rss_2.0Linguistics and Semiotics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Linguistics and Semiotics and Semiotics Feed Mind, Many Languages: Czech as an Additional Language in Plurilingual Repertoires<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Plurilingualism goes beyond the mere ability to use multiple languages; it emphasizes the interconnected nature of languages within an individual's linguistic competence. In line with the European language policy, university students are becoming users of several languages, and international university students in Czech universities often learn Czech as their fourth language or beyond (L4+). Understanding how their linguistic competencies interact can impact their language acquisition experience. Learners may perceive interactions among the languages within their linguistic repertoire. The concept of Perceived Positive Language Interaction (PPLI, Thompson, 2016) pertains to the perception that languages previously studied are interrelated in a positive way, ultimately enhancing a plurilingual's ability to acquire additional languages. This study explores the relationships between Czech as an additional language and the learners' prior languages. The research aims to answer three main questions: Do learners of Czech as L4+ perceive positive interactions among their learned languages? In what areas do these interactions manifest? How does Czech relate to their other languages? The study was conducted at a Czech university that provides optional introductory Czech courses (A1/A2), primarily to students in the Erasmus+ program. Fifty-four international students filled in an open-ended online questionnaire over two consecutive semesters. The analysis revealed that while students perceived positive interactions among some of the languages they had learned, especially within language families, interactions across typologically different languages occurred, particularly between Czech and German. The participants' mother tongue also emerged as a significant factor. While language instruction often follows a monolingual approach, where the target language is the primary mode of classroom interaction (Woll, 2020), learners may significantly benefit from their previous language learning experiences when learning an additional language. Despite the relatively limited research sample, this study suggests the didactic potential of positive language interaction in language teaching and learning and highlights further research opportunities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Foreign Language Teachers´ Attitudes Towards Digital Teaching in the European Union Countries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the present era, both learning and teaching, including foreign language learning (FLL) and teaching, are being radically influenced by a massive implementation of digital technologies. The purpose of this study is to analyze foreign language teachers’ attitudes towards the use of technologies in foreign language teaching across Europe and to identify clear implications for their efficient implementation. The methodology of this study includes a mixed-method research design (quantitative and qualitative) with a survey conducted with altogether 234 foreign language (FL) teachers from different universities across Europe. The results clearly show that FL teachers generally have a positive attitude towards the use of technologies in their classes and that they frequently use them in their teaching since they can make students more engaged in learning a foreign language. In fact, the FL teachers have always been at the forefront of innovative approaches to teaching and learning. In spite of this, they admit that they would welcome more professional support from the management of their home institutions and demand training in the use of new technologies. The results of the research also indicate that special attention should be paid to the lack of personal contact, students' reactions, and the expression of emotions, which is difficult and almost impossible to achieve through the use of digital media. These findings are unique since they aim specifically at current FL teachers´ attitudes and needs across Europe and can be utilized by stakeholders and FLL course designers. Moreover, they can also be extended to a larger scale, i.e., the global level.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Intelligence in Language Education: A Bibliometric Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Artificial Intelligence (AI) occupies a transforming role in education, including language teaching and learning. Using bibliometric analysis, this study aims to overview the most recent research related to the use of AI in language education. Specifically, it reviews the existing body of research, productivity in this field in terms of authors and countries, co-authorship, most cited references and most popular journals that publish on this topic. Furthermore, the study also analyses the most common keywords and extracts relevant terms that reveal trending topics. For the period between 2018 and 2022, 2,609 documents were retrieved from the Web of Science database. The results showed that each year a consistent number of publications on the application of AI in language education appears. Scholars from China and the USA have been revealed to be most productive. <italic>Computer Assisted Language Learning</italic> contains the highest number of publications. Within the research on the use of AI in language education, the most targeted language-learning aspects were acquisition, motivation, performance, vocabulary, instruction, feedback, and impact. The analysis of the most common keywords related to AI-based solutions showed that mobile-assisted language learning, virtual reality, augmented reality, elements of gamification, games, social robots, machine translation, intelligent tutoring systems, chatbots, machine learning, neural networks, automatic speech recognition, big data, and deep learning were most popular.