rss_2.0Linguistics and Semiotics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Linguistics and Semiotics and Semiotics Feed, Ewa, 2021. “Passing a looped and knotted string between their hands”. The Bible, the Women’s Liberation Movement and Women’s Bonds in Michèle Roberts’s . , Volume 10, Number 1, pages 23-41. doi: 10.2478/pjes-2021-0002 of “Minority Language Writers in the Wake of World War One. A Case Study of Four European Authors” by Jelle Krol, Palgrave Studies in Minority Languages and Communities. Palgrave Macmillan 2020, 346 pp O’Rourke, Bernadette and John Walsh. 2020. New York: Routledge. 212 pages. ISBN: 978-1032173634 Playing in America: Real and Imagined Places of New York in Joseph O’Neill’s<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In his novel <italic>Netherland</italic>, Joseph O’Neill discusses several issues that arise for a contemporary wanderer or immigrant, namely, issues of adjustment, cultural transition, becoming visible, etc. The search for a new home is accompanied by the idea of a new place and the memory of the native place. Immigrants provide a particular perspective of the city from the position of an outsider. New York is the city that allows seeing the correlation between a geographic perception and the idea of a place that is formed by an immigrant. Real places of New York and their fictional representations in O’Neill’s novel become the focus of this study. The geocritical approach is employed as a productive tool for the analysis of New York spatiality and myth-making.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Representations of Pre- and Post-9/11 New York City in Colum McCann’s<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article sets out to investigate the way in which Colum McCann depicts New York City in his 2009 novel, <italic>Let the Great World Spin</italic>. While starting from the idea that the novel falls in the category of 9/11 fiction, the article will argue that it makes clever use of the technique of deterritorialization in order to look at the USA from an external point of view, interrogating in this way American international relations and extraterritorial citizenship, both before and after 9/11. The article will also argue that by starting from the trauma of 9/11, which is, however, circuitously tackled in the novel, McCann questions the myth of American exceptionalism, pointing at unresolved US domestic affairs, as well as harrowing external affairs, which have resulted in countless traumas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Bridging the Gap between Cultures: The Translation of Cockney and Slang in G. B. Shaw’s “Pygmalion”<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article analyses the main drama translation strategies pertaining to the rendering of dialect and slang from English into Romanian with practical emphasis on “Pygmalion” (1914; 1941) by George Bernard Shaw. Moreover, it aims to review translation techniques and strategies which facilitate the translation of slang and dialect, more precisely Cockney, from English into Romanian. Amongst the strategies discussed here are: the application of a cultural filter and of local adaptation, the use of dialect compilation, pseudo-dialect translation, parallel dialect translation, dialect localization, and standardisation. The second half of this article scrutinises a selection of lines extracted from G. B. Shaw’s “Pygmalion,” comparing and contrasting the existing Romanian translations and suggesting new solutions to rendering culture-specific terms into Romanian.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00A Gay New York City in Mart Crowley’s “The Boys in the Band”<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>“The Boys in the Band,” a play by American playwright Mart Crowley (1935-2020), represents a milestone in the representation of urban gay men in theater. By exploring on stage the lives of a group of male gay friends in the late 1960s, Crowley challenged social and dramaturgical norms and conventions. As an integral part of the narrative, New York City, specifically Manhattan Island, makes itself present in the text through direct and indirect references, whether on the level of plot, character construction, or the setting of the play itself. As a paradigmatic play in a moment of special prominence of the Gay Movement in the United States, soon after its premiere in 1968 and before the release of its first film adaptation, “The Boys in the Band” came to be seen differently by critics and activists under the influence of a historical event that also occurred in Manhattan, the Stonewall Riots. This article explores the various instances in which the play, especially in its first Off-Broadway staging, represents not only a gay New York City, but also how this same place made possible the existence of this story and these characters.