rss_2.0Life Sciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Life Scienceshttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/LFhttps://www.sciendo.comLife Sciences Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/Life_Sciences.jpg700700Molecular microbiological characteristics of gingival pockets in the periodontal diseases of dogshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jvetres-2023-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0005_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Canine periodontitis results among other factors from a disturbed balance of dental plaque microflora and an inadequate host inflammatory response to a stimulus. This investigation sought to identify microorganisms associated with canine periodontitis.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0005_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Microbiological analysis was undertaken of gingival pockets in an experimental group of 36 dogs with periodontal diseases. Swabs were collected with the use of Pet Test (MIP Pharma, Berlin, Germany) from patients with gingival pockets deeper than 5 mm. Samples were aggregated and placed in separate shipping containers with the Pet Test kit.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0005_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Identification was made of the most common microorganisms, <italic>e.g</italic>. <italic>Porphyromonas gingivalis</italic>, <italic>Treponema denticola</italic> and <italic>Prevotella intermedia</italic>. The red complex constituted the largest proportion of all analysed organisms (84.26%). <italic>Capnocytophaga gingivalis</italic> was isolated from 33 dogs, <italic>Peptostreptococcus micros</italic> from 32 dogs, <italic>Fusobacterium nucleatum</italic> from 29 animals and <italic>P. intermedia</italic> from 20.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0005_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The highest percentage of pathogens was supplied by <italic>P. gingivalis</italic> (61%). It is thought that dogs acquire them by means of cross-species transmission. The inter-study variability of results may depend not only on the method of periopathogen detection, but also on environmental factors, host immune status or genetic background. Depending on the state of periodontal disease, patients show varied microbiological profiles of the gingival pockets.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jvetres-2023-00052023-02-07T00:00:00.000+00:00 Koch subsp. (Poech) Dostál, novelty for the flora of Slovenia and the Dinaric Alpshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hacq-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In Govci under Mt. Poldanovec above the Trebuša Valley we found a new locality of southeastern-Alpine (Alpic) endemic <italic>Spiraea decumbens</italic> subsp. <italic>tomentosa</italic>, which is new to the flora of Slovenia and the Dinaric Alps. Its closest known localities are in the western Julian Prealps in Northeastern Italy. A small population of several ten shrublets occurs at elevations of about 570 m in shady, almost vertical dolomite rocks, in a stand of the endemic association <italic>Phyteumato columnae-Primuletum carniolicae.</italic> Despite a very small population we assume there are other localities in this area, where numerous gorges are very difficult to acces and have therefore not yet been sufficiently studied.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hacq-2022-00032023-02-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Post-harvesting late summer-autumn weed vegetation in small size arable fields in Veneto: new insights into root crop communities in North East Italyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hacq-2022-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A research was conducted in the Veneto region (NE-Italy) inside kitchen gardens and potato fields of outer pre-Alps, and in asparagus fields on the low Po plain near the Adriatic coast, in late summer-autumn after harvesting. Original vegetation-plot records were compared with historic and recent materials from Italy, especially N-Italy, and with comparable associations from Central and South-Eastern Europe, to ensure a consistent syntaxonomical frame of this highly dynamic vegetation.</p> <p>At the same time it was possible to shed light on the actual occurrence of past coenoses, cited by Italian authors for the Po plain. The analysis not only confirmed the occurrence of <italic>Echinochloo-Setarietum pumilae</italic> in north-eastern Italian territories, but also showed that it was more extensive than previously thought.</p> <p>It also confirmed the persistence of <italic>Panico-Polygonetum persicariae</italic>. The historical presence of <italic>Veronico-Lamietum hybridi</italic> occurring in pre-Alps and Dolomites needs confirmation. Further regional-scale investigations of summer crop weed vegetation appear necessary.