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Nomenclature of Traditional Ornaments in Latvian and Lithuanian<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The traditional ornaments, characteristic for the Latvian and Lithuanian ethnographic regions, are an essential part of traditional Baltic culture. Since the 19th century researchers have studied their technical aspects and semiotics (Brastiņš, 1923; Dzērvīts, 1925; Celms 2007) but little attention has been paid to empirical terminology. The name is an integral part of the sign, it often carries semantic information helping to reveal its usage and significance. In Latvia, the names of traditional signs have been influenced by the work of Brastiņš and <italic>dievturi</italic> (“Keepers of Dievs”) who attributed the names of Baltic mythological deities to ornaments linking them to the manifestations of the deity mentioned in the denominations. While these denominations are very popular in Latvia, in Lithuania very similar ornaments are called and interpreted differently. This research focuses on collecting and analysing Baltic ornament nomenclature published in Latvia and Lithuania in the first half of the 20th century. It compares the ornament naming traditions in both countries and highlights the main parallels and differences. It also reviews previous research of ornament in Latvia and Lithuania where significant differences can be seen – while semiotic research dominates in Latvia, in Lithuania more attention has been paid to the nomenclature, although in both countries the nomenclature has often been viewed separately from the visual form, making the research of ornament evolution and typology difficult. It has been found that the spectrum of ornament nomenclature at the beginning of the 20th century in Latvia was more diverse than it is now; that it is common for Latvians and Lithuanians to view ornament as a pattern rather than separate graphic elements and that geometric, plant, animal, artefact and celestial body denominations dominate the nomenclature of both languages. Symbols appearing in Baltic culture are also present in ornament nomenclature.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue English Under the Sounds of Air Raid Sirens: Analysing Undergraduate EFL Students’ Sustainable Learing Practices<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents a mixed-methods study that examines how undergraduate students of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) sustain their practices of learning English during the ongoing Russo-Ukrainian war in 2022–2023. In total, 33 undergraduate EFL students (henceforth – participants) took part in the study. In order to gain insight into their sustainable learning practices, the participants were requested to write a short reflective essay titled “My Thoughts on How I Learn English during the War”. The participants were instructed to write their essays in English within a one-week timeframe. Seeking to identify and classify a range of sustainable practices related to the ways the participants learnt English during the Russo-Ukrainian war, their reflective essays were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. The analysis of the participants’ essays revealed the following learning practices that, according to the participants, helped them to sustain their EFL learning trajectory in the wartime EFL contexts: (i) participation in online EFL courses, (ii) communication with the native speakers of English on social networking sites (e.g., Instagram), and (iii) the combination of EFL learning activities offered at the participants’ university. The findings are discussed in detail further in the article through the lens of sustainable multilingualism development. Specifically, we argue that the development of multilingualism in the time of crises is feasible and sustainable, especially if it is coupled with an EFL learner’s inner psychological factors that are further facilitated by the external support offered by the digital learning environments that are (i) institutionalised and systematic, and (ii) extra-mural and unstructured (in other words, digitally wild).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Spanish Temporal Adverbials by Multilingual Estonian Learners<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article focuses on the temporal structures used by multilingual Estonian students when expressing the hour in Spanish. Learning linguistic structures related to time is crucial in the early stages of foreign language acquisition. However, these structures can be complex and vary across languages, as they are highly idiosyncratic in terms of vocabulary and syntax. This study concentrates on the difficulties Estonian students face with Spanish time adverbials, specifically prepositions and articles. The paper aims to answer several research questions related to the repertoire of temporal expressions in the students' interlanguage, the difficulty posed by typological differences between their native language and Spanish, the influence of English, and the impact of English proficiency on Spanish production. The analysis of a corpus of interlanguage texts from Estonian students is conducted to identify idiosyncratic structures and patterns, distinguishing them from standard structures. The findings reveal that the use of articles improves with higher proficiency levels, while the use of prepositions remains challenging. Furthermore, the study explores the influence of English and Estonian on the students' Spanish production and highlights the importance of crosslinguistic reflection and attention to functional words for enhanced accuracy and fluency. The article concludes by emphasizing the significance of language proficiency levels and crosslinguistic influence in third language acquisition and suggesting areas for further research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Synchrony of Bilabial Consonants in the Lithuanian Dubbed Live-Action Film<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article explores the intricate nature of lip synchrony in dubbing as an audiovisual translation mode, highlighting its significance beyond aesthetic considerations. Often overlooked during the translation process for dubbing, the mismatch between auditory and visual signals caused by unsynchronized lip movements can have a negative impact on speech perception. Moreover, with the constant rise of audiovisual content, achieving satisfactory lip synchrony remains a crucial challenge that demands attention. Although scholars such as Fodor (1976) and Chaume (2012) have recognized the importance of bilabial consonants in maintaining lip synchrony, there is a notable research gap specifically focusing on this aspect within the Lithuanian dubbed industry. To address this gap, this study investigates the lip synchrony of bilabial consonants in the Lithuanian dubbed version of the live-action film <italic>A Dog's Way Home</italic> (2019). By employing a comparative research approach that integrates qualitative and quantitative analyses, the study draws on theoretical perspectives presented by McGurk and MacDonald (1976), Fodor (1976), Chaume (2004, 2012), and Koverienė (2015). The analysis of the cinematographic shots reveals that only a small percentage (19%) of the bilabial phonemes in the source language utterances were visually prominent instances, and consequently chosen for detailed examination of lip synchrony. This finding suggests that strict adherence to lip synchrony may not be crucial in numerous instances, allowing translators to have greater flexibility in their approach. The target language utterances demonstrate a relatively high percentage (approximately 76%) of synchronous cases for bilabials, particularly in proper names and international words. However, the research also reveals additional 94 instances of bilabials in the target language that were not found in the source language utterances, leading to dischronemes. Therefore, audiovisual translators are urged to consider not only how to maintain the lip synchrony of bilabial consonants in the target language, but also how to avoid the emergence of new bilabials.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Teaching and Learning of English at University Level: The Perspectives of Ukrainian Students and their Teachers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Classrooms at all levels of education are becoming more diverse, as they include more and more multilingual and multicultural students. Their teachers start understanding that, especially in foreign language classes, monolingual approaches to teaching and learning are not effective anymore, and search for other pedagogical techniques and practices that would involve their students’ linguistic repertoires as an asset in their classes. This study aimed to learn about the attitudes towards and experiences of the use of other languages in the English classroom by including the perspectives of English teachers and their Ukrainian students who, having fled their home country due to the war against Ukraine or having chosen to participate in student exchange, came to study at Vytautas Magnus University in Kaunas, Lithuania. Two online questionnaires including open and closed ended questions were used to gather data. Thus, the study was both quantitative and qualitative. Even though several literature review sections in this article describe a switch from monolingual to a more holistic paradigm that includes translanguaging, this and other terms employed to describe the use of other languages were not introduced to the research participants. The English teachers’ and their Ukrainian students’ attitudes towards and experiences of the use of other languages in the English classroom are first looked at separately and then compared in the concluding section. The findings revealed that both Ukrainian students (58.3%) and teachers (84.2%) have experience of other languages being used in their English classroom. They also agree that translation into the language that students understand is used as a strategy helping the students to understand grammar and vocabulary, yet the students indicated gesturing as a strategy used to explain unknown vocabulary. Other strategies related to the use of other languages were also mentioned and described. The teachers and the students pointed out that Russian and Lithuanian were the most frequently employed other (than English) languages in their English classroom, even though the teachers believed they used mostly Russian, whereas the students believed their teachers mostly used Lithuanian.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Attitudes and Policy Preferences: Insights From International Scholarship Applicants to Hungarian Universities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study examined the attitudes of individuals seeking scholarships to study abroad, exploring whether their views on languages and language policy models vary based on gender, study programs, and countries. An online survey was administered to approximately 130 Hungarian government scholarship applicants from diverse nations. Statistical methods were employed to analyze responses, revealing variations and correlations between demographic and attitudinal variables. Participants expressed preferences for multilingual and monolingual language policies, aligning with their attitudes. The findings indicate that most participants pursued language learning with instrumental motivation, aiming to achieve educational and career objectives. Most participants expressed a desire for a multilingual language policy model in their home countries. While many embraced the proposal to adopt English as the medium of instruction, others maintained a critical perspective, acknowledging both the positive and negative impacts of English and multilingualism. Additionally, participants underscored the significance of preserving native languages in their respective countries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Role of Linguistic and Cultural Mediation in Learning the Host Country’s