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00New York City on Stage: (De)Constructing Urban Space in John Guare’s<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>John Guare distinguishes himself as a playwright who has represented New York City’s various neighborhoods and has fought realist conventions throughout his work. By relying on considerations advanced by Robert Bennett in his study of the literature, art, jazz and architecture of New York City after World War II, the current analysis shows that Guare approaches the discourse of the global capital of the world deconstructively, just like the post-war avant-garde he is probably familiar with. Moreover, Guare’s own search for experimental strategies reflects that of his predecessors and of the shape-shifting city itself. Included in a volume which is part of the <italic>Contemporary Dramatists</italic> series published by Methuen Drama, the four plays under discussion are: “The House of Blue Leaves” (1971), “Landscape of the Body” (1977), “Bosoms and Neglect” (1979, 1986) and “Six Degrees of Separation” (1990). Exploring the main characters’ experiences in New York City and their encounters with recognizable (or easily legible) sites of this quintessentially American metropolis, such as Greenwich Village and Central Park, the essay examines how Guare deconstructs urban space, advancing a most original and coherent reading of the city.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00“Always Symmetrize!: Forging Bonds in ”<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>“Always Symmetrize!,” the title of this essay – which echoes Fredric Jameson’s better-known admonition to “always historicize” – alludes to a type of literary analysis, inspired by the Chilean psychoanalyst Ignacio Matte Blanco’s concept of “symmetric logic,” which I have been working on for several years. Briefly, it treats the makers of literary monuments as engaged – like the alchemists discussed by Mircea Eliade in <italic>The Forge and The Crucible</italic> – in the task of perfecting the work of nature, a project that they pursue under the guidance of what I call the “symmetrical imperative.” The “unsurpassable horizon” of this literary endeavor is Homer’s <italic>Iliad</italic>, whose perfectly achieved, albeit covert, bilateral symmetry (magisterially detailed by Cedric Whitman in his classic <italic>Homer and The Heroic Tradition</italic>) is made overt in the undisputed masterpiece of Greek geometrical pottery – Exekias’s amphora, “Achilles and Ajax Playing Dice,” which I discuss briefly at the outset of my essay.</p> <p>The greater part of this essay is devoted to an analysis of the similarly covert workings of the symmetrical imperative in Joseph Conrad’s modernist masterpiece <italic>Heart of Darkness</italic>. In the initial phases of this “alchemical process,” Conrad treats as symmetrical the two otherwise asymmetrical stages of Marlow’s journey (first to the Central Station and then to the Inner Station). In its second phase, he creates a container within which to contain this pairing of symmetrized episodes in the form of a narrative whose covert bilateral symmetry achieves, as Fernando Pessoa recommends in T<italic>he Book of Disquiet</italic>, “a realization freed from the taint of reality” (30). Having completed my analysis of this twofold alchemical process in <italic>Heart of Darkness</italic>, I then devote a few concluding pages to its return in “The Secret Sharer,” a short-story which Conrad wrote several years after publishing <italic>Heart of Darkness</italic>, and in which he may well have “perfected the work of nature” even more impressively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00The Great Gatsby : New York City as a Place of Damnation in Willa Sibert Cather’s “Paul’s Case”<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>“Paul’s Case,” suggestively subtitled “A Study in Temperament,” by Willa Sibert Cather, thematizes some of the main concerns regarding the moral decay of American society and the disillusionment with the American Dream that would be addressed twenty years later by F. Scott Fitzgerald in his iconic novel <italic>The Great Gatsby</italic>. The story provides ample proof of the presence of such skeptical views regarding American society way before the onset of the orgiastic, almost Babylonian, roaring twenties. Published in 1905, Cather’s story is simultaneously an individual and a societal x-ray of the deepest scars, and the darkest demons, of the world’s most iconic capitalist space, New York City. The city becomes a place of personal, as well as collective, damnation, which fails to offer a solution to Paul’s perceived placelessness. Even though it lacks <italic>The Great Gatsby</italic>’s ethical and narrative complexity, the story can be seen as a brilliant precursor to the feeling of imminent downfall which pervades the literature of the Jazz Age.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Precarious Geography: Landscape, Memory, Identity and Ethno-regional Nationalism in Niger Delta Poetry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Like most conflicts across the world, the Niger Delta crisis has generated a body of works now labelled Niger Delta literature. These cultural art forms, which are not only programmatic in thrust but also carry a dissenting temper that is laden with counter hegemonic rhetoric, are primarily geared towards underpinning a brutish kind of colonization and corporate greed which has become the stamp of toxic dreaming and dubious progress in Nigeria. This literature draws attention to the debility of the Niger Delta people and to the fact that they are trapped under double hegemons – the Nigerian government and transnational oil firms – that have strategically transformed or reduced this precarious geography and its inhabitants to mere commodities. A close