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hacq-2022-00092023-02-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Pollen limitation failing reproductive success in selected animal pollinated trees of tropical moist deciduous forest of north-eastern hill region, Indiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hacq-2022-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to estimate reproductive effort and success in tropical trees and to examine the effect of pollen limitation on reproductive success. Pollen limitation was assessed through pollen supplementation experiment to contrast the open pollination treatment. The taxa selected were <italic>Bombax ceiba, Erythrina stricta</italic> (ornithophilous trees), <italic>Lagerstroemia speciosa, Mesua ferrea</italic> and <italic>Schima wallichii</italic> (entomophilous trees). Index of pollen limitation was highest in <italic>Bombax ceiba</italic> and <italic>Erythrina stricta</italic> (both self-incompatible species). The remaining three species were partially self-incompatible with favouring selfing in <italic>Lagerstroemia speciosa</italic> and <italic>Mesua ferrea</italic> and supporting outcrossing in <italic>Schima wallichii</italic>. Therefore, the high index of pollen limitation in <italic>Bombax ceiba</italic> and <italic>Erythrina stricta</italic> might be due to the effect of either lacking quality pollen or lacking bird pollinators. All five species produce a large amount of pollen at individual tree level in the order of 108 (<italic>Erythrina stricta</italic>) to 1010 (<italic>Mesua ferrea</italic>). Fruit and seed set following pollen supplementation were higher than the open pollination (as control) in all studied species. Pollen limitation in this study is likely associated with the effectiveness of pollinator and their frequency, as all the studied species had produced ample pollen at tree crown level which ultimately leads to pollinator resource limitation in tropical trees.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hacq-2022-00142023-02-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Vegetation of the coastal dunes and wetland of Schinias National Park (NE Attica, Sterea Ellas, Greece)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hacq-2022-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The vegetation developing on the coastal sand dunes and wetland of Schinias National Park, a Natura 2000 Site, was studied following the Braun-Blanquet method. Vegetation units were delimited using cluster analysis and by applying the fidelity measure; the phi-coefficient was used for the definition of diagnostic species. The vegetation types distinguished (twenty associations, two sub-associations and thirteen communities not assigned formal rank), which belong to 18 alliances, 16 orders and 12 classes, are discussed and presented in phytosociological tables. Among them <italic>Mathiolo tricuspidatae</italic>-<italic>Anthemidetum tomentosae</italic>, <italic>Pistacio lentisci-Pinetum halepensis pinetosum pineae</italic>, <italic>Puccinellio festuciformis</italic>-<italic>Aeluropetum litoralis cressetosum creticae</italic> and <italic>Tamaricetum tetrandrae</italic> are described for the first time. The vegetation types recognized in the study area are linked to twelve EUNIS habitat types, nine of which are related to 13 Annex I habitat types (Directive 92/43/EEC), and one to a habitat type of national interest (72A0). One Annex I habitat type occurring in the study area has scattered presence in the Natura 2000 network in Greece (1420), two are infrequent (2190, 2260), two are rare (2230, 2270) and three are priority habitat types (1150, 2250, 2270).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hacq-2022-00132023-02-07T00:00:00.000+00:00 × ( × . ; ), a new hybrid for the flora of Ukrainehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hacq-2022-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There are 96 species of the genus <italic>Carex</italic> (Cyperaceae) known in the flora of Ukraine, but so far there are no data about its hybrids for the country yet. However, the first one, <italic>C. × takhtadjanii</italic> [<italic>C. diluta</italic> × <italic>C. distans</italic>], was discovered in Starobilsk town (Luhansk region) during a field investigation in 2021. Detailed information about this floristic finding with the description of morphological characters of this hybrid and its habitat is given. Also a map with known locations of <italic>C. × takhtadjanii</italic> around the world is compiled, as well as the main morphological differences between this hybrid and its parental species are reported.