rss_2.0Life Sciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Life Scienceshttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/LFhttps://www.sciendo.comLife Sciences Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/Life_Sciences.jpg700700Ecological and coenotic features of the Syrovatka river basin in the Emerald network of the Sumy region, Ukrainehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/environ-2022-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A number of studies were undertaken in the territory of the “Syrovatka river basin of the Emerald Network of Ukraine (UA0000428 Syrovatka river basin). Based on the data gathered from field work surveys of the area, the characteristics of the habitats (C1.222, C1.224, C1.32, C1.33, C2.33+, С2.34, C3.4, C3.51, D5.2, E1.2, E2.2, E3.4, E5.4, F3.247, F9.1+G1.11, G1.21+G1.41, G1.A1, G1.7, G1.8, G1.A4) are presented according to the area covered and their ecological features. Phytosociological characteristics of habitats were given. As a result of the analysis of the distribution of certain species of sozophytes, a brief description of the status of the identified populations was presented. Populations of vascular plant species protected in Europe (<italic>Ostericum palustre, Iris hungarica)</italic>, Ukraine (<italic>Epipactis helleborine, Lilium martagon, Platanthera bifolia</italic>), and at the regional level (<italic>Carpinus betulus</italic>, <italic>Campanula persicifolia</italic>, <italic>Calla palustris</italic>, <italic>Dryopteris cristata</italic>, <italic>Inula helenium</italic>, <italic>Utricularia vulgaris</italic>) have been studied in detail. The main threats to the existence of the natural complex of this area, which may appear in the situation of increasing economic impact are drainage and ploughing of floodplains, terracing, and afforestation of meadow-steppe slopes of the ravine. The typological characteristics of artificial and natural forest plantations of the territory were described based on the generalization of details gathered from information on their local management.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Relationship between densification and NDVI loss. A study using the Google Earth Engine at local scalehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/environ-2022-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Latin American cities are amongst those with the highest rates of urbanization in the world. This process has involved their territorial expansion as well as the densification of some of its neighborhoods, in mainly central areas. This is the case of the city of Santiago del Estero (Argentina) that increased its population by 33% between 1991 and 2010 with the consequent transformations of the local space. In this context, this study analyzes the evolution of vegetated areas and densification of the central area of the city using satellite data. We analyzed two indices: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and Urban Index (UI) time-series data, for the 1992–2011 year period, using the Google Earth Engine for processing Landsat 5 TM images. We found that the NDVI showed a decreasing trend in the timelapse under consideration, while the UI performance registered the opposite trend. The mean NDVI decreased from 0.161 (1992) to 0.103 (2011) while the UI mean increased from 0.003 to 0.036 in the same timelapse. Further, the NDVI has a strong negative correlation with UI (R-squared = -0.862). The results are consistent with the census information that recorded an important demographic and housing growth for the entire city in this period.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Observed climate trends, perceived impacts and community adaptation practices in Côte d’Ivoirehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/environ-2022-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Climate change is a serious threat to local communities in West Africa. This study evaluated climatic trends and the perceptions of farmers to climate change in central Côte d’Ivoire. We surveyed 259 households across three agro-ecological zones. The knowledge of farmers about climate change was compared to observed trends of various climatic parameters from meteorological records (1973-2016). Results from trend analysis and descriptive analysis showed that the minimum, maximum and mean temperatures and rainfall showed a significant upward trend in all ecoregions. The average temperature and amount of rainfall increased by 3.2% (0.89°C) and 166.58% (645.5 mm) respectively over the 44 years. Local farmers perceived an increasing trend in temperature (all respondents) and a decreasing trend in rainfall (91.51%). Most of the respondents identified deforestation (76.83%), natural climate variation (50.97%) and wildfires (31.27%) as the main causes of these climatic disturbances, which induced plant dieback (92.66%), poor crop growth (59.46%) and crop loss (20.46%). The impacts on people and their assets encompassed a decrease in household income (63.71%), demolition of roofs (44..4%) and walls (43.91%) of houses, the scarcity of water points (39.38%) and the emergence of new diseases (30.89%). These climatic disturbances resulted in specific endogenous on-farm and off-farm strategies to adapt to the impacts of observed changes on their livelihoods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Societal perception on environmental and socio-economic implications of (Hemsl.) A. Gray invasion in an Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspothttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/environ-2022-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Tithonia diversifolia</italic> (Hemsl.) A. Gray is an emerging and little studied plant