Language<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The need to reconsider the value of mediation in language teaching/learning has been highlighted due to such processes as globalization and migration in the contemporary world. The importance of a language learner's entire plurilingual repertoire has been emphasized in <italic>The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) Companion Volume</italic> (2020) and students’ linguistic and cultural backgrounds have been recognized as useful teaching resources to enhance language learning (Piccardo &amp; North, 2017). The application of translanguaging has become an innovative method applied in language teaching and is now seen as a tool for increasing learners’ commitment and self-belief (Duarte, 2020). A survey was conducted to explore the role of mediation in learning a host country's language in the UK and Lithuania. The study aimed to investigate the use of non-linguistic competences to reduce linguistic and cultural barriers, encourage collaboration among language learners, and improve their competence in translanguaging. The survey included 23 English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) students (levels A2 and B1) and 15 Lithuanian as a second language students (levels A1 and A2). A quantitative and qualitative research methodology was used to analyze their language learning experiences during mediated lessons of the target language. The results of the surveys and short semi-formal interviews showed that learners had developed various non-linguistic competences and demonstrated the ability to use other languages for learning a new language. Although most of the research participants agreed that such a way of learning had helped them to successfully learn the target language and preserve their national identity in a foreign country, a careful guidance provided by a language teacher is necessary in order not to be misguided among the variety of similar or different languages.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue power of metaphor in thesis writing process<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article contributes to the discussion of writing at the master’s level by investigating metaphors underlying the process of writing a master’s thesis from the perspective of graduate students. The analysis focuses on the use of metaphors in semi-structured interviews conducted with graduate students who defended their thesis and reflected on the whole process. Their metaphor use is non-elicited and this rhetorical device is spontaneously used showing that thesis writers conceptualize their research and all it entails in metaphorical terms to a significant extent. Despite the fact that thesis writers themselves were not encouraged to pay attention to or use metaphorical language, their narratives reveal the interplay of metaphors when describing the writing process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue strategies in grant recommendation letters written by senior faculty in a Ghanaian university<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The genre system of grant application has gained attention from researchers in Applied Linguistics, Discourse Studies, and Higher Education. However, the grant recommendation letter (GRL), also known as the “letter of support”, has been understudied in this system. To address this gap, this study examined the persuasive strategies used in GRLs. Using Aristotle’s Theory of Persuasion and a qualitative inductive discourse analysis, we analysed 90 GRLS. The findings revealed that GRLs employ different frequencies of ethos, logos, and pathos to influence the grant committee. The writers primarily emphasised rational justifications for the applicant’s qualifications, while also demonstrating ethos through appropriate personal traits. Personal pronouns were used to perform discursive functions as well. Based on the findings, we offer implications for pedagogy and further research on GRLs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in virtual education: Designing and validating a scale in higher education<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) equips learners in all settings with the knowledge, skills, attributes, and visions essential for coping with the diverse challenges they will encounter in their educational endeavors. The emergence of COVID-19 influenced different aspects of human life including education. Thanks to technology, especially ICT, Virtual Education (VE) provides the opportunity to continue education in such crises. Amidst this pandemic, many students, especially university students, encountered various challenges and impediments that resulted from VE. One of the factors which can affect VE is learners’ resilience. Therefore, it is of high importance to measure university students’ Resilience in Virtual Education (RVE) to recognize the advantages and disadvantages of this type of education and support ESD. The main purpose of this study is to design and validate a comprehensive instrument for measuring university students’ RVE. Furthermore, to confirm the validity and reliability of the instrument, its nexus with a closely related construct, i.e., second language (L2) buoyancy was explored. To measure students’ RVE, a new scale (RVE Scale), comprising 33 items, was designed. It was designed based on the operational definition of academic resilience and was adapted to accommodate the requirements of VE. It measures six aspects of learners’ resilience: emotional, motivational, cognitive, metacognitive, persistence, and sociability. To measure L2 buoyancy, a relevant scale designed by Jahedizadeh et al. (2019) was utilized. It consists of 27 items with four factors; the factors include sustainability, regularity adaptation, positive personal eligibility, and positive acceptance of academic life. A total of 412 university students participated in the present research. The results obtained via Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) substantiated the validity of the newly designed scale and all the factors and items. The results attested to the criterion-related validity of the scale.