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hacq-2022-00112023-02-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Phenotypic diversity of natural populations of an endemic Moroccan plant ( O. Berg)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hacq-2022-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The <italic>Euphorbia resinifera</italic> is melliferous and medicinal plant and one of the endemic species of Moroccan Atlas Mountains. It is very well known for its honey of high nutritional and therapeutic quality. The objective of our study is to characterize and evaluate the phenotypic variation of this spontaneous species. Seventeen qualitative and quantitative morphological characters related to the bush, stem, spine, flower, and fruit of the plant were used to assess the morphological variability of twelve natural populations collected from its geographical range in Morocco. The results of the analysis of variance showed significant differences between the studied populations for the most examined traits reflecting the existence of a high phenotypic variability within this species. The principal component analysis showed that <italic>E. resinifera</italic> populations were clustered in three distinct groups not related to mountain range type. The results highlight a high phenotypic diversity within studied populations of this species in Morocco. This work aims to study the phenotypic variability of <italic>E. resinifera</italic> to delineate conservation strategies and also to establish forms of rational economic exploitation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hacq-2022-00152023-02-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Diagnostic micromorphological features of leaf surface of selected species of the genus L. (Asteraceae)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hacq-2022-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The leaves of different species of the genus <italic>Artemisia</italic> show considerable inner and external structural diversity. This paper presents a comparative study of the micromorphological features of leaf surface for seven species from different regions of Ukraine: <italic>A. absinthium</italic> L., <italic>A. annua</italic> L., <italic>A. dracunculus</italic> L., <italic>A. marschalliana</italic> Spreng., <italic>A. vulgaris</italic> L., <italic>A. argyi</italic> H.Lév. &amp; Vaniot, and <italic>A. verlotiorum</italic> Lamotte. The vegetative organs of these plants have potentially significant value as medicinal raw materials. This study was carried out using both light and scanning electron microscopy. The main diagnostic characteristics for each species – in terms of form and structure of epidermal cells, stomata, and trichomes (glandular and non-glandular) – were described and illustrated. Using combinations of selected qualitative micromorphological characteristics of the investigated species of <italic>Artemisia,</italic> it is possible to detect the species identity of these raw materials.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hacq-2022-00122023-02-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Studies on the genus (Chenopodiaceae) in Italy VII. and https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hacq-2022-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A population of <italic>Atriplex micrantha</italic> subsp. <italic>micrantha</italic> was found in Valle d’Aosta region representing the first north-western Italian record and the second one at national level. The newly found population (about 100 individuals) covers an area of about 200 m<sup>2</sup>, and grows on uncultivated and saline lands at 950 m. Despite the inland locality (the species naturally grows in saline places), its occurrence is probably linked to the use of salt-spreading vehicles. Concerning <italic>A. oblongifolia</italic>, only one Italian record was published up to now (in 1898 in Emilia-Romagna region) but neither any herbarium specimen was traced nor plants were discovered after field surveys. Finally, we studied in detail the types of <italic>A. micrantha</italic> subsp. <italic>micrantha</italic>, <italic>A. oblongifolia</italic>, and <italic>A. heterosperma</italic>. Lectotypes were designated for <italic>A. micrantha</italic> and <italic>A. oblongifolia</italic> (Ledebour’s and Waldstein &amp; Kitaibel’s illustrations), whereas we correct Schwarz’s typification for <italic>A. heterosperma</italic> (Art. 9.10 ICN).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hacq-2022-00102023-02-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Chemical composition, whey protein profile, and fatty acid profile of milk from Sokólski horses in relation to Polish Halfbred horseshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-0087<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study was carried out on milk from cold-blooded Sokólski mares and warm-blooded Polish Halfbred mares. Milk samples were analysed for content of dry matter, protein, fat, lactose, and ash; density; energy value; percentage of α-lactalbumin (α-La), β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg), serum albumin (SA), immunoglobulin (Ig), lactoferrin (Lf) and lysozyme (Lz) in the total protein; and fatty acid profile. Milk from cold-blooded mares was found to be similar in protein and fat content to that of warm-blooded mares, but had higher content of dry matter, including lactose and ash. It also had significantly (P≤0.01) higher content of α-La, SA and Lz, and lower content of β-Lg, Ig and Lf in comparison to milk from warm-blooded mares. Milk from Sokólski horses had a significantly (P≤0.01) higher proportion of SFA, including C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C16:0 (P≤0.01) and C18:0 (P≤0.05), while the milk of warm-blooded mares had a significantly (P≤0.01) higher proportion of MUFA, including C16:1n-9 and C18:n-9, and PUFA, including C18:2n-6 and C18:3n3. The share of n-6 and n-3 PUFA was significantly (P≤0.01) higher in milk from warm-blooded horses, but their ratio (n-6/n-3) was lower (more favourable) in milk from cold-blooded mares. In addition, milk from warm-blooded horses had a lower (P≤0.01) share of HSFA and a higher proportion of DFA compared to cold-blooded horses, as well as lower values for AI and TI. Despite these minor differences in comparison with warm-blooded mares (Polish Halfbred), milk from cold-blooded Sokólski mares was shown to be a food product of high nutritional value, which is one argument in favour of the use of this horse breed for dairy purposes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-00872023-02-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Pineapple waste in animal feed: A review of nutritional potential, impact and prospectshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-0080<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Pineapple is a commodity and economic fruit with a high market potential worldwide. Almost 60 % of the fresh pineapple, such as peels, pulp, crowns and leaves, are agricultural waste. It is noteworthy that the waste has a high concentration of crude fibre, proteins, ascorbic acid, sugars and moisture content. The pineapple waste utilisation in animal feed has recently drawn the attention of many investigators to enhance growth performance and concomitantly reduce environmental pollution. Its inclusion in animal feed varies according to the livestock, such as feed block, pelleted or directly used as a roughage source for ruminants. The pineapple waste is also fermented to enrich the nutrient content of poultry feed. To date, the inclusion of pineapple waste in animal feed is optimistic only not for livestock but also for farmed fish. Indeed, it is an ideal strategy to improve the feed supply to the farm. This paper aims to overview the source, nutritional composition, and application of pineapple waste in animal feed. The recent findings on its effect on animal growth performance, nutrition and disease control are discussed comprehensively and summarised. The review also covers its benefits, potential impacts on sustainable farming and future perspectives.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-00802023-02-07T00:00:00.000+00:00The association of gene polymorphisms with milk production and mastitis resistance phenotypic traits in dairy cattlehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-0091<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between gene polymorphisms (SNPs) and mastitis indicators and their relationship with milk production profitability in dairy herd.A functional analysis was also performed of five genes containing the studied SNPs and those located close by. DNA was isolated from the hair bulb of 320 dairy cows kept in three herds and SNP-microarray analysis was performed. The data on 299 cows was subjected to final statistical analysis using AI-REML method with one-trait repeatability test-day animal model and pedigree information using the DMU4 package. Five from 35 SNPs significantly associated with mastitis indicators or production traits and located within a gene or no more than 500,000 nucleotides from the gene were selected for the functional and economic analysis. A questionnaire was also developed to collect associated economic data of 219 cows from three herds, such as the value of milk production and direct costs incurred over three years; this allowed the gross margin, direct profitability index and direct costs incurred to produce one liter of milk to be determined, among others. None of the five studied SNPs were related to protein content. The rs110785912(T/A), found near <italic>CXCR4</italic>, and rs136813430(T/C), located in the <italic>TLR4</italic> gene exon, were associated with lnSCC, while rs110455063(C/G), located near <italic>IGFI</italic>, was associated with milk yield, fat and total solid contents. rs109421300(T/C), associated with fat/protein content ratio, as well as fat and total solid content, is located in the <italic>DGAT1</italic> gene intron. rs41587003(A/C), located in the <italic>DLG2</italic> gene intron, was associated with lactose content. The economic analysis revealed differences between the variants of the three tested SNPs. The T/C variant of the rs136813430(T/C) SNP was characterized by the highest gross margin, the highest direct profitability index and the lowest costs incurred to produce 1 liter of milk. The T/A variant of rs110785912(T/A) was related to low lnSCC and was characterized by the highest direct profitability index. In turn, the C/C variant of the rs41587003(T/C) was related to the lowest level of lactose and the highest costs of milk production. It appears that rs136813430(T/C) may be the most promising of the tested SNPs for increasing the profitability of milk production. To our knowledge, it is the first effort to assess directly a correlation between the DNA polymorphism and economic output of a dairy enterprise.