invader in North East India, an Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. Identifying the impacts of its invasiveness in terms of both harmful and economically beneficial facets is required for the formulation and implementation of sustainable management options. An environmental and socio-economic implication survey through the pragmatic questionnaire method is a useful approach to explicitly elucidate the holistic influence of <italic>T. diversifolia</italic> on ecosystem resilience. The interaction of <italic>T. diversifolia</italic> with the local people of Mizoram was assessed in this study in terms of its effects on their livelihoods, socio-economic, and ecological factors. Results of the survey in relation to agricultural implications revealed that 42.68% of the respondents opined that the dried litter of <italic>T. diversifolia</italic> can improve soil fertility. Also, 63.41% people during their interview perceived <italic>T. diversifolia</italic> as an effective tool to prevent. However, 70.73% of rural people did not consider <italic>T. diversifolia</italic> to be a good source of livelihood for income generation or socio-economic status. Since, the respondents were not aware of chemical and biological control measures to regulate the spread of invasive alien plant species, physical methods such as slashing (46.34%), burning (13.41%), chopping and burning (29.27%) were widely applied for the control and management of invaded areas of <italic>T. diversifolia</italic> at selected study sites. Thus, the survey gave a brief idea to the other local people, farmers, and agriculturists of Mizoram to control the invasive spread of <italic>T. diversifolia</italic> in forestry and agroforestry systems. Also, other Himalayan landscapes infested with <italic>T. diversifolia</italic> can generate awareness and identify the sustainable strategy for their management to conserve the indigenous biodiversity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Anthropogenic and natural factors influencing African World Heritage siteshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/environ-2022-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents anthropogenic and natural factors influencing African World Heritage sites. The analysis was based on the data contained in the Conservation Outlook Assessments for 2020, including all sites on the African continent where natural values are protected, i.e., both natural (38) and mixed sites – natural and cultural (6). The assessment of current and potential threats and effectiveness of protection and management included 57 items, each of which was analyzed concerning all African properties. The results show that the African World Heritage sites are subject to various pressures from human activity and natural factors. The most common current threat is hunting and trapping, found in 33 sites. The spread of invasive (alien) species in 21 areas is second. Common threats (reported in 15-17 sites) include livestock farming and grazing, logging and wood collecting, fires, tourism, mining, and crops. The most frequently mentioned potential threats are mining, oil/gas exploration, construction of dams, and various effects of climate change – droughts, flooding, temperature extremes, and habitat shifting. The effectiveness of protection and management is not satisfactory. There are serious concerns related to law enforcement, sustainable finance, staff capacity, training, and development. Some concerns are directed to monitoring, tourism and visitation management, boundaries, and effectiveness of the management system. Results of a review show that, of all natural and mixed World Heritage sites in Africa for three areas, the conservation outlook is assessed as good, 15 – good with some concerns, 14 – significant concerns, and 12 – critical. In 2020, as many as 11 “in danger” sites were listed in Africa. At that time, there were 17 sites around the World in danger, i.e. as many as 70% of them were in Africa.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Video adaptive watermark embedding and detection algorithm based on phase function equationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amns.2022.2.0133<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In order to improve the video watermark embedding strength and balance the transparency of the watermark system, this paper proposes a combination of all phase Biorthogonal Transform and watermark embedding to complete the experiment. Firstly, the all phase biorthogonal transform is described. Referring to the construction process of APBT, combined with APDF and DST, a new all phase biorthogonal transform, all phase discrete sinusoidal biorthogonal transform (APDSBT), is proposed. This paper makes full use of MPEG-2 compression format to embed watermark directly in DCT domain. The low-frequency coefficients in the DCT block of the brightness space of I frame are selected as the watermark embedding space. The brightness component of each image block is transformed by two-dimensional DCT in the unit of 8×8 image blocks. By introducing the idea of energy receiver into the detection of digital watermark, the following correlation detector can be obtained. Implemented with MATIAB and VC + +. In the experiment, the foreman video test sequence is used as the watermark carrier, and the copyright logo image designed by ourselves is used as the watermark image to test the video watermarking system. The results show that when the coding rate is 3Mvps, the accuracy of each plane is 100%, 98.48%, 98.12% and 96.27% respectively. When the coding rate is 2.6Mvps, the accuracy of each plane is 100%, 96.38%, 94.87% and 95.21% respectively. This algorithm selects the frame of video to embed watermark. On the premise of ensuring video quality, this algorithm is robust to common video watermark attacks (MPEG compression, frame loss, frame clipping and frame rearrangement).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Research on Resonance Properties of Semantic Wave Fractal Fractals Based on Quantitative Analysis of English Corpushttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amns.2022.2.0095<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Aiming at the increasing research demand of the resonance properties of semantic waves in quantitative analysis of English corpus, this paper constructs a three-dimensional integrated fractal model of semantic waves, and extends the transformation of semantic waves in system functional linguistics to the lexical grammar level. The in-depth analysis provides objective and explicit analysis and identification criteria for the study of semantic waves in the legalized code theory. Through the experimental method, the type resonance characteristics between different types of semantic waves in English popular science discourses are investigated. The experimental results show that the frequency of peaks and troughs varies from 2 to 153 based on different characters, and the construction of different types of semantic waves presents the legalized communication process of knowledge popularization, embodies the social education essence of popular science practice, and is the basis of popular science discourse. The legal representation of persuasive and informative discourse features in the process of knowledge construction provides a reference standard.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00A Hybrid Computational Intelligence Method of Newton's Method and Genetic Algorithm for Solving Compatible Nonlinear Equationshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amns.2022.2.0161<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In order to solve the system of compatible nonlinear equations, the author proposes a hybrid computational intelligence method of Newton's method and genetic algorithm. First, the Quasi-Newton Methods (QN) method is given. Aiming at the local convergence of the algorithm, it is easy to cause the solution to fail. By embedding the QN operator in the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and defining the appropriate fitness, thus, a hybrid computational intelligence algorithm of CNLE is obtained that combines the advantages of GA and QN method, which has both faster convergence and higher probability of solving. Experimental results show that: The value of the selection probability <italic>p<sub>n</sub></italic> of the QN operator also directly affects the solution efficiency. Generally speaking, for strong nonlinear CNLE composed of multimodal functions, <italic>p<sub>n</sub></italic> can be larger; For weakly nonlinear CNLE composed of functions with fewer extreme points and stronger monotonicity, <italic>p<sub>n</sub></italic> can be smaller. It is demonstrated that the computational results show that this method significantly outperforms the GA and QN methods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Financial customer classification by combined modelhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amns.2021.2.00198<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper explores the pros and cons of different algorithm models on the same selection problem, and then uses the combined prediction theory to obtain a new combined prediction model to explore its prediction accuracy. The actual problem to be solved is to help financial institutions to scientifically classify customers who choose financial products. We select the bank data set in the UCI database, which is derived from the survey data of a customer conducted by a financial institution in Portugal for a wealth management product. Decision tree C5.0 algorithm, naive Bayes classification algorithm and binary logit model are individually used to carry out a single model of empirical research on financial product customer classification. Through the empirical analysis of the five combination models, it is concluded that in the model that uses the least squares weighting method to determine the weight, the weight appears negative, which does not conform to the actual situation. The model that is based on the least squares weighting method and the model that is based on the simple weighting method are excluded. In contrast, the arithmetic mean weighted model is better than the reciprocal variance weighted model and the reciprocal mean square model. The accuracy reaches 89.91%, which is 0.43% higher than the accuracy of a single model. It can be concluded that the model that is based on the arithmetic average weighting is a better combination forecasting model.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00The Technical Research on the Assessment of Network Security Situation Based on D-S Evidence Theoryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amns.2022.2.0105<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>With the increasing importance of network security, more attention is paid to the research on network security situation awareness, while network security situation assessment is the core of situation awareness. The existing situation assessment technology has many problems, such as unitary methodology, large-scale subjective factors and so on, affecting the accuracy of situation assessment. Combined with the traditional network security technology, this paper sets up a three-layer evaluation index system, and puts forward an overall network security situation evaluation model based on hidden Markov model, PageRank algorithm and D-S evidence theory, through which, the overall situation is evaluated after using different fusion algorithms in different fusion stages. The simulation result shows that the above assessment method is more accurate and efficient than the method using single model.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Query Translation Optimization and Mathematical Modeling for English-Chinese Cross-Language Information Retrievalhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amns.2022.2.0166<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The basic theory of the neural network model used in this research is particle swarm optimization, applied to English-Chinese translation retrieval and model optimization. The decoded form obtains the translation task sequence. This topic uses TensorFlow to complete the construction of the translation system. This research solves the typical lack of semantic information in the hierarchical model. The demonstration of examples shows that the neural network model based on particle swarm optimization can significantly improve the quality of machine translation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Enterprise financial strategy and performance management analysis based on principal component analysishttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amns.2022.2.0114<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Under the condition of social and economic growth rate continues to slow down, enterprises put forward environmental protection policies from the perspective of long-term development of resource construction, and enterprises will face more and more competitive pressure. If an enterprise wants to break through its own development bottleneck and become one of the enterprises drafting national standards in the industry, it must have a comprehensive understanding of its financial strategy and performance management program. This paper studies using the principal component analysis (pca), after consulting relevant financial performance evaluation literature, based on an enterprise's financial performance data for principal component analysis, will have access to financial performance evaluation results ranking and scoring, not only can be found that there were problems, also will use modern management theory to replace the traditional financial performance evaluation methods, Give priority to scientific and comprehensive financial indicators for performance evaluation, so as to put forward effective solutions to help enterprises to clarify their own competitive pressure and market positioning.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Research on deformation monitoring of tunnel engineering based on 3D laser scanninghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amns.2021.2.00204<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper mainly studies the deformation monitoring of tunnel engineering based on 3D laser scanning. First, the principle and characteristics of 3D laser scanning technology are expounded, which lays a theoretical foundation for the research. Then, the flow and main technologies of tunnel engineering deformation monitoring are analysed. Among them, the general process includes four stages: preliminary preparation, point cloud data capture, point cloud data processing and deformation analysis. The main technologies include point and data pre-processing technology and tunnel axis fitting. Finally, combined with the case, deformation monitoring is implemented to analyse the deformation of the tunnel in detail.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-15T00:00:00.000+00:00CO as Resource. Society’s Willingness to Pay Analysishttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/rtuect-2022-0061<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Climate change, including the efficient management of CO<sub>2</sub> emissions, is considered a significant environmental challenge today. Carbon dioxide is still considered an undesirable by-product that must be eliminated. However, it can be turned into a source of income. By using the latest technologies of CO<sub>2</sub> capturing and/or utilization, valuable products with high added value can be created. For more effective analysis of the opportunities to use CO<sub>2</sub> in Latvia, it is necessary to find out the opinion of both the public and the industrial sector. The prospects of such technologies in the local market soon depend on the desire and opportunities of the market to turn waste into a profitable resource. This paper aims to determine the Latvian manufacturer’s and society’s willingness to pay and make changes in CO<sub>2</sub> utilization. The analysis of the conducted survey will give an insight into the opinion of these significant market players in Latvian case.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Anthropogenic Factors Affecting the Vegetation Dynamics in the Arid Middle Easthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/rtuect-2022-0060<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The spatiotemporal variability of vegetation in the Middle East was investigated for the period 2001–2019 using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 16-day/500 m composites of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI; MOD13A1). The results reveal a strong increase in NDVI coverage in the Middle East during the study period (<italic>R</italic> = 0.75, <italic>p</italic>-value = 0.05). In Egypt, the annual coverage exhibits the strongest positive trend (<italic>R</italic> = 0.99, <italic>p</italic>-value = 0.05). In Turkey, both the vegetation coverage and density increased from 2001 to 2019, which can be attributed to the construction of some of the biggest dams in the Middle East, such as the Atatürk and Ilisu dams. Significant increases in the annual coverage and maximum and average NDVI in Saudi Arabia are due to farming in the northern part of the country for which groundwater and desalinated seawater are used. The results of this study suggest that one of the main factors affecting vegetation coverage in the Middle East are governmental policies. These policies could lead to an increase in vegetation coverage in some countries such as Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Iran, and Turkey.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Definition of Indicators for Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis of COVID-19 Emergency Response and Health System Resilience in Italyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/rtuect-2022-0059<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The 30 January 2020 the World Health Organization declared the beginning of a global pandemic emergency. Italy was among the first European Countries to be severely impacted by the COVID-19 virus. This short communication describes the organisation of a project investigating different responses to the pandemics, studying the assessment of local and national Health Systems resilience to a biologic hazard such is a Coronavirus. Preliminary results highlighted a fragmented response to the epidemics across the Italian territory probably connected to different public health policies or local emergency management models. The implementation of a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis is provided to study which are the main important indicators to be considered in the pandemic management. The analysis highlights the successful and effective measures for pandemic planning considering different systems: health, economic, political, socio-psychological, demographic, and emergency.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Knowledge and attitudes towards addiction to psychoactive substances in professional groups of health care workers, teachers and the police in the Lubuskie Voivodeshiphttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cpp-2022-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Drug addiction is a common phenomenon that increases with the progress of the European integration process. Professional help to people addicted and under the influence of drugs or other psychoactive substances should be provided primarily by health care institutions. An important and interesting issue seems to be the assessment of how people who have the most frequent contact with addicts are prepared to provide help, what is their knowledge and attitude to the phenomenon of drug addiction and to people addicted to psychoactive substances. The material for the research was a questionnaire for people who have contact and / or work professionally with people addicted to psychoactive substances. A total number of 253 people who had professional contact with people addicted to psychoactive substances were examined, including 102 men and 151 women. The respondents most often acquired knowledge in the field of drug addiction through the mass media. The exception is the professional group of doctors, which was the only one to refer to professional literature. Contact with drug addicts was not worried by 68.6% of doctors, 68.4% of policemen, 45.9% of nurses and only 39.0% of teachers. Fear may be caused mainly by possible aggressive behavior, which is feared by 49.8% of the respondents, including 58.3% of women and 37.2% of men. When it comes to 90.1% of respondents, they believe that the cause of aggression is the lack of control over their emotions. The results of the work can be helpful in creating new, satisfying solutions to difficult situations and developing cooperation characterized by empathy and acceptance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00The development of the Metabolic-associated Fatty Liver Disease during pharmacotherapy of mental disorders - a reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cpp-2022-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Metabolic-associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD) is a term for Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) that highlights its association with components of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). MAFLD is becoming a clinically significant problem due to its increasing role in the pathogenesis of cryptogenic cirrhosis of the liver.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods:</bold> The resulting work is a review of the most important information on the risk of MAFLD development in the context of the use of particular groups of psychotropic drugs. The study presents the epidemiology, with particular emphasis on the population of psychiatric patients, pathophysiology and scientific reports analyzing the effect of the psychotropic medications on MAFLD development.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The drugs that can have the greatest impact on the development of MAFLD are atypical antipsychotics, especially olanzapine, and mood stabilizers (MS) - valproic acid (VPA). Their effect is indirect, mainly through dysregulation of organism’s carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The population of psychiatric patients is particularly vulnerable to the development of MAFLD. At the root of this disorder lies the specificity of mental disorders, improper dietary habits, low level of physical activity and tendency to addictions. Also, the negative impact of the psychotropic drugs on the systemic metabolism indirectly contributes to the development of MAFLD. In order to prevent fatty liver disease, it is necessary to monitor metabolic and liver parameters regularly, and patients should be screened by ultrasound examination of the liver. There are also important preventive actions from the medical professionals, including education of patients and sensitizing to healthy lifestyle.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparative studies of the macro- and microstructures of stump-root wood and stemwoodhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ffp-2022-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>It is found that the existing problem of wood resources can be partially solved by attracting additional reserves, in particular, stump-root wood (SRW). In order to apply SRW in woodworking and to fill the scientific base with indicators of the macro- and microstructures of the stump-root systems of individual species, studies were carried out on the main characteristics that are decisive for using composite materials in the industrial production. Based on the study results, it was found that there are differences in the internal structure between SRW and stemwood (SW). It was found that in all species, the width of annual rings in the SRW was greater than that in the SW, in particular, in pine (<italic>Pinus sylvestris</italic> L.) – by 84.62%; in spruce (<italic>Picea abies</italic> Karst.) – by 73.68%; in fir (<italic>Abies alba</italic>) – by 93.75%; in aspen (<italic>Populus tremula</italic> L.) – by 35.71% and in birch (<italic>Betula pendula</italic> Roth.) – by 105.00%. It has been found that the content of late wood in the SRW of coniferous tree species is less than that in the SW, on average by 20–25%, and the number of annual rings per 1 cm in the SRW is 40–52% less than in the SW. Differences in the microscopic structure between SRW and SW are revealed, which consist in the difference in the size of tracheids in softwoods and of vessels and fibres of libriform in hardwoods. It was found that the transverse dimensions of early tracheids in the SRW were larger than in the SW, in particular, in the radial direction by 19–33% and in the tangential direction by no more than 15%, and the interval of dimensions in the radial direction was 1.5–2.5. It was found that the early tracheids of root wood had thinner walls (by 19–28%) and a larger internal cavity (by 15–25%) compared to similar elements of SW. It was revealed that the diameters of vessels and fibres of libriform in SRW are greater than in SW, in particular, in aspen (<italic>Populus tremula</italic> L.) – by 20.41% for vessels and by 12.95% for libriform fibres and in birch (<italic>Betula pendula</italic> Roth.) – by 20.69% for vessels and by 18.41% for libriform fibres. The practical significance of the studies lies in the fact that the obtained characteristics of the structural components of the SRW can be used to predict the strength indicators of composite materials.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Understanding forest land conversion for agriculture in a developing country context: An application of the theory of planned behaviour among a cohort of Nigerian farmershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ffp-2022-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Natural and forest-rich ecosystems are determinants of environmental sustainability, which are threatened by forest land conversion for agricultural purposes, especially in less-developed contexts. Moreover, human behaviour is central to achieving the much desired ecologically balanced environment. Hence, a partly novel model informed by the theory of planned behaviour was used in the examination of forest land conversion for agricultural purposes.</p> <p>The study design was a cross-sectional survey targeted at a group of farmers of southwestern Nigeria. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire among 320 randomly selected crop farmers. Independent samples <italic>t</italic> test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to test the significance of difference in respondents' forest conversion behaviour across subgroups of gender and age/education, respectively. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to identify the determinants of forest conversion behaviour.</p> <p>Results showed that 87.8% of respondents had ever engaged in forest conversion. Gender and education had no significant effect on forest conversion behaviour (<italic>p</italic> &gt; 0.05), but age did (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05). Attitude was the best determinant (β = 0.289, <italic>r</italic> = 0.510, <italic>R</italic><sup>2</sup> = 0.260, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001), subjective norm was better (β = 0.257, <italic>r</italic> = 0.496, <italic>R</italic><sup>2</sup> = 0.055, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001), while perceived behavioural control was good (β = 0.131, <italic>r</italic> = 0.398, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001, <italic>R</italic><sup>2</sup> = 0.012, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.005). The three variables correlated with intention by a degree of 57.2% (multiple <italic>R</italic> = 0.572), while they explained 32.7% of the variance in intention (<italic>R</italic><sup>2</sup> =0.327). Intention was also found to be a significant determinant of behaviour (β = 0.222, <italic>r</italic> = 0.222, <italic>R</italic><sup>2</sup> = 0.049, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001).</p> <p>Middle age predisposes to, whereas younger and older age protects against greater extent of forest conversion. The partly novel model derived from the theory of planned behaviour proves the likely viability of the pursuit of socio-psychologically predicated interventions to enthrone forest conservation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-22T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1