rss_2.0Industrial Chemistry FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Industrial Chemistry Chemistry Feed chain reaction: a powerful analytical tool in the field of food safety<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the canonical DNA analysis technique that has enabled the understanding of the complexity of organisms and significantly advanced achievements in the field of biological sciences. Today, the method is still widely used in basic science research, but PCR-based diagnostics are becoming increasingly important in industries such as food and agriculture. This method provides high sensitivity because it requires trace amounts of template DNA to generate enough copies for detection. Using primers specific to the DNA sequence ensures the high specificity of the test. The advantages of the method are time – and cost-effectiveness and reproducibility. PCR-based techniques have found favor in areas where food traceability is important, whether from an economic, legal, health, or religious-cultural point of view. This review outlines the most important aspects in which the PCR method has been successfully applied, namely in the protection of human health by enabling the identification of foodborne pathogens or allergens. Furthermore, the use of PCR in the so-called green criminology, a branch that deals with tracking illegal practices such as food adulteration, compliance with the labeling rules, and detection of food products containing GMO material or other undeclared food ingredients, was also described.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Problems While Marketing Clothing on Instagram with the Pythagorean Fuzzy AHP Method<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to the fierce international competition in today’s clothing market, businesses have started to pay more attention to marketing activities. One of the most popular of these marketing activities is Instagram marketing. For this reason, the aim of this study was to identify the problems faced by clothing businesses that perform garment marketing on Instagram, to rank them in order of importance and to develop solutions to the most important problems. Within the scope of the research, firstly, the problems encountered by businesses while marketing clothing on Instagram were determined through data obtained from 14 businesses through a designed questionnaire. The problems identified are technical problems, cargo-related problems, difficulty in increasing the number of followers, and various other issues. Secondly, all the problems identified in the research were ranked by the Pythagoras Fuzzy AHP Method according to the degree of importance; increasing the number of followers, technical problems, lack of trust and others. In the last stage of the research, expert opinion from Instagram marketing experts of 14 businesses was used to develop solutions to the three most important problems previously identified. The solution suggestions developed are as follows: to increase the number of followers of businesses, to increase the number and variety of advertisements and to make advertising campaigns continuous; for technical problems - to share purchase links to customers, to keep the programs used constantly updated, to get professional support and to focus more on story ads instead of post ads; and for the problem of lack of trust - honesty, phenomenon support, product photo shoots within the business.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Parameters of Textile Antennas Manufactured Using Three Techniques: Magnetron Sputtering, Ink-Jet Printing and Embroidery<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this work, three textile antennas with the same geometry were produced using three different technologies: magnetron sputtering (PVD), ink-jet printing and embroidery using electroconductive yarn. In all three cases, the electrically conductive medium was the same, which was silver, known for centuries for its very good conductive properties. In order to show how the method of manufacturing antennas affects their operational parameters, the following measurements were carried out: surface resistivity, impedance, standing wave coefficient of antenna radiators, and their radiation characteristics were assessed. The surface resistivity value of the antenna paths obtained ranged from 0.05 to 1.2 Ωm/m.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue on the image design of clothing patterns<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In order to solve the problem of mismatch between consumers’ personalized needs and clothing pattern design, a method of clothing pattern image design was proposed based on Kansei engineering theory to obtain a perceptual consumer image. Then, a correlation model between clothing pattern design elements and perceptual images of young people was established through the quantitation theory type I, and the mapping relationship between the two and the degree of influence on consumer preference was presented by the diagram method. The paper-cut pattern of a T shirt is taken as an example to verify the feasibility of this research method. The results show that it not only provides designers with clear design indicators and references, but also makes the design process more objective and scientific.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Worst Case for the Ballistic Test of the Soft Armour System Using the 9mm FMJ Bullets Differing in the Structure<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ballistic tests require significant rigor and the development of a worst case model during the research processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of bullet type (manufacturer) on V50 and Behind Armor Blunt Trauma (BABT) results for two ballistic applications: p-aramid and UHMWPE fibre. The results confirmed the thesis that the source of the bullets implies the test results obtained in terms of the number of penetrated layers in the ballistic system, backface signature deformation profiles (p-BFS) and the level of residual energy transferred to the user of the personal protection.