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-00912023-02-07T00:00:00.000+00:00A review and meta-analysis of selected plant protein sources as a replacement of fishmeal in the diet of tilapiashttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-0084<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Numerous studies on the replacement of fishmeal with plant protein sources in tilapias have been undertaken. In order to quantify the effect of replacing fishmeal with plant protein sources on the growth performance of tilapias, a meta-analysis approach was applied. Despite the high heterogeneity and funnel plot asymmetry, the meta-analysis showed that replacing fishmeal with plant protein sources has a significant positive effect on the growth performance of tilapias. Thus, tilapias appear to be preadapted to utilizing plant protein sources. Furthermore, the feed value, nutritional quality and cost of the commonly used plant ingredients (soybean, sunflower, canola, cottonseed, kikuyu and azolla meals) were explored. The Solver function in Excel was used to formulate least cost diets using the plant meals. Azolla had the highest nutritional index (9.7436). This was attributed to its excellent amino acid profile that exceeded the requirements of tilapias. Nutritional index and feed value were lowest in kikuyu because of its poor amino acid profile as it registered the lowest amino acid index (0.4918). These results indicate that the amino acid profile is more important in the determination of nutritional quality than the percent protein content. Azolla and soybean meal are good candidates for the replacement of fishmeal in the diets of tilapias.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-00842023-02-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Canine mammary carcinoma: current therapeutic targets and future perspectives – a reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-0085<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Canine mammary carcinoma (CMC) is the most common neoplasm in bitches, and it shares many biological similarities with breast cancer in humans. Drug resistance, high epigenetic mutations, and relapse rates are among the challenges which eventually urge the need for a veterinary oncologist to discover new therapeutic approaches that are more effective and safer. Therefore, in this review, we also cover the current therapeutic strategies from human medicine for the future perspectives of tumor immunotherapy in veterinary medicine. These strategies have great potential to be employed as therapeutic or prophylactic options due to their ability to modulate a specific and potent immune response against CMC. As we acquire a better understanding of canine tumor immunology, we can move towards a brighter prognosis. Additionally, we report on the recent successful studies in breast cancer that may benefit canines as well.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-00852023-02-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Rumen protozoa population and carbohydrate-digesting enzymes in sheep fed a diet supplemented with hydrolysable tanninshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-0095<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study was to compare the effect of adding different sources of hydrolysable tannins to the sheep diet on protozoa population and carbohydrate digestion in the rumen. The study was performed in 3 Polish Lowland ewes fistulated to the rumen in a 3 × 3 Latin -square design. Control sheep (CON) received (g/d): meadow hay (600), barley meal (300), soybean meal (100) and vitamin-mineral premix (20). Sheep from the experimental groups were additionally administered 12.6 g/kg DM oak bark extract (OAK) and 3.91 g/kg DM tannic acid (TAN). The net consumption of tannins was approx. 0.4% DM for both additives. Regarding the count of protozoa, a significant interaction between diet and sampling time was documented for all ciliates (P&lt;0.01), with a significant effect of both factors when considered separately. Experimental diets reduced the number of total protozoa and <italic>Entodinium</italic> spp. (before, 2 and 4 h after feeding; P&lt;0.01), while increasing the abundance of <italic>Isotricha</italic> spp. population (4 h after feeding; P&lt;0.01) in the rumen. Interestingly, the count of <italic>Ophryoscolex</italic> spp. after feeding the TAN diet increased before feeding and 2 h after feeding in comparison to the CON and OAK groups, respectively, and subsequently decreased compared to the CON diet (4 and 8 h after feeding, P&lt;0.01). A significant interaction between the diet and sampling time was observed for xylanolytic activity (P&lt;0.01) in the rumen, with a significant effect of sampling time, which decreased its activity in CON (after feeding) and OAK sheep (2 h after feeding; P&lt;0.01). For amylolytic activity (P&lt;0.10), there was a trend towards a significant interaction between experimental factors, with a significant effect on both diet and sampling time. Detailed analysis showed that the TAN diet significantly reduced amylolytic activity 2 h after feeding compared to the CON group (P&lt;0.05). In conclusion, the TAN diet significantly reduced the number of total protozoa and <italic>Entodinium</italic> spp., which consequently reduced amylolytic activity in the rumen, without any significant effect on pH and carbohydrate fermentation in the rumen.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-00952023-02-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Potential role of plant polysaccharides as immunostimulants in aquaculture: a reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-0096<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Aquaculture is one of the primary food-producing sectors in the world that ensures human nourishment. However, aqua farmers are facing serious problems due to disease out breaks and development of antimicrobial resistance. Until now, chemical or antibiotic based strategies has been applied to control disease related concern in aquaculture. Frequent usage of antibiotics in feed or usage of disinfectant to overcome the disease may end up with negative impacts to the environment and human. Utilization of plant derived polysaccharides has been drastically increased due to their effective roles and could serve as a best replacement for chemical agents and antibiotics. In addition, plant derived compounds and plant extracts was utilized to improve the immunity, intestinal health and growth performance of aquaculturable organisms. In addition, large number of plant-based polysaccharides was utilized as immunostimulants in aquaculture. Hence, this review aims to highlight the multifunctional properties of plant-based polysaccharides in aquaculture. Moreover, advantages and different concentration of plant polysaccharides as a feed additives in aquaculture sector has been discussed herein.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-00962023-02-07T00:00:00.000+00:00A review of black soldier fly () as a potential alternative protein source in broiler dietshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-0094<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Since <italic>per capita</italic> global meat utilization is predicted to increase to 40% from 2019 to 2050, global use of cultivable land in livestock, poultry, and feed production is 30%. Use of alternative protein sources as animal feed can be a solution to minimize cropland usage in conventional feed production. Commonly used protein sources in animal diets like soybean meal and fish meal are facing challenges of high demand, but the current production might not fulfill their dire need. To overcome this issue, the discovery of alternative protein sources is the need of the hour, insect meals like black soldier fly (BSF) are one of these alternative protein sources. These flies are non-infectious, bite-less, can convert the variant types of organic waste (food wastes, animal and human excreta) proficiently into rich profile biomass with reduced harmful bacteria count and do not serve as a vector in disease transmission. Based on the substrate used, the BSF larvae protein, fat and ash contents vary from 37-63%, 7-39% and 9-28% on dry matter basis, respectively. Previous studies have reported that using BSF and its byproducts as alternative protein sources in broiler diets with partial or complete replacement of conventional protein sources. In this review, a brief introduction to insect meal, BSF origin, life cycle, nutritional profile, influences on growth performance, carcass characteristics, fatty acid profile of meat, biochemical properties of blood, gut morphology and microbiota of the caecum along with its influence on laying performance of layers has been discussed in detail. Studies have concluded the partial replacement of conventional protein sources with BSF is possible, whereas complete replacement may cause poor performance due to reduced digestibility up to 62% attributable to chitin content (9.6%). Further studies to corroborate the effect of dietary BSF on growth performance, carcass characteristics, fatty acid profile of meat, and gut morphology and caecum microbiota are required to standardize the inclusion levels in feeds for higher performance of poultry.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-00942023-02-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Impaired luteal progesterone synthesis observed in gilts with PMSG/hCG-induced estrus affects the expression of steroid, prostaglandin, and cytokine receptors in the endometrium and myometrium during the peri-implantation periodhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-0076<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present study aimed to examine the effect of impaired progesterone (P4) synthesis, observed in gilts with gonadotropin-induced estrus, on the uterine expression of receptors important for pregnancy establishment. Twenty prepubertal gilts received 750 IU PMSG and 500 IU hCG 72 h later, while 18 prepubertal gilts in the control group were observed daily for estrus behavior. Gilts were inseminated in their first estrus and slaughtered on days 10, 12, and 15 of pregnancy to collect endometrial and myometrial tissues for mRNA analysis using real-time PCR. As we previously described, gilts with PMSG/hCG-induced estrus showed decreased luteal P4 synthesis on days 10 and 12 of pregnancy. PMSG/hCG treatment did not affect P4 receptor mRNA expression in either uterine tissue. In the endometrium, a greater mRNA transcript abundance of estrogen receptors (<italic>ESR1</italic> and <italic>ESR2</italic>), androgen receptor (<italic>AR</italic>), prostaglandin (PG) E2 receptors (<italic>PTGER2</italic> and <italic>PTGER4</italic>), PGF2α receptor (<italic>PTGFR</italic>), interleukin 6 receptor (<italic>IL6R</italic>), and tumor necrosis factor α receptors (<italic>TNFRSF1A</italic> and <italic>TNFRSF1B</italic>) was detected in gilts with natural than with PMSG/hCG-induced estrus (P&lt;0.05). In the myometrium, the mRNA expression of <italic>AR</italic>, <italic>PTGER2</italic>, and <italic>PTGFR</italic> was lower, while PGI2 receptor (<italic>PTGIR</italic>) transcript abundance was elevated in the gilts treated with PMSG/hCG as compared with the control animals (P&lt;0.05). In summary, a decreased luteal P4 level during the peri-implantation period in gonadotropin-stimulated pigs affects endometrial and myometrial receptor expression, with the endometrium being more sensitive to impaired P4 synthesis. Whether the observed changes alter uterine receptivity to local and systemic factors remains to be elucidated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-00762023-02-07T00:00:00.000+00:00The effect of feeding fattener pigs with hybrid rye on selected growth and carcass traits and on meat quality characteristicshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-0077<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Modern hybrid varieties of the rye can be successfully used for feeding pigs. The aim of the research was to determine the effects of different levels (20 %, 40 % and 60 %) of hybrid rye in diet on the growth, slaughter value, chemical composition, physical and sensory traits and the fatty acids profile in pork meat. The experiment was performed with 100 Polish Landrace pigs that were randomly allocated into 4 groups: control, without rye and experimental with hybrid rye addition. After slaughter lean meat content estimation, carcass traits, quality characteristics and the fatty acids profile of the <italic>longissimus lumborum</italic> muscle were determined. No significant influence on the growth performance, carcass traits and the majority of physical traits, basic composition, cholesterol content and sensory features of LL m. was found. The type and levels of cereals significantly change the FA profile. More favourable values for PUFA and the ratio of n-6 / n-3 acids were obtained in pigs fed with hybrid rye than with a mix of wheat with barley. In conclusion, feeding pigs with hybrid rye at the level of 20-60% in the diet results in positive effects in the fatty acids profile, without compromising daily gain, feed intake, carcass traits, physicochemical and sensory attributes of pork meat.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-00772023-02-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Association of ghrelin gene polymorphisms with slaughter traits in pighttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-0097<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>It has been hypothesized that mutations in the ghrelin gene in pigs may play a similar role as in humans and may be associated with obesity. The aim of study was to analyse the polymorphisms of ghrelin gene and to evaluate its effect on pigs’ carcass traits. The effect of <italic>c.-93A&gt;G</italic>, <italic>4428T&gt;C</italic> and <italic>g.4486C&gt;T</italic> polymorphisms at the ghrelin gene on slaughter performance were analysed in 346 gilts represented by three breeds (Polish Landrace, Duroc, Pietrain). Animals were fattened from 30 to 100 (±2.5) kg body weight. After slaughter, the carcasses were chilled for 24 hours (4ºC), weighted and the right half-carcasses were dissected and evaluated. A number of data were obtained including: meat weight in primary cuts, weight of ham, backfat thickness and carcass yield. From breeding and production point of view, the favourable results were obtained for pigs with the <italic>GG</italic> genotype at the <italic>c.-93A&gt;G</italic> locus, characterized by better carcass results than those with the <italic>AA</italic> genotype, e.g. higher ham weight and lower average backfat thickness. In pigs with the <italic>TT</italic> genotype at the <italic>g.4428T&gt;C</italic> locus, we found lower mean backfat thickness than pigs with the <italic>CC</italic> genotype.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aoas-2022-00972023-02-07T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1