rss_2.0Industrial Chemistry FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Industrial Chemistryhttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/IChttps://www.sciendo.comIndustrial Chemistry Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/Industrial_Chemistery.jpg700700Synthesis, physicochemical studies, fluorescence behavior, and anticancer properties of transition metal complexes with the pyridyl ligandhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pjct-2022-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A novel series of complexes with the formula [MLCl] [M = Co(II) (1), Ni(II) (2), Cu(II) (3), Zn(II) (4)] arising from Pyridyl ligand, N,N’-bis(1-(2-pyridyl)ethylidene)-2,2-dimethylpropane-1,3-diamine), ligand, L, was synthesized and investigated by elemental analyses, FT-IR, <sup>1</sup>H and <sup>13</sup>C NMR, Powder XRD, and thermal analyses. TGA analysis indicated that all complexes degraded in three different steps, while the PXRD examination showed well-defined sharp crystalline peaks for the complexes, indicating significant crystallinity. The antiproliferative activity of the ligand and its complexes were also evaluated <italic>in vitro</italic> against the HeLa (Human Cervical Cancer Cells) and HCT116 (Colon Cancer Cells) cell lines. The findings suggested complex <bold>4</bold> to be potential anticancer agent against these cell lines. In addition, ligand and its complexes also exhibited considerable emission properties.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Innovative NPK Fertilizers based on Polyacrylamide and Polyvinyl Alcohol with Controlled Release of Nutrientshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pjct-2022-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the present work was the preparation and properties evaluation of two innovative fertilizers based on multicomponent polymers characterized by a controlled release of nutrients. One method was based on a multi-component liquid containing different amounts of microelements NPK 12-5-6 fertilizers with polyacrylamide hydrogel beads. The second method concerned the cross-linking of biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol with multi-component NPK fertilizers. Polyacrylamide-based compositions with the highest amount of NPK salts as well as polyvinyl alcohol-based fertilizers in dense gel form, based on 60 phr crosslinking concentrate have shown optimal properties. Regardless of the type of fertilizers used, their components were released slowly. The obtained fertilizers were classified according to the kinetics of nutrient release. Fertilizers made from polyacrylamide based fertilizers have been classified into a group of controlled release fertilizers (CRF), while those made from biodegradable environmentally friendly polyvinyl alcohol have been defined as slow released fertilizers (SRF).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Adsorption of CO by surface modified coal-based activated carbons: kinetic and thermodynamic analysishttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pjct-2022-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The effects of different surface modifiers on the CO2 adsorption capacity of coal-based activated carbons were studied, and the diffusion behavior, adsorption kinetics and thermodynamic parameters of CO<sub>2</sub> in activated carbons were analyzed. The results show that compared with ethylene glycol, 1,2-propylenediamine and zinc chloride, potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide can greatly improve CO<sub>2</sub> adsorption capacity. The adsorption rate is faster, and the adsorption capacity is larger, with the maximum CO<sub>2</sub> adsorption capacity being 33.54 mL/g. Fick’s law can well describe the diffusion behavior of CO<sub>2</sub> in activated carbon. The addition of a surface modifier can increase the diffusion coefficient. The diffusion of CO2 in activated carbon falls into the category of crystal diffusion. The adsorption kinetics of CO<sub>2</sub> before and after surface modification follow the Bangham equation. During the adsorption process, δ H &lt; 0, δ G &lt; 0, δ S &lt; 0. Surface modification can reduce adsorption heat and promote adsorption, and the adsorption process is dominated by physisorption.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00The Oxygen Reduction Activity of Nitrogen-doped Graphenehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pjct-2022-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Graphite nitrogen, pyridine nitrogen and pyrrole nitrogen are the main nitrogen types in nitrogen-doped graphene materials. In order to investigate the mechanism of the oxygen reduction activity of nitrogen-doped graphene, several models of nitrogen-doped graphene with different nitrogen contents and different nitrogen types are developed. The nitrogen content is varied from 1.3 at% to 7.8 at%, and the adsorption energy is calculated according to the established models, then the band gaps are analyzed through the optimization results, so as to compare the magnitude of the conductivity. Finally, the oxygen reduction activity of graphite nitrogen-doped graphene (GNG) is found to be better than pyridine nitrogen-doped graphene (PDNG) and pyrrole nitrogen-doped graphene (PLNG) when the nitrogen content is lower than 2.6 at%, and the oxygen reduction activity of PDNG is the best when the nitrogen content was higher than 2.6 at%.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Determination of twist drill bits wear: the effect of the composition and structure of the steelshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pjct-2022-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study was to relate the influence of the chemical composition, structure, and basic properties as hardness of the tested drill bits on resistance to their wear. The chemical composition of the drill bit was investigated using the electric excitation emission spectrometry method and EDS microanalysis. Metallographic specimens were prepared and observed to determine the structure of each tool. Hardness tests were carried out on the shank and the working part of the tools. Material wear tests were carried out on the basis of measuring the wear of the drill bit flank. It has been shown that the appropriate selection of the chemical composition and heat treatment has a significant impact on the wear resistance of cutting tools, which directly translates into their quality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Application of foam separation in production of β-glucanase in Pichiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pjct-2022-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>β-glucanase is widely used in many fields and has great economic value and development space, but it faces the difficulties of separation and nutrient destruction in the process of industrial production. Foam separation is a simple, mild and efficient adsorption separation technique that enables efficient separation and extraction of β-glucanase. In this study, five single factors(loading volume, pH, separation gas velocity, fermentation loading concentration, surfactant concentration) of foam separation and harvest of β-glucanase produced by Pichia pastoris were studied. The best univariate condition was: 600 mL/min separation gas velocity, loading volume of 200 mL, initial enzyme concentration of 100 g/mL, surfactant concentration of 0.3 mg/mL and pH of 5. Based on the best univariate condition, the optimal separation conditions of β-glucanase were further explored, and the five-factor four-level orthogonal test was designed. From the experimental results, the best separation condition was: 600 mL/min, loading volume of 200 mL, initial enzyme concentration of 100 μg/mL, surfactant concentration of 0.5 mg/mL and pH of 5. Under this separation condition, the enrichment ratio (E) was 0.56 and the recovery rate (R) was 96.01%.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00How many neurons are needed to make a short-term prediction of the Bitcoin exchange rate?https://sciendo.com/article/10.37705/TechTrans/e2022011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The goal of our work was to select a neural network architecture that would give the best prediction of the Bitcoin exchange rate using historical data. Our work fits into the very important topic of predicting the value of the cryptocurrency exchange rate, and makes use of recent data which, as a result of the high Bitcoin exchange rate dynamics of the last year, differs significantly from those of previous years. We propose and test a number of neural network-based architectures and conduct a discussion of the results. Unlike previous state-of-the-art works, we conducted a comprehensive comparison of three different neural network-based models: MLP (multilayer perceptron), LSTM (long short-term memory) and CNN (convolutional neural network). We tested them for a wide range of parameters. The results we present are, to the best of our knowledge, the most up to date when it comes to the application of artificial intelligence methods for the prediction of cryptocurrency exchange rates. The best-performing architectures were used for a website that gives real-time predictions of the Bitcoin exchange rate. The website is available at <ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="http://stpbtc-ii.up.krakow.pl/">http://stpbtc-ii.up.krakow.pl/</ext-link>. Source codes of our research are available to download in order to make our experiment reproducible.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Development of a method and technology for the production of 3D knitted reinforcement gridshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ftee-2022-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The use of fibre-reinforced plastic composites (FRP) for lightweight construction solutions is becoming increasingly important. The processing of 2D scrims into complete 3D FRP components has been carried out with the help of complex manual assembly steps. The disadvantages of this procedure are distortions in the textile and, thus, deviations in the fibre alignments from the calculated load path.</p> <p>This paper presents a newly developed basic technology for the production of 3D reinforcing grids with variable warp and weft yarn section lengths based on multiaxial warp knitting technology. For this purpose, a new type of machine module and associated control technology for the production of weft yarn reserves on a multiaxial warp knitting machine was developed. In combination with technology from previous research work on the production of warp yarn lengths suitable for component contours, a basis was created for the production of 3D reinforcing grids.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Artificial Neural Network-based Prediction Technique for Waterproofness of Seams Obtained by Using Fusible Threadshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ftee-2022-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to estimate waterproofness values of seams composed of the combination of fusible threads and antiwick sewing threads through artificial neural networks (ANN). Fusible threads were used to obtain waterproof seams for the first time. Therefore, estimating the value of the waterproofness variable with the help of models created from test values can contribute to accelerating the progress of further studies. Hence, ten different samples were prepared for two fabrics, and the waterproofness values of the seams obtained were tested using a Textest FX 3000 Hydrostatic Head Tester III. For the prediction of waterproofness values of the seams, the Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm was used for artificial neural network pattern models with sigmoid and positive linear transfer functions. Finally, the ANN model was successful in estimating the waterproofness of the seams. The highest correlation coefficient was R = 0.95081 which indicated that the prediction made by the neural network model proved to be reliable.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Contentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2022-0002ARTICLE2022-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00USA-China rivalry in the age of de-globalization. An assessment of the security concerns posed by the delisting of Chinese companies on the US Stock Exchangehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2022-0126<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The globalization era that stemmed from the Cold War period is reaching a fork in the road and the argument is made for the slowing of this process and the shift towards de-globalization. Economic globalization blurred the national lines and brought about the multinational companies, which in turn brought technological advance and innovation. This advance in technology made the world much smaller and globalization very appealing. This system worked until a point where everyone was a beneficiary and world economies have seen the sharpest growth rate in history. However, when the first economic crisis arose in 2008, the USA was not the only loser, but everyone in this transnational economic environment felt the repercussions. At the first sign of capitalist weakness, globalization got blamed by governments around the world and the trust factor was diminished. This planted the seeds of de-globalization and the subject picked upon in this paper is the tug of war between the two super-powers: the USA and China. Who is the winner of this de-globalization era and more importantly, who stands to lose the most? This question will be thoroughly discussed from a historic and macro perspective as well as through a specific case study related to the de-listing of Chinese companies on the US Stock Exchange. This paper will bring forth arguments that both superpowers are winners and losers, with China being a step further by still looking attractive for global investors. Institutions and retail investors are seen as the biggest losers of this new form of rivalry. By employing a quantitative approach this paper will bring a fresh perspective on the effects of de-globalization through the Wall Street lens.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effects of the Political Turbulences on the Stock Exchange Indiceshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2022-0125<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Political turbulence is known to influence the velocity of economic development and reduce investments. Our paper aims to point up the linkage between political instability and the evolution of the Romanian capital market. We model the volatility of two of the Bucharest Stock Exchange indices BET and BET-NG using a GARCH/ARCH approach for daily data between 2010 and 2021. Results highlight the interconnections between political and economic policy uncertainty and the financial market. In both cases, for BET and BET-NG, our study shows that different types of political events have different levels of influence on the indices’ volatility. Unexpected “shock” type events with negative impacts resulted in much higher volatility than positive events. When there were events that had fiscal connotations, they had a much greater power of penetration in the investment environment because it comes down to figures and calculations that had a direct, measurable impact. There is a need for political involvement, certainty, lack of ambiguity, and predictability, both from a legislative point of view and how it is applied.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Formal learning versus empirical learning: which one yields better results?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The digital revolution that we are currently experiencing is causing a lot of young people to ask themselves if formal education is still worth it. As the digital environment exponentially evolved in the last couple of years, you can now find almost any curriculum on the internet for a fraction of the price you would pay to study it in a university, or sometimes even free or charge. Furthermore, employers all over the globe are starting to put more emphasis on the experience accumulated by the individual rather than its formal studies, encouraging young people to start working early in their lives. The present paper approached this hypothesis from two different angles: the first part of the paper was focused on individuals in their early “work-life”, more precisely millennials that graduated recently, while the second part of the paper looked at the wealthiest people on the planet, the ones indicated by Forbes Top 30. Insights about how millennials with higher education see work in relation with their formal studies were obtained using a questionnaire, their overall feedback being a positive one, against all previous expectations. Also, interesting patterns emerged from the data about the Forbes Top 30 billionaires after researching their educational backgrounds. As it turns out, financial success is not necessarily correlated with formal studies, but links between high performance / innovative individuals and previous formal studies have been found.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00New Challenges of the Century. Digital Economy and the Green Revolution represents the theme of the International Conference on Business Excellence (ICBE), The 16 Edition, March 24-26, 2022https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2022-0003ARTICLE2022-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Customer relationship management in the international context – theoretical and practical considerationshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2022-0098<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The customer relationship strategy as part of the general business strategy is focused on the interest for the clients, having as a main objective the strengthening of the long-term relationship between the companies and the clients. The essence of the Customer Relationship Management (CRM) dwells in preserving long-term partnerships, bringing added value within the business relation and delivering customised propositions to individual clients. By providing personalised products or services the company gets near the need of the client, thus making it a key customer. The bridge between the company and the key client is based on a cross-functional process through which the customer relationship management strategy is implemented. Therefore, the customer orientation becomes an impactful factor in the implementation process. Having a positive relationship with key customers and a better understanding of their needs and activity leads to clarity in the development of the customer relationship management strategy. This principle is worldwide accepted, regardless of industry in which operates the organization. The purpose of this paper is to do a key literature review on customer relationship management by enlightening both the theoretical aspects researched by academicians all over the world and empirical studies applied in international organizations. In addition, the applicative section of this paper consists in a comparison of customer relationship management dimensions’ level of implementation in two multinational companies (MNC) from different industries within fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Prerequisites of a blockchain-oriented technique to assure a digital management of products recall caused by notified issues in food industryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2022-0114<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Today’s life is carried out under the technology umbrella and this is reflected in every aspect of daily activities, from conversations with friends, preparing meals, shopping to professional experiences. As technology advances and white-collar interests move more and more under its auspices, some of the essentials remain stuck in the routine, being slowed down by the simple fact that they are marked by certain unrevised procedures. So, in order to allow evolution in all aspects of life, the idea of identifying solutions, analyzing technological innovations and balancing the impact of digitalization in each area delayed by outdated principles is emerging. Blockchain-based solutions proved effective in a large spectrum of social and economic fields, providing ingenious approaches for up to date stringent issues. One particular area where blockchain can facilitate a significant improvement is represented by product recall. Within a global economy with supply chains extended over multiple continents, a digitalized shopping environment where customers use dedicated applications for scanning client codes and receiving electronic receipts could eliminate dead times between the moment of identifying risky products that have been for sale and the moment of warning customers to act accordingly. But before being able to benefit from a fully integrated blockchain solution for commerce, the first steps are to redirect activities towards automation and digitization by preparing the necessary prerequisites and initiating actions to change the consumer’s perception of essential activities technologicalization, as the conducted study reflects the idea that, although many people are oriented towards change, some seem reluctant.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Artificial Intelligence solutions for Romanian accounting companieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2022-0080<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The fast availability of data coupled with technology evolution, have brought Artificial Intelligence closer to commercial use. The relevance of AI solutions for business models worldwide was underlined by the significant investments made by internet giants such as Google, Apple, Amazon, Facebook. In the highly data driven accounting and finance industry, AI represents a solution to drive better results. The level of AI applications implemented so far is not high. This study aims to highlight the drivers and inhibitors of AI adaptation in the finance and accounting industry based on interviews with experts in Artificial Intelligence in accounting and finance. First step for this study is represented by the process of understanding the current level of knowledge on the field by conducting a literature analysis. In order to structure the results a Technology - Organization - Environment framework was used. While applying Artificial Intelligence solutions the role models and process competencies are crucial. These will assure a success in the process of training algorithms to reach the quality level to operate, without any human intervention and moral concerns.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00MIFID II and EMIR impact on Romanian banking system performancehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2022-0069<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>MIFID II/MiFIR represents comprehensive financial market reforms in trading and settlement of financial instruments. The greatest impact of the new regulatory framework in the banking sector relates to pricing, trading, and reporting of banking products and classification of financial institutions. The new role of the financial market infrastructure provides more protection for bank customers and significantly increases market transparency. Banks are required to show their customers the best execution price on the relevant trading venues, transaction costs and market behavior. The regulation will be aligned with other financial market regulations of over-the-counter markets and market abuse protection to avoid regulatory overlap - European Market Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR). The new regulatory framework requires the banking sector to fully comply with the rules governing the banking system of the European Union. Banks must incur significant costs in order to restructure internal processes, acquire new technological support, and forego additional profits in competitive and transparent markets. This study analyses the impact of MiFID II/MiFIR and EMIR implementation on local banks’ performance (credit institutions, Romanian legal persons). Using a unique dataset from banks that have been operating in Romania over the period 2004-2020, it is shown that the implementation of the new regulatory framework did not affect the net trading income ratio of the selected banks. Moreover, the average trading asset ratio in the post-financial crisis period increased in comparison with the average trading asset ratio in the pre-financial crisis period. Local banks that took advantage of the large economies of scale obtained due to branch banking did not reduce their investment banking activities and product offerings to customers in the period following the introduction of the regulatory framework. Most of the costs of implementing the new regulatory framework were borne only by the ultimate parents of the controlled Romanian subsidiaries. All subsidiary banks benefited equally from these economies of scale.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00The economy of material flow cycling in anthropized and anthropogenic systemshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2022-0036<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The dematerialization of the development of anthropized and anthropic systems/complexes represents an objective of maximum importance for ensuring the coevolution of human activities and the natural environment, from the perspective of sustainability requirements. In this context, the use of methods for analyzing the reciprocal flows between the natural environment as a system and the socioeconomic system, in physical and energetic expression, provides us with the information support necessary to adopt measures to reduce specific consumption of ecosystem goods, respectively pressure on biophysical support of socio-economic systems, regardless of the spatial scale at which they are identified.</p> <p>Approaches in the field of industrial ecology, but not only, have highlighted the need and possibility of material flows cycling, but this is a first step towards dematerializing the development of anthropogenic and anthropic systems/complexes. From the perspective of global performance, research is needed on cost/benefit analysis of decisions in this regard and evaluation of effects/impacts on structural and functional processes at the level of technical-productive organizations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00European Union Funding-an element for predictable business success?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2022-0124<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this paper is to discuss the ability in assessing successful investment when done by actors outside of the business arena such as government bodies or international economic cooperation agencies. More specifically, the paper aims to analyze how non-reimbursable European funding for enterprises can affect the financial results, comparing companies that have received funding through the Start-up Nation project with companies that have not received it.</p> <p>In order to determine if companies receiving aid or not receiving aid can be argued to be performing better economically, I have studied data from the Start-up Nation Romania project, which provide the possibility of a concrete comparison by identifying the companies participating in the project, and analyzing which group performed better.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1