrochloric acid solution. The inhibitor was assessed using weight loss measurements complemented with morphological analytical techniques and density functional theory (DFT) modelling. The PTPO demonstrated significant inhibitive efficacy of 95.4% in the presence of 500 ppm at 303 K. The protection efficiency increases with the concentration increasing from 100 to 500 ppm, and no significant effect after 500 ppm. Furthermore, gravimetric findings reveal that the protection efficiency at 500 ppm PTPO increases with immersion period and increasing temperature (303-333 K), due to the effective adsorption of PTPO on the mild steel surface, and the protection efficiency value is 95.8% at 48 h of exposure and 95.4%, 95.4%, 95.7% and 95.9% at 303, 313, 323 and 333 K, respectively. The adsorption of PTPO on the mild steel surface obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and revealing the mode of chemisorption adsorption. According to the DFT calculations, protection by PTPO is essentially performed by the heteroatoms in the inhibitor molecules which represented the adsorption sites, and the aromatic rings increase the electrostatic interaction between the PTPO molecules and the mild steel surface. The surface morphological studies, weight loss measurements, and DFT computational studies are in good agreement and that the selected corrosion inhibitor is adsorbed on the mild steel surface to form a protected layer on the surface of mild steel against the hydrochloric acid solution.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Corrosion assessment of a bronze equestrian statue exposed to urban environmenthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/kom-2022-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents the characterization of the conservation state of a bronze equestrian statue exposed outdoor, through an in-situ, multi-analytical, and non-invasive approach. The artefact under study is a bronze equestrian statue, devoted to Alfonso La Marmora, placed in an urban environment in the city of Turin. The investigation was carried out in the framework of a restoration intervention, with the principal aim of characterizing the overall conservation state of the sculpture to provide the conservators with information useful to develop a tailored restoration plan. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) was carried out for the identification of the elements present in the artefact alloy, showing that the statue was made using mainly two bronze alloys. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) was performed to study the corrosion mechanisms and to define the protective effectiveness of the patina present on the surfaces. Eventually, Raman spectroscopy (RS) was performed to characterize the chemistry and microstructure of the corrosion products, mainly identified as sulphates. The combination of these techniques allowed to confirm the presence of wax layers from previous restoration work, still capable to protect the metal substrate against corrosion. In addition, it was possible to correlate the conservation state to the exposure conditions and location on the statue.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Molecular docking, theoretical calculations, synthesis of Ru(III), Pd(II) and VO(II) complexes and activity determination as antibacterial and antioxidanthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pjct-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Molecular modeling calculations were used to validate 3D structures of new complexes of Ru(III), Pd(II) and VO(II) ions chelated with (E)-2-(phenylamino)-N-(pyridine-2-yl)methylene)acetohydrazide ligand. Furthermore, the calculations were used to estimate selected electronic chemical descriptors which are responsible for the biological activity. The first insight of the compound activity as antibacterial was evaluated by molecular docking analysis. The titled models showed stable binding towards lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase (CYP51) enzyme of <italic>E. coli</italic>, indicating their inhibition effect toward bacterial growth. Structural study of the ligand and Ru(III), Pd(II) and VO(II) chelates was done using elemental analysis, FT-IR, <sup>1</sup>H-NMR techniques. Furthermore, complexes were physically investigated based on magnetic moment, molar conductance, electronic spectroscopic and thermal analysis techniques. The antibacterial study of the synthesized compounds screened against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria revealed that these compounds display remarkable antibacterial activity and can be used as therapeutic drugs for pathogenic bacterial diseases. All complexes and ligand showed good scavenging activities which indicate a promising result for their applications as antioxidants.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Synthesis, molecular modelling and antibacterial activity of 4-aryl-thiosemicarbazideshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pjct-2022-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>N-Substituted phenyl/cyclohexyl-2-(pyridine-4-carbonyl) hydrazine-1-carbothioamides (2a–r) were synthesized, characterized by spectral and analytical data. The compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activity by the disc diffusion method. Most of the compounds showed activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Compound 2h with 4-Sulfapyrimidine phenyl substitution was found to be the most promising candidate, active against Gram-positive and methicillin-resistant <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> (MRSA) strains with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of (2–7 μg/mL). From the docking study, we predicted that compounds (2r, 2g, 2h, 2o, 2p and 2e) possess better antibacterial activity by having a good binding affinity with target protein and they could be used as potential drugs as antimicrobials. Amongst all the docked compounds, the compound 2h presented near binding affinity &amp; interaction docking score with DNA gyrase enzymes with reference to ciprofloxacin.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00An analytical model for wicking in porous media based on statistical geometry theoryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pjct-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this work, an analytical model describing liquid wicking phenomenon in porous media was constructed, based on the statistical geometry theory and the fractal theory. In the model, a new structure-property relationship, depicted by specific surface, porosity, tortuosity, pore fractal dimension, maximum pore size of the porous media, was introduced into the energy conservation equation. According to the theoretical model, the accumulated imbibition weight in porous media was achieved, and the predictions were verified by available experimental data published in different literatures. Besides, structure parameters influencing the imbibition process upon approaching equilibrium height were discussed. The model and results in this work are useful for the application of porous media in scientific research and industry.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Preparation of hexamethylol melamine resin with low crystallization water and low viscosity for hexamethylol melamine/polyvinyl alcohol composite membranehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pjct-2022-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Hexamethylol melamine resins (HMM) with low crystallization water content and low viscosity were prepared by inhibiting the condensation polymerization of low hexamethylol melamine. The effects of catalyst, pH, formalde-hyde/melamine ratio, reaction temperature and time on the synthesis parameters of HMM were investigated. The results showed that the sample (HMM8) synthesized with Na<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub>-NaHCO<sub>3</sub> as catalyst had the crystallization water content lower than 10%, being with a viscosity of about 0.26 Pa·s. The melting temperature of HMM8/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) curing system was about 164.3 °C. It was found that the higher the amount of formaldehyde, the greater the hydroxyl methyl bounded to each triazine ring. Compared with the traditional melamine formaldehyde resin which had the crystallization water content of about 20–30%, the production of this resin was expected to reduce the energy consumption of industrial reaction, while the resin with 10% crystallization water content was more conducive to the development of alloying HMM/PVA composite membrane.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1