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Impact of Uncertainty on Textile Companies Profitability in the EU 27<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Recent studies reveal that uncertainty is a problem for the profitability of companies in various sectors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of uncertainty on the profitability of textile companies in the EU 27. A number of models were performed using the random effects estimator. The results indicate that the uncertainty variable WUI negatively and significantly affects the profitability of the textile industry in all models. In addition, the results show that while equity to total assets and cash flow to operating revenue have a positive effect, capital intensity and operating in Eastern Europe have a negative effect on profitability. Also, size, current ratio, operating revenue to stocks and inflation do not seem to have a significant impact on profitability.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of complexation of microelement ions by biodegradable IDHA chelator in water and simulated fertilization environment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The degree of complexation of microelement ions by the biodegradable chelating agent - IDHA was examined in the work. The tests were carried out in water and in a simulated fertilizer environment. In order to compare the obtained results, tests were also carried out for the commonly used EDTA. The performed analyzes allow to determine the influence of the presence of compounds containing macroelements on the degree of binding of microelement ions by the biodegradable IDHA and EDTA chelators. The obtained results make it possible to determine the optimal conditions for the chelation of cations by IDHA, which in the future may be used in the production of micronutrient fertilizers on a large scale.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue behaviour of polar solvent and water vapours on Sorbonorit B4 activated carbon<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this work, the affinity of the heterogeneous Sorbonorit B4 (SB4) activated carbon toward methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), n-propyl alcohol (NPA) and isobutyl alcohol (IBA), and water vapours was examined. Adsorption equilibrium measurements demonstrate a higher adsorption capacity of water vapour than organic compounds at relative pressures above 0.4. The adsorption capacities of SB4 at the same vapor pressure followed the order: NPA&gt; IPA&gt; MEK&gt; IBA. The Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Dubinin-Astakhov, and Toth isotherm models were chosen to describe experimental results. Based on the multi-temperature isotherms, the values of the isosteric heat of adsorption were determined for various adsorbate loading. The results indicate a strong influence of VOC molecule structures and the surface heterogeneity of SB4 on the adsorption efficiency. For IPA-SB4 pair, the maximum temperature rise in a fixed-bed bed in the adsorption process and the energy requirement for regeneration were calculated and experimentally verified.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and applications of iron oxide reduction processes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present review handles the main characteristics of iron oxide reduction and its industrial applications. The reduction of iron oxide is the basis of all ironmaking processes, whether in a blast furnace or by direct reduction and/or direct smelting processes. The reduction characteristics of iron ores control the efficiency of any ironmaking process and the quality of the produced iron as well. Many controlling parameters should be considered when discussing the reducibility of iron ores such as equilibrium phase diagrams, reduction temperature, pressure, gas composition, and the nature of both iron ores and reducing agent. The different factors affecting the main routes of ironmaking will be highlighted in the present review to give a clear picture of each technology. Moreover, further innovations regarding the reduction of iron oxides such as the reduction by green hydrogen will be discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue research on the removal characteristics of simulated radioactive aerosols by a cloud-type radioactive aerosol elimination system<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Radioactive aerosols in the confined workplace are a major source of internal exposure hazards for workers. Cloud-type radioactive aerosol elimination system (CRAES) have great potential for radioactive aerosol capture due to their high adsorption capacity, lack of cartridges and less secondary contamination. A CRAES was designed and constructed, and a FeOOH/rGO composite was directly prepared by a hydro-thermal method to characterise and analyse its morphology, chemical structure and removal efficiency for simulated radioactive aerosols. The results show that the FeOOH/rGO composite works in synergy with the CRAES to effectively improve the removal efficiency of simulated radioactive aerosols. A 30-minute simulated radioactive aerosol removal rate of 94.52% was achieved when using the experimentally optimized composite inhibitor amount of 2 mg/L FeOOH/rGO with 0.2 g/L PVA as a surfactant. Therefore, the CRAES coupled with the composite inhibitor FeOOH/rGO has broad application potential for the synergistic treatment of radioactive aerosols.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue simulation and improvement of combustor structure in 3D printed sand recycling system<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper, a new combustor with an output of 5 t/h is designed based on a computational particle fluid dynamics (CPFD) model. The flow field simulation is combined with the combustion simulation to analyze the internal two-phase flow, temperature field, and combustion products. The combustor structure was optimized. The simulation results show that the recovery efficiency of the waste sand and the energy utilization of the combustor can be improved under the original structure. The sand bed has a significant effect on flow field characteristics. The increase in particle temperature in the combustor increases the efficiency of waste sand recovery by increasing the height of the sand bed by 50 mm. The utilization rate of natural gas is increased and the economic efficiency is improved. The feasibility of the CPFD method can simulate the flow field characteristics inside the combustor very effectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue on extracts as potential cosmetic raw materials<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the study, the possibility of an application of <italic>Ajuga reptans</italic> leaf and root extracts in antipollution cosmetics was investigated. The influence of <italic>Ajuga</italic> extracts on the skin condition was also evaluated. Both leaf and root <italic>Ajuga</italic> ethanolic extracts were obtained and added to the developed cosmetic formulations. Two types of emulsion W/O and O/W, washing gels and eye serum, containing as an active substance <italic>Ajuga</italic> extracts were prepared. For the stable formulations physicochemical and user properties were studied. The obtained results show that cosmetic products, containing the <italic>Ajuga reptans</italic> extracts, positively affect the skin condition: causing an improvement in the degree of skin hydration and elasticity, reducing the skin pores size and skin hyperpigmentation, and reducing the wrinkles depth.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Palm Olein and Coconut Oil Blend using Two High-Shear Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to synthesize structured lipids containing high mono- and diacylglycerol by glycerolysisinteresterification of palm olein and coconut oil blend in two high-shear continuous stirred tank reactors in series. The result showed that various flow rates of 11 mL/min to 23 mL/min did not significantly increase mono- and diacylglycerol concentration, while at a flow rate of 26 mL/min only a low concentration of mono- and diacylglycerol was formed. However, a flow rate 20 mL/min and an agitating speed of 2000 rpm produced mono- and diacylglycerol concentration of 61.7% with the highest productivity of 2.1%/min and a triacylglycerol conversion of 64.6%. The slip melting point, melting point, hardness, emulsion capacity, and stability were 23.77 <sup>o</sup>C, 30 <sup>o</sup>C, 14.6 N, 65.15%, and 59.15%, respectively. The product’s solid fat content at 25 <sup>o</sup>C was lower than cocoa butter. The product contained β’ and β crystals, thus it can be applied as a cocoa butter substitute.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue on safe disposal of cephalosporins based on kinetic pyrolysis mechanism<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Based on the global goals for cleaner production and sustainable development, the pyrolysis behavior of cephalosporin residues was studied by TG-MS method. The influence of full temperature window on the safe disposal of residues was analyzed based on the “3-2-2” and “1+1” of thermal analysis kinetics, and the gas by-products of thermal degradation were monitored. Results showed that the pyrolysis of distillation residues were divided into low and high-temperature zones, including six stages. Maximum error rate (8.55%) by multiple scan rate was presented based on “3-2-2” pattern and maximum total fluctuation (33.7) by single scan rate was presented based on “1+1” pattern, which implied that the comprehensive multi-level comparison method was very reliable. The <italic>E</italic> value “E” of six stages showed an increasing trend ranging 166.8 to 872.8 kJ/mol. Lg<italic>A</italic><sub>(mean)</sub> was 27.28. Most mechanism function of stage 1, 2 were Z-L-T equation (3D), stage 3, 4, 6 were Avrami-Erofeev equation (AE3, AE4, AE2/3) and stage 5 was Reaction Order (O2). In addition, various small molecular micromolecule substances were detected such as C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>4</sub>O, C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>6</sub>, NH<sub>3</sub>, CH<sub>4</sub>, CO<sub>2</sub> under full temperature windows and a possible pyrolysis path of residues was provided.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of citronellal and geraniol from citronella () oil by vacuum fractional distillation: Effect of operating conditions on the separation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study used fractional distillation to separate citronellal and geraniol from citronella (<italic>Cymbopogon winterianus</italic>) essential oil to improve their market value. The one-factor-at-a-time methodology investigated operating parameters’ optimum conditions and effects, including system pressure, packing types, and column height. All investigations were evaluated based on their main fraction’s citronellal and geraniol content and recovery. Regarding the effect of the variables, a higher system pressure improved the separation while increasing the temperature range of each fraction and distillation time. The packing types would also improve the separation by providing a large surface area. Finally, the column height also positively impacted the separation. In the optimum citronella oil fractionation, citronellal content experienced a 2.5-fold increase, from 37.68% to 94.33%. Geraniol purity reached 40.61% from an initial content of 17.33% in the raw CW oil. The distillation could recover up to 90.00% of citronellal and 68.18% of geraniol.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of distillation time and distillation apparatus on the chemical composition and quality of Mill. essential oil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the study, the influence of distillation time as well as distillation apparatus on the chemical composition and quality of lavender (<italic>Lavandula angustifolia</italic> Mill.) essential oil were investigated. Two different types of distillation apparatuses: Deryng (popular in Poland) and Clevenger-type (recommended by European Pharmacopoeia) were used for the isolation of the essential oil from dried lavender flowers (<italic>Lavandulae flos</italic>). Moreover, different distillation times (2, 3 and 4 hours) were also applied. The chemical composition of the isolated oils, determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), revealed the dominance of linalool (11.55–17.19%) and linalyl acetate (12.84–16.78%) in the all analyzed samples. Other important constituents were: caryophyllene oxide (5.66–7.35%), lavandulyl acetate (4.64–5.40%) and borneol (4.62–5.51%). On the basis of the obtained data it was proved that the distillation time and distillation apparatus affect the amounts of some constituents in the lavender oil.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Influence of Pre-Treatment, Preservation Method, and Storage Time on Carotenoid and Chlorophyll Profile in Nettle Juices and its Relation to Colour Changes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the most valuable health-promoting plants used in the production of functional, green drinks is nettle. Acidic environments, oxygen, high temperature, and enzymes can negatively affect the colour of green juices, which is an important aspect for consumers. Therefore, the study analyzed the effect of pre-treatment, preservation method (freeze-drying, freezing, sterilization), and storage on the profile of carotenoids and chlorophylls (HPLC) in nettles juices and its correlation with colour changes (CIELAB). All the examined parameters impacted the profile of both groups of compounds and their colour. The most significant unfavorable changes were observed after sterilization. Blanching positively affected the level of coloured compounds in canned juices, with a greater enhancement being observed after a longer pre-treatment time (90 s). After storage, in frozen and freeze-dried juices, and similarly in unpreserved juices, lutein, violaxanthin and chlorophyll a predominated. However, in sterilized juices, neoxanthin and violaxanthin were completely degraded, and β-carotene and chlorophyll b were found at a significant level. During the storage of canned and frozen products, chlorophyll a was degraded to a greater extent, while in lyophilizates chlorophyll b. The transformation of neoxanthin, violaxanthin and chlorophyll a in nettle juices was determined via analysis of a* colour parameter.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Fatty Acid Profile, and the Content of Vitamin A, Vitamin E and Cholesterol in Beef () Stored Under Different Modified Atmospheres<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to analyze the fatty acid profile of intramuscular fat and the content of vitamin A, vitamin E and cholesterol in samples of the <italic>longissimus lumborum</italic> (LL) beef muscles and stored for 7, 14 and 21 days under modified atmospheres (MA): vacuum, 80% O<sub>2</sub> + 20% CO<sub>2</sub>, 60% O<sub>2</sub> + 30% CO<sub>2</sub> + 10% N<sub>2</sub>, 40% CO<sub>2</sub> + 60% N<sub>2</sub>, 30% CO<sub>2</sub> + 70% Ar). The experimental factors, i.e., storage time (ST) and MA composition, had no significant effect on the proportions of individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs), but they significantly modified the proportions of individual unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and the fatty acid profile of intramuscular fat (IMF). The study demonstrated that in order to minimize the loss of total UFAs, samples of the LL muscle should be cold-stored in MA 40% CO<sub>2</sub> + 60% N<sub>2</sub> for up to 14 days; MA 30% CO<sub>2</sub> + 70% Ar also effectively prevented the loss of total PUFAs and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The losses of vitamins A and E were lowest when beef was packaged under oxygen-free MA, in particular MA 30% CO<sub>2</sub> + 70% Ar. Prolonged storage (21 days) did not contribute to significant vitamin losses, but it induced a decrease in cholesterol concentration, which was lower in vacuum-packaged samples than in those packaged in MA containing 60% O<sub>2</sub> and MA composed of 40% CO<sub>2</sub> + 60% N<sub>2</sub>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Sugars, Alcohols and Antioxidants on the Preparation Goat Milk Tablets Containing BB01<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The development of probiotic products has attracted more and more attention. Products made from goat milk powder and probiotics can combine nutrition and health care functions. In this paper, the effects of different sugars, alcohols and antioxidants on the preparation goat milk tablets containing <italic>Bifidobacterium bifidum</italic> BB01 were studied by single factor experiment. The results showed that the appropriate addition of sugars, alcohols and antioxidants were as follows: sucrose 5 %, glucose 1.5 %, xylitol 3 %, ascorbic acid 0.03 %, D-sodium ascorbate 0.09 %, sodium ascorbate 0.03 %, microcrystalline cellulose 0.5 %, D-mannitol 0.1 %. According to the formulation, goat milk tablets with high <italic>Bifidobacterium</italic> activity were developed, and had appropriate hardness, friability and good sensory quality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Study of Polish Sausage Drying Kinetics and Contraction by Image Data Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The goal of this paper has been to add an experimental data set for drying a meat product and provide a comparison with well-established thin-layer drying models. This article presented experimental investigations on the convective drying of Polish sausage slices at a temperature of 40°C. Slices have been in the thickness of 3 to 8mm. Measurements of mass loss and size change were performed. The data have been presented in the form of standard drying kinetics. Additionally, the estimation of the diffusion coefficient according to the simplified graphical approach is made. Based on the best-fit approach the coefficients for typical semiempirical correlations for <italic>MR</italic> (moisture ratio) estimation have been calculated and presented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue