rss_2.0Life Sciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Life Scienceshttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/LFhttps://www.sciendo.comLife Sciences Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/Life_Sciences.jpg700700Yersiniosis: a forgotten mimicker and confounder of Crohn’s diseasehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ahem-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Yersiniosis is a zoonosis caused by the <italic>Yersinia</italic> bacterium. The route of infection is most commonly oral and is caused by consumption of <italic>Yersinia</italic>-contaminated food. The clinical presentations of chronic yersiniosis are abdominal pain, diarrhea, relapsing arthritis, and skin lesions, that is, nodular erythema. The diagnosis is based on culture-dependent identification of <italic>Yersinia</italic> in stool, positive serologic test results, or molecular techniques. The treatment of choice is combination antibiotic therapy. Mild forms of the disease do not usually require treatment. Yersiniosis frequently mimics or confounds other chronic intestinal and extraintestinal inflammatory conditions, particularly Crohn’s disease. Therefore, diagnosis of yersiniosis may be a challenge for medical practitioners. Not including <italic>Yersinia</italic> infection in the differential diagnosis of abdominal symptoms can lead to an incorrect diagnosis and inappropriate treatment. This review summarises the current knowledge of <italic>Yersinia enterocolitica</italic> and <italic>pseudotuberculosis</italic> infection, with special focus on differential diagnosis between this infection and Crohn’s disease.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Monitoring the skin biophysical parameters among coronavirus patients for three days in a row: a preliminary studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/joeb-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The coronavirus epidemic 2019 is spreading all over the world now. Several parameters are used to monitor the status of hospitalized patients; however, monitoring variations in biophysical properties of the skin has not been investigated yet. In this preliminary study, we seek to monitor skin biophysical parameters among coronavirus patients for three days in a row. Skin moisture, pH, sebum, and temperature during the three days were monitored in 30 coronavirus patients by using non-invasive portable instruments. Skin biophysical parameters were increased on the third day of monitoring compared to the first one. In addition, the increase in both skin moisture and temperature were statistically significant. According to the results of this preliminary study, skin biophysical parameters changed (increased) during the specified period in which the patients were monitored. However, changes in skin sebum content and pH were not significant. These skin parameters need to be further investigated until we know their indication ability for the health condition of coronavirus patients in clinical applications.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of acute water ingestion and prolonged standing on raw bioimpedance and subsequent body fluid and composition estimateshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/joeb-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study evaluated the influence of acute water ingestion and maintaining an upright posture on raw bioimpedance and subsequent estimates of body fluids and composition. Twenty healthy adults participated in a randomized crossover study. In both conditions, an overnight food and fluid fast was followed by an initial multi-frequency bioimpedance assessment (InBody 770). Participants then ingested 11 mL/kg of water (water condition) or did not (control condition) during a 5-minute period. Thereafter, bioimpedance assessments were performed every 10 minutes for one hour with participants remaining upright throughout. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine the influence of condition and time on raw bioimpedance, body fluids, and body composition. Water consumption increased impedance of the arms but not trunk or legs. However, drift in leg impedance was observed, with decreasing values over time in both conditions. No effects of condition on body fluids were detected, but total body water and intracellular water decreased by ~0.5 kg over time in both conditions. Correspondingly, lean body mass did not differ between conditions but decreased over the measurement duration. The increase in body mass in the water condition was detected exclusively as fat mass, with final fat mass values ~1.3 kg higher than baseline and also higher than the control condition. Acute water ingestion and prolonged standing exert practically meaningful effects on relevant bioimpedance variables quantified by a modern, vertical multi-frequency analyzer. These findings have implications for pre-assessment standardization, methodological reporting, and interpretation of assessments.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Bibliometric Assessment of International Developments in Paper Sludge Research Using Scopus Databasehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/rtuect-2022-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Energy viability and waste disposal have been the two significant global complication. The consumption of paper and, subsequently, recycling are increasingly growing, contributing to vast quantities of paper sludge. Therefore, in waste disposal and environmental remediation, coping with massive volumes of paper sludge has received tremendous attention worldwide. Our purpose was to assess leading study advancements globally of paper sludge based on articles published, authors intra/inter-collaborations and accumulations of keywords. Throughout entire 1967–2019 duration, 2096 publications in paper sludge topic were mined using Scopus database. The findings revealed that the number of publications was less than 30 between 1967 and 1995, less than 60 between 1996 and 2005, less than 90 between 2006 and 2010 and more than 90 between 2011 and the recent year. Consequently, the yearly publishing is forecast to keep to expand. In a total of 125 journals, a total of 217 Canadian scholars from 155 universities lead to 263 papers, comprising 10.8 % total publications, where 261 (99.2 %) of 263 total English-language publications dominate the other countries/territories, while 0.8 % in French language. Also, from each of the 15 top countries, among the most productive universities, Université Laval was ranked 251<sup>st</sup> in World University Rankings 2021. In review, the following present developments in paper sludge comprise of: (i) cement, cellulose, bioethanol/biogas and concrete; (ii) phytoremediation and vermicompost and (iii) modelling (e.g., response surface methodology).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-17T00:00:00.000+00:00A contrastive study on the production of double vowels in Mandarinhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amns.2022.1.00006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The concept of ‘global village’ has linked all countries in the world as a whole. The exchanges and cooperation between different countries in politics, economy, culture, and education are becoming more and more frequent. To master a language, the study of its pronunciation is crucial. Based on the above considerations, this paper uses the Chinese pronunciation corpus of 30 learners and 10 Chinese native speakers as basic data to discuss the pronunciation patterns of learners’ mandarin diphthongs and their similarities to standard pronunciations. In this paper, by using the theory and methods of experimental phonetics, comparative analysis and error analysis, we exam and analyse the acoustic features of different levels of learners in the learning process, and the pronunciation and bias of learners’ mandarin diphthongs are obtained. From the experimental results, it can be seen that all three groups of learners have some difficulties in pronunciation of mandarin diphthongs. In particular, the learners have the greatest differences to standard pronunciations when pronouncing the diphthongs [ua] and [uo]. And some important rules and conclusions are summarised through experiments. This provides an important reference for learners to solve the problems of diphthongs pronunciation in Chinese speech synthesis and recognition.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-08T00:00:00.000+00:00What is the Optimal Way to Assess spp. Reproduction in Greenhouse Pot Experiments?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jofnem-2022-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Often research efforts that address both the practical concerns of managing <italic>Meloidogyne</italic> spp. and understanding their basic biology involve greenhouse reproduction assays. However, there is little consensus in regards to what parameters should be used to conduct greenhouse assays. The goal of this research was to evaluate how pot size, <italic>Meloidogyne</italic> spp. inoculation life stage, inoculation density, and time of assay impacted final reproduction factor (RF = initial nematode density/final nematode density) values. In experiments with <italic>M. incognita</italic>, the factor of the pot size mattered, with higher RF values in pots containing 500 g soil <italic>vs.</italic> pots with 100 g soil; larger pots containing 3,000 g soil did not have RF values different from the aforementioned sizes. Inoculating with <italic>M. incognita</italic> J2 resulted in RF values on average of &gt;2 fold higher then when inoculating with eggs at comparable densities. Inoculation density of <italic>M. incognita</italic> did not have an impact on final <italic>M. incognita</italic> RF values. In experiments that considered time of assay, three species were evaluated: <italic>M. incognita, M. chitwoodi</italic>, and <italic>M. hapla.</italic> There was no difference in <italic>M. incognita</italic> RF values when assays were conducted for 5 wk, 6 wk, 7 wk, and 8 wk. However, a longer assay time resulted in higher RF values for <italic>M. hapla</italic> and <italic>M. chitwoodi</italic>, with at least a 7 week assay required. In conclusion, a moderate pot size (500 g of soil) inoculated with <italic>M. incognita</italic> J2 resulted in maximum RF values. The length of the assay required will depend on the <italic>Meloidogyne</italic> spp. in question, with longer duration assays required for <italic>M. hapla</italic> and <italic>M. chitwoodi</italic> than for <italic>M. incognita.</italic></p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Morpho-Molecular and Ultrastructural Characterization of n. sp. from Zhejiang Province, Chinahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jofnem-2022-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>During a recent inventory survey of the nematofauna of tea plantation at Zhejiang Province, China, <italic>Discocriconemella parasinensis</italic> n. sp. was detected in the rhizosphere of <italic>Camellia sinensis</italic>. The new species can be characterized by having the uninterrupted rounded labial disc, <italic>en face</italic> view showing rectangular-rounded labial plate without submedian lobes, R = 82.6 (80–86), Rex = 22 (21–23), stylet length of 68.3 (59–76) μm, excretory pore located 1–2 annuli posterior to the esophageal bulb, vulva open, postvulval body elongated conoid, and tail conoid with bilobed terminus. Morphologically, the species shares the same lip-type with <italic>D. discolabia</italic>, <italic>D. mauritiensis</italic>, <italic>D. mineira</italic>, <italic>D. perseae</italic>, and <italic>D. sinensis</italic>. Phylogenetic relationships of the new species based on D2–D3 expansion segments of 28S, ITS, and 18S rRNA genes revealed that <italic>D. parasinensis</italic> n. sp. formed a separated clade from other criconematid species, thereby supporting its status as a new species of the genus. The new species showed close phylogenetic relationships with <italic>Criconemoides geraerti</italic>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Avoiding Food Wastage: The Net Impact of Activities. A Carbon Footprint Approachhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/rtuect-2022-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Food wastage is a complex global issue. Its solution requires a multi-pronged effort and the use of diversified strategies. Since the impacts are on an environmental, social and economic level, solutions can take shape in one of these areas, knowing that there are often trade-offs between one and the other. This paper aims to evaluate the net environmental effects in terms of Carbon footprint of the activities of the Lithuanian Food Bank (<italic>Maisto Bankas</italic>). Food banks are charities that work to reduce the negative social effects associated with food waste and food insecurity. They work on the food recovery, avoiding the transformation of food surplus in food waste. The present paper assessed the positive impact generated by the Lithuanian Food Bank thanks to its activities as the non-impact of recovered food and the non-disposal of food in landfills. At the same time, also the negative impact in term of emission due to the management of all its activities has been estimated. The net impact has been derived by the comparison of the two flows. The results of the study proved that, behind the social benefit, the Food Banks, as <italic>Maisto Bankas</italic>, produce also a net positive environmental impact.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Bio-active components in medicinal plants: A mechanistic review of their effects on fish growth and physiological parametershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-0030<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>World population is increasing at a tremendous rate so is the demand for animal-based protein. Aquaculture is a promising industry that has the potential to supply high quality protein for mankind with minimum environmental impact. In the past decade, aquaculture practices have been shifting from extensive to intensive culture. To achieve maximum production per unit area, high stocking densities are maintained in intensive aquaculture. If not managed properly, this may lead to stress in fish. Fish under stress condition show decreased growth, suppressed appetite, weakened immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. Chemicals, vaccines and antibiotics are used for the treatment of diseased fish. Use of synthetic chemicals, vaccines and antibiotics is not sustainable because pathogens develop resistance against them and they have high residues. Moreover, certain chemicals used for the treatment of fish diseases are not safe for humans therefore, are banned in some countries. Plant parts and their extracts are used in traditional medicines to cure many diseases and to improve health of mankind. In aquaculture industry, use of plants and their derivatives in fish feed to improve health status of fish is increasing. Several plants improve growth and overall health status of fish, some provide protection against pathogens by improving the immune system while others increase appetite by direct action on neuro-endocrine axis of fish. This review provides an in depth and up to date information about use of medicinal plants and their derivatives to improve growth and physiological status of fish and their possible mechanism of action.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Tomato pomace waste as safe feed additive for poultry health and production – a reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-0026<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Tomato cultivation and industrial processing produce a considerable amount of tomato pomace, peels, and seeds, which are difficult to handle. These by-products contain a variety of minerals and bioactive substances, and may thus be further valorized, generating additional revenue for processing plants while also decreasing environmental issues caused by their buildup. The inclusion of tomato pomace in poultry feed has been shown to produce promising effects in poultry growth and health, however the results are largely inconsistent. Literature has documented improvement in growth, egg production and quality, immunological and antioxidant effects in poultry. This review has complied the impacts of tomato pomace on the growth and health indices of poultry.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Dietary (Macro-Algae, Sargassaceae) extract improved antioxidant defense system in diazionon-exposed common carp, https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-0036<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The effects of different dietary levels of algae (<italic>Sargassum angustifolium</italic>) extract were investigated on the antioxidant system of common carp, <italic>Cyprinus carpio</italic>. Fish (30.2 ± 2.1 g) were fed 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15 g/kg basal diet of <italic>Sargassum angustifolium</italic> extract (SAE) for 60 days and then exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration of diazinon (2 mg/l) for 24 h. The biochemical assays was conducted in two times including at the end of feeding period and after 24 h exposure to diazinon. According to the results, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver remained unchanged (P&gt;0.01) during feeding period, while significantly increased in response to diazinon in control and fish fed 5 and 10 g/kg diet SAE (P&lt;0.01). The hepatic metabolic enzymes (AST: Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT: alanine aminotransferase, LDH: lactate dehydrogenase, CK: creatine kinase) showed no significant changes in all groups during feeding period, while these enzymes increased in Non-SAE supplemented fish and those fed 5 and 10 g/kg SAE after exposure to diazinon (P&lt;0.01). Although little elevations were observed in the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes (CAT: catalase, SOD: superoxide dismutase, GPx: Glutathione peroxidase) in fish fed SAE, these elevations were not significant (P&gt;0.01). After exposure to diazinon, antioxidant enzymes significantly decreased in control and fish fed 5 g/kg diet SAE, while the fish of 10 and 15 g/kg diet SAE treatments showed significant elevations (P&lt;0.01). The antioxidant-related genes (<italic>sod</italic>, <italic>cat</italic>, <italic>gpx</italic>) significantly expressed more in response to dietary SAE compared to control (P&lt;0.01). After exposure to diazinon, all groups showed significant elevations in antioxidant-related genes (P&lt;0.01). In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed the antioxidant enhancing effects of SAE at dietary levels of 10 and 15 g/kg diet, which this effect may be attributed to some antioxidant components in the chemical composition of the macro-algae or to the direct effect of SAE on antioxidant defence system of the fish.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Gene expression adjustment of inflammatory mechanisms in dairy cow mammary gland parenchyma during host defense against staphylococcihttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study was to identify differences in the expression of splice variants of the <italic>PRMT2, LTF</italic> and <italic>C4A</italic> genes in the mammary glands of healthy dairy cows and those infected with staphylococci. An expression study was conducted on 38 Polish Holstein-Friesian dairy cows who were removed from the herd owing to subclinical and chronic mastitic or reproductive issues. Two days before slaughter, milk samples were taken for microbiological analysis and examined for the presence of bacteria. The mammary gland parenchyma samples with a predominance of secretory tissue were taken; these were divided into three groups according to the health status of the mammary gland: H (without pathogenic bacteria in milk), CoNS (with coagulase-negative staphylococci in milk), and CoPS (with coagulase-positive staphylococci in milk). Two of the investigated genes, <italic>LTF</italic> and <italic>C4A</italic>, demonstrated variants unequivocally expressed in infected tissue. Two <italic>LTF</italic> gene variants were found to be associated with cow health status, and with the type of bacteria causing mastitis (CoPS or CoNS). In addition, the expression of C4A isoforms differed with regard to mastitis etiology groups. The comprehensive evaluation of <italic>PRMT2</italic> transcript suggested that the gene may also be involved in course of mastitis: two of four <italic>PRMT2</italic> transcripts showed increased expression in the mammary gland of the CoPS group compared to controls. The obtained results are important for the knowledge on the etiology of bovine mastitis. The effects of the identified mastitis-relevant splice variants need to be further explored on the protein level to verify the suitability of splice variants and recognize their contribution towards the disease phenotypes and course.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Fibrolytic enzymes increases fermentation losses and reduces fiber content of sorghum silagehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-0038<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fiber digestibility is a key-point of forage usage in ruminant production systems. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of fibrolytic enzyme blend on whole-plant sorghum silage fermentation profile, fermentative losses, chemical composition, in vitro degradation, and aerobic stability. It used fifty experimental silos (plastic bucket, 28 cm i.d. and 25 cm of height) in a blocked randomized design to evaluate the following fibrolytic enzyme levels: 0, 150, 300, 450, and 600 mL per ton. of dry matter (DM). Enzymes had 300 U/mL of xylanase and 300 U/mL of cellulase. Enzymes linearly increased acetic acid, branched-chain organic acids, and ethanol concentration of silage. Although there was no treatment effect on silage DM recovery over the ensiling process, enzyme levels linearly increased gas, effluent, and total losses. Intermediary levels of enzymes (from 312 to 342 mL/ton. DM) decreased fiber content (NDF and ADF), whereas improved NFC silage content. Besides, enzymes did not affect DM and NDF degradation and tended to linearly reduce acid detergent fiber in vitro degradation. The enzymes addition linearly decreased silage temperature after aerobic exposure. However, there was no treatment effect on silage pH after aerobic exposure neither during the time that silage remained with a temperature lower than 2 °C above environmental temperature. Thus, fibrolytic enzymes reduce fiber content, promote a heterolactic fermentation, and reduce silage temperature after aerobic exposure. However, it increases fermentative losses and has no positive effect on in vitro degradation and in the time of aerobic stability.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00The quality of duck meat – from the perspective of physical measurements and expert judgmenthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-0035<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between some physicochemical properties and organoleptic assessments of duck meat quality and expert assessment of the general appearance of raw breast and leg muscles. Body, carcass, breast and leg muscle weight were analysed. For both breast and leg muscles the following parameters were recorded: water holding capacity, thermal drip, colour lightness L*, electrical conductivity after 15 minutes and 24 hours <italic>post mortem,</italic> as well as four traits subject to expert organoleptic evaluation (general appearance, colour, odour and fatness). The dependence was evaluated using the Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression equations (the general appearance was treated as a dependent variable). Three sets of variables were considered as factors influencing the general appearance of the raw breast and leg muscles. First, the influence of jointly selected performance traits and physiochemical properties of meat was analysed. Next, the impact of only the second-mentioned group of discriminants was considered, and then the dependence on other organoleptic attributes. It was shown that for both muscle groups, the following have a significant effect on the general appearance: muscle weight (breast muscle p &lt; 0.0001, leg muscle p &lt; 0.0001) in the first set, electrical conductivity 15 minutes after slaughter (breast muscle p = 0.023, leg muscle p = 0.042) in the second, and colour (both muscle groups p &lt; 0.0001) in the third. Muscle weight, electrical conductivity 15 minutes <italic>post mortem</italic> and visually assessed colour can be used to make a preliminary assessment of the technological and culinary quality of duck meat. Moreover, measurement with a conductometer is an economical and fast method, possible to carry out in a slaughterhouse.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of higher plasma growth hormone levels on subclinical ketosis in postpartum Holstein cowshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-0034<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ketosis is a major metabolic disorder that can lead to huge economic losses in postpartum dairy cows by influencing milk production and reproduction performance. Therefore, it is very important to understand the characteristics and significance of plasma GH levels and dynamic changes in postpartum dairy cows for finding pathogenesis of subclinical ketosis (SK). The present study aimed to determine the role of growth hormone (GH) from the onset of SK to the fifth week postpartum and to explain the variations in GH, and metabolic markers namely, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and glucose (GLU) at early and later SK stages in postpartum Holstein cows. A 5-wk test and an intraday 12-h test were conducted in postpartum Holstein cows. Both tests were carried out every three hours from 10:00–22:00 for 7–14 days postpartum (12-h test: n = 16) to determine plasma concentrations of GH, BHBA, NEFA and GLU. The 5-wk test results showed that GH, BHBA and NEFA concentrations were significantly higher in the SK group during the five-weeks postpartum (p &lt; 0.01); GLU concentration was significantly lower in the SK group (p &lt; 0.01). Intraday 12-h test results revealed that the feeding time affected the plasma concentrations of GH, BHBA, NEFA and GLU. After 1-h of feeding time, GH concentrations decreased, while BHBA, NEFA and GLU concentrations increased. After 4-h of feeding time GH, BHBA and NEFA had the highest plasma concentrations, and GLU the lowest. In both experiments, GH was positively correlated with BHBA, NEFA, and negatively correlated with GLU. It can be suggested that GH has a potential role in development and aetiology of subclinical ketosis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluating the growth of genetically improved tilapia reared at different temperatureshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-0029<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to evaluate the growth and performance of genetically improved tilapia reared at different temperatures. Four hundred and eighty fingerlings of Genomar Supreme Tilapia, GST (8.39 ± 0.60 g) were equally separated into three indoor water recirculation systems maintained at 22, 26 and 30 ºC. Each of four tanks contained 500 liters with 40 fish per tank in natural photoperiod. The fish were fed ad libitum with the same feed for each growth phase, weighing the total feed supplied. After 30 min of feeding, leftover feed was collected, dried in an oven and weighed. Ten fish from each tank were weighed at days 1, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210. Survival, weight gain, feed conversion and feed intake in each period were determined. Fish reared at 30 ºC and 26 ºC showed a higher specific growth rate than that of fish reared at 22ºC (P≤0.05). Feed intake increased along temperature and feed conversion and was poorest in fish reared at 26ºC (P≤0.05). Final fish weight estimates at day 210 by the Gompertz model were 597.84, 819.26 and 1079.39 g for 22, 26 and 30 ºC, respectively. At 30 ºC, fish had a higher absolute growth rate (7.76 g day<sup>−1</sup>) and lower weight (459.30 g) and age (95.85 days) at the inflection point. Tilapia at 22 ºC had a higher weight (539.57 g) and age (197 days) and lower absolute growth rate (4.52 g day<sup>−1</sup>). It was concluded that GST tilapia can potentially improve aquaculture in all Brazilian regions based on different rearing temperatures.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Differences and changes: an evaluation of the genetic diversity of Arabian mares from Polish state studs born between 1996 and 2013https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-0033<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The goal of our study was to estimate genetic diversity of Arabian horses from Polish state studs which could have changed due to the extensive use of foreign sires in Polish breeding after 1989. The analysis focused on 1,388 Arabian mares born from 1996 to 2013 in the Białka, Janów Podlaski and Michałów studs. Basic parameters of pedigree, mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite analyses were considered in the study. In the pedigree analysis, changes in the gene pool over the years were noted through the considerable increase of contribution of new founders’ genes and the considerable decrease of inbreeding level. The microsatellite analysis confirmed progressive changes in the gene pool but, contrary to expectations, only three new microsatellite alleles were detected, and a decreased level of heterozygosity was observed. In turn, mtDNA analysis showed a stable genetic situation in the studs throughout the period analysed. The results of the analyses present a diverse picture of the population, which is clearly divided into the three subpopulations of Białka, Janów Podlaski and Michałów, although the pictures presented differed depending on the analytical methods used. Genetic differences among the studs should be considered a positive feature of the Polish population. In order to preserve the present level of population genetic diversity, changes in breeding policy are needed that aim to stop the loss of genes of the historical ancestors of Polish Arabian horses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of dietary halloysite supplementation on broiler chicken’s blood parameters, carcass and meat quality, and bone characteristics: a preliminary studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-0037<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the effect of halloysite supplementation to the complete diets for broiler chickens on selected blood parameters, carcass and organ characteristics, as well as bone and meat traits. The trial was conducted under experimental conditions in a large-scale poultry farm on 18,000 broiler chickens. The one-day broiler chicken Ross 308 chicks were randomly divided into two groups: control (C) and experimental (E) in an amount of 9,000 birds per group. In each group, chicks were separated into five pens (100 m2) with 1800 chicks per pen. The birds were fed granulated complete mixtures without (C group) or with halloysite (E group) distributed in an amount of 1% (based on fresh matter) from the 11 d of life. Analysis revealed that halloysite supplementation to the broiler diet at the level of 1% showed a trend (<italic>P</italic> = 0.056) towards higher final body weight, significantly improved carcass yield (<italic>P</italic> = 0.048), and reduced the relative weights of the liver and gizzard (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05). No differences (<italic>P</italic> &gt; 0.05) were observed either in terms of the physicochemical parameters of the broiler chickens’ breast muscles, except a significantly lower b* value of the colour parameter (<italic>P</italic> = 0.048). In turn, in the blood serum, the addition of 1% halloysite significantly decreased (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05) the content of triglycerides and the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein fraction, but did not affect (<italic>P</italic> &gt; 0.05) the high-density lipoprotein fraction, calcium, phosphorus or alkaline phosphate content. Tibia and femur characteristics (weight, length, relative bone weight, bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and breaking strength) were not affected (<italic>P</italic> &gt; 0.05) by the usage of halloysite. In conclusion, supplementation of broiler diet with halloysite in the amount of 1% had beneficial effects on the carcass yield and health status of the animals, without any adverse effect on the bone parameters or meat quality of the broiler chickens.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00New long-non coding RNAs related to fat deposition based on pig modelhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-0028<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Obesity is a problem in the last decades since the development of certain technologies has forced submission to a faster pace of life, resulting in nutritional changes. Domestic pigs are an excellent animal model in recognition of adiposity-related processes, corresponding to the size of individual organs, the distribution of body fat in the organism, and similar metabolism. The present study applied next-generation sequencing to identify adipose tissue (AT) transcriptomic signals related to increased fat content by identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including long-non coding RNAs in Złotnicka White pigs (n=16). Moreover, besides commonly used functional analysis, we applied the Freiburg RNA tool to predict DE lncRNA targets based on calculation hybridisation energy. And in addition, DE lncRNAs were recognized based on information available in databases. The obtained results show that closely 230 gene expression was found to be dependent on fat content, included 8 lncRNAs. The most interesting was that among identified DE lncRNAs was transcript corresponding to human MALAT1, which was previously considered in the obesity-related context. Moreover, it was identified that in <italic>ENSSSCG00000048394, ENSSSCG00000047210, ENSSSCG00000047442</italic> and <italic>ENSSSCG00000041577</italic> lncRNAs are contained repeat insertion domains of LncRNAs (RIDLs) considered as important gene expression regulatory elements, and <italic>ENSSSCG00000041577</italic> seems to be the host for mir1247(NR_031649.1). The analysis of energy hybridisation between DE lncRNAs and DEGs using the Freiburg IntaRNAv2 tool, including isoforms expressed in AT, showed that <italic>ENSSSCG00000047210</italic> lncRNA interacted with the highest number of DEGs and <italic>ENSSSCG00000047210</italic> expression was only correlated with positive fat-related DEGs. The functional analysis showed that down-regulated DEGs involved in ECM proteoglycan pathways could be under control of both positive and negative fat-related lncRNAs. The present study, using pigs as an animal model, expands our current knowledge of possible gene expression regulation by lncRNAs in fat tissue and indicates for <italic>MALAT1</italic> role in the fat deposition determination, which function is still often questioned or doubtful.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00 (IBRC-M 10,711) ameliorates the growth retardation, oxidative stress, and immunosuppression induced by malathion toxicity in goldfish ()https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-0032<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Probiotics can functionality improve fish wellbeing and are suggested as antioxidative agents to protect fish from xenobiotics toxicity. Herein, dietary <italic>Lactobacillus casei</italic> (IBRC-M 10,711) was included in the diets of goldfish (<italic>Carassius auratus</italic>) to protect against malathion toxicity. Fish (12.47 ± 0.06 g) were randomly allocated to six groups (triplicates), as follows: T1) control; T2) fish exposed to 50% of malathion 96 h LC<sub>50</sub>; T3) <italic>L. casei</italic> at 10<sup>6</sup> CFU/g diet; T4) <italic>L. casei</italic> at 10<sup>7</sup> CFU/g diet; T5) fish exposed to 50% of malathion 96 h LC<sub>50</sub> + <italic>L. casei</italic> at 10<sup>6</sup> CFU/g diet; T6) fish exposed to 50% of malathion 96 h LC<sub>50</sub> + <italic>L. casei</italic> at 10<sup>7</sup> CFU/g diet. After 60 days, goldfish fed T4 had the highest final body weight (FBW), weight gain (WG), and specific growth rate (SGR), and the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) among the groups (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05). However, the T2 group showed lower FBW, WG, and SGR and higher FCR than fish in T1 (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05). Fish in the T4 group had the highest blood total proteins, albumin, and globulin, while fish in T2 had the lowest levels (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05). Fish in the group T2 had the highest triglycerides, cholesterol, cortisol, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in the blood, while fish fed T4 had the lowest values (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) showed the highest activities in T3 and T4 groups, and the lowest SOD was seen in the T2 group, whereas the lowest CAT was seen in the T2, T5, and T6 groups (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05). Fish in the T5 and T6 groups had higher glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities than fish in T1 and T2 groups but T3 and T4 groups showed the highest values (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05). T2 group had the highest malondialdehyde (MDA) level, while T3 and T4 groups had the lowest MDA level (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05). Blood immunoglobulin (Ig) and lysozyme activity were significantly higher in T3 and T4 groups and lower in the T2 group than in the control (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05). The alternative complement pathway (ACH<sub>50</sub>) was significantly higher in T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6 groups than in the T1 group (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05). Skin mucus Ig was significantly higher in T3 and T4 groups and lower in the T2 group than in the control (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05). The highest lysozyme activity, protease, and ACH<sub>50</sub> in the skin mucus samples were in the T4 group, while the lowest values were in the T2 group (P &lt; 0.05). In conclusion, dietary <italic>L. casei</italic> protects goldfish from malathion-induced growth retardation, oxidative stress, and immunosuppression.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1