reading of texts on the Niger Delta makes one aware of the politics and structure of the Nigerian economy and the corporate cost of petroculture; moreover, issues of ethno-regional identity, the inequity in the distribution of resources, the near absence of government presence in the Niger Delta and the continuous decay of state infrastructures provide a fertile ground for explaining the resentment expressed by these heavily marginalized people. By protesting their marginality, these poets frame a kind of identity that “others” the Niger Delta people, thereby holding the state accountable for its deplorable conditions and the abysmal underdevelopment of the region considering the quantity of wealth it generates for the Nigerian federation. Paying significant attention to the relationship between the representations of landscape and processes of political and economic transformation and how the landscape becomes the defining index for identity formation in the poetry of Tanure Ojaide and Ibiware Ikiriko, I argue that these poets point to the way in which colonialism and environmental devastation are interlocking systems of domination within the Nigerian nation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00W.Y. Evans Wentz the Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries (1911) Letters from Evans Wentz to Sophia Morrison (1910-12)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Walter Yeeling Evans Wentz (1878-1965), is known for <italic>The Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries</italic> published by Oxford University Press in 1911. Wentz’s personally gathered fairy beliefs in each of the six Celtic lands and the selections that appeared in <italic>The Fairy-Faith</italic> were introduced by a prominent figure in the Celtic Revival. In the case of the Isle of Man, it was Sophia Morrison (1859-1917), a leading light in the Manx Language Revival. Wentz had visited the Island late in 1909 during December. Discarded by Wentz at some stage were the letters, drafts, and proofs of <italic>The Fairy-Faith</italic>. That said, ten letters are extant from Wentz to Morrison and they are presented here in full following an introduction to set them in context and with a brief description of their salient content. They show the work that went into Morrison’s introduction, the editorial to-ing and fro-ing involved, and also the progress of <italic>The Fairy- Faith</italic> itself through Wentz’s own comments to Morrison.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Economic Disruption and Language Shift – Some Ethnographic Data from Ireland After the 2008 Crash<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper discusses some of the ways in which the “Great Recession” which followed the 2008 economic crash affected the vitality of Irish-speaking (“Gaeltacht”) areas. In addition to a brief discussion of the nature of neoliberalism – the cause of the 2008 crash – and some of the ways in which this ideology stands in contradiction to the requirements of language revitalisation, examples are given to illustrate the way in which the recession affected state language policy. Various microlevel consequences of these macro-level economic and policy developments are then discussed by reference to ethnographic data gathered in the Gaeltacht. Issues such as deindustrialisation, unemployment and the problematic nature of tourism in minoritised language communities are discussed, as is language use amongst young people and the way in which technology can contribute to language shift. The paper concludes with a discussion of the potential for anti-systemic movements and policy proposals such as the “Green New Deal” to create, coincidentally, a macroeconomic regime that would be more favourable to linguistic minorities than that of neoliberalism.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Review strategies in Algerian Arabic and American English<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study aims to explore the use of euphemistic strategies by Algerians and Americans when dealing with three unpleasant topics: death, lying, and disease. It also examines the effect of degree of formality on the use of euphemistic strategies. To achieve this objective, a discourse completion task (DCT) was distributed to 21 Algerians and 21 Americans. The data were analysed using SPSS. The data analysis revealed that there are some differences and similarities between the two groups. The euphemistic strategies used by the Americans when they deal with death topics are <italic>synonyms</italic> and <italic>part for the whole</italic>. The Algerians use <italic>part for the whole, overstatement,</italic> and <italic>synonyms</italic> when they deal with death. Regarding the topic of lying, the Americans employ strategies of <italic>understatement</italic> and <italic>deletion</italic>, whereas the Algerians use <italic>understatement</italic> and <italic>metaphor</italic>. As for the topic of disease, the Americans use <italic>vagueness</italic>, and the Algerians use <italic>vagueness</italic>, <italic>metaphor</italic>, and <italic>deletion</italic>. These findings reveal that both groups resort to euphemism when dealing with these three unpleasant topics. However, their use of euphemistic strategies is culture-bound.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-08T00:00:00.000+00:00An analysis of lexicogrammatical development in English textbooks in Turkey: A usage-based construction grammar approach<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article measures the syntactic development indices in grade 5-12 English textbooks in Turkey. Through a usage-based construction grammar approach, it argues that the textbooks show an inconsistent development in verb-argument constructions (VAC) and other usage-based indices. The study employs an automatic software tool that detects variations in these indices and runs a statistical analysis on a corpus compiled by the author. Statistically significant results demonstrate that textbooks lack lexicogrammatical variation. As such, learners who use these textbooks are likely to experience a limited array of VACs that are limited in lemma-construction combinations. Findings also indicate that learners may not be exposed to the conventional usage patterns and frequencies of VACs when compared against a reference corpus. These findings may have an influence on the learners’ generalization process, their low-proficiency level in English, and poor idiomatic uses of the language.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Intertextuality in media discourse: A reader’s perspective<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article is a part of a research project on how intertextuality is perceived by readers of media texts. The focus of the article is on how intertextual references are recognized, interpreted, and substituted by EFL respondents. Based on the results of the survey, conclusions are drawn to address the following research questions – whether respondents can recognize intertextual references as such in the context, whether they can interpret an utterance despite failing to detect intertextual segments, and whether there exists a correspondence between recognizability of an intertextual reference and attempts at defining and/or replacing it. This paper is an attempt to empirically verify theoretical views on intertextuality. The results of the survey provide insights into how intertextuality is perceived by respondents.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Teacher target language input and young learners’ aural comprehension of English<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The quantity of target language input available to learners contributes to the understanding of target language development. The present paper reports on a longitudinal study of the relationship between the amount of non-native teachers’ EFL input and learners’ aural achievement in instructed SLA. Young learners (N=132) were followed over a three-year period. High variability in teacher use of EFL was found. Results of correlational analyses and group comparisons pointed to a longitudinal advantage of participants exposed to instruction dominated by teacher target language use during their first two years of formal EFL learning. Directions for future research on the use of different languages and their relation to learners’ achievement are discussed in the context of early formal foreign language study.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-08T00:00:00.000+00:00The present participle and gender assignment in Swedish<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper considers gender assignment of deverbal nouns, originally present participles, in Swedish. The perspective is diachronic. The corpus consists of a choice of Swedish texts from 1225-1732. The results show that nouns denoting entities ranking higher in the Animacy hierarchy show tendencies to be placed in the utrum gender (originally masculine and feminine genders) and nouns denoting mass, collective or abstract referents to be assigned neuter gender. This tendency is visible throughout the history of the Swedish language.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Online revisions in Swedish as a foreign language – a longitudinal study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Writing is a complex process in which different sub-components both follow each other and interact with each other. Tracking and revising the text is a natural behaviour that helps the writer to shape the text in a desirable way - both in terms of its form and content. Previous studies of self-corrections by second language learners, for example, have shown that they most often correct spelling or formal, linguistic errors or that conceptual changes increase as language skills in the foreign language develop. This paper presents an analysis of online revisions with respect to the orientation of the corrections, i.e. typographical, linguistic and conceptual revisions. The texts were collected at the end of each semester during the first three years of language learning. The analysis has shown that, regardless of language level, foreign language learners in the study group focused most on the surface of the text, which was reflected in corrections of typographical errors. In addition, two revision patterns were observed: one characterised by a simultaneous focus on different dimensions when revising the text, while the other was characterised by a greater focus on one aspect of the text (usually typography), while the others received less attention.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-03T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1