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue complexing in research-article abstracts: Comparing human- and AI-generated texts<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The ability of chatbots to produce plausible, human-like responses raises questions about the extent of their similarity with original texts. Using a modified version of Halliday’s clause-complexing framework, this study compared 50 abstracts of scientific research articles from Nature with generated versions produced by Bard, ChatGPT, and Poe Assistant. None of the chatbots matched the original abstracts in all categories. The only chatbot that came closest was ChatGPT, but differences in the use of finite adverbial clauses and –<italic>ing</italic> elaborating clauses were detected. Incorporating distinct grammatical features in the algorithms of AI-detection tools is crucially needed to enhance the reliability of their results. A genre-based approach to detecting AI-generated content is recommended.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Re-reading of the Literary Text. An Alternative Understanding of Local Bilingualism in the Context of Globalization<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper, I present a possible interdisciplinary, predominantly linguistic reading of the literary text, taking as a starting point the work of Andrei Dósa entitled <italic>Multă forţă şi un dram de gingăşie</italic> [Lots of Power and a Touch of Gentleness], published in 2021 by Polirom Publishing House. This way of re-reading allows us to go beyond the basic narrative structure of the text and focus on the underlying meanings constituted by the language used in the shaping of local colour. In the contextualization of the narrative thread, in the case of this novel, translanguaging strategies appear, which are analysed in relation to the evolution of the main character and the constitution of his own identity in relation to the Other. The specificity of the artistic processing of the spoken language, the way in which the complementary activation of languages becomes a tool for characterization, and the creation of local colour can provide stable reading references even for texts written in other languages. In this case, the activation of lexemes, phraseological units, culturemes, quotations from Hungarian (predominantly) and English in the literary text written in Romanian support the presentation of the steps of the individual’s self-definition in finding the local specificity under the imprint of globalization. The present study explores the significance of the secondary semantics of bilingual situations in the architecture of literary texts in general and, at the same time, provides a possible way of re-reading the text by following the processes of individualization of the literary transfiguration of bi- or multilingual existence in the case of a contemporary novel.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis of Dialogic Positioning in Online Commentaries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The commentary as a journalistic genre that presents and comments on current events is characterized by intersubjective positioning, whereby the author constructs meaning, seeking alignment or, on the contrary, expressing disalignment with a putative audience. In line with the appraisal theory as developed by Martin and White (2005), which follows the Bakhtian dialogic perspective, according to which utterances and propositions are intersubjectively charged, the paper aims to describe the linguistic means of <italic>engagement</italic>, one of the central elements of this theory. Engagement is concerned with how the author expresses authorial voice and how s/he negotiates meaning with the readers, opening up (dialogic expansion) or, on the contrary, closing the dialogic space (dialogic contraction). In this sense, the linguistic means of engagement, such as modality, hedging and boosting devices, evidentiality, are understood to transcend the functions attributed to them within a truth-conditional framework, namely epistemic status and reliability of knowledge, and are seen as means by which the author entertains or rejects alternative voices and opinions. Taking this into consideration, the paper intends to analyse a few selected commentaries on the war situation in Ukraine found on the online platform of The Rand Corporation, a global policy think tank that performs research and conducts evaluations of various topics. It analyses the linguistic means of dialogic positioning, focusing on how the authors negotiate the dialogic space with the audience; while presumably all forms of intersubjective positioning can be found in the texts, it is expected that certain forms of engagement will outnumber others. As all commentaries can be found on the website of the above mentioned corporation, the question also arises as to what extent commentaries show similarity with respect to engagement, thereby expressing, albeit indirectly, a certain standpoint with respect to the Ukrainian warfare.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Landscape of Football. Reterritorialization in a Minority Setting<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Football has been related to various fields of linguistics, and linguistic landscape (LL) research is no exception. The study examines how football fans in a linguistically, culturally, and ethnically diverse region claim the club and the stadium as their own space in the process of reterritorialization (Monaghan 2020), due to numerous linguistic and semiotic resources. The research site is a Hungarian minority context in the public space of a football stadium in Sfântu Gheorghe, Romania. The linguistic landscape of football in Sfântu Gheorghe has never been explored in depth before. The study draws on a corpus based on photographs, videos taken inside and outside of the stadium, and data collected from the social media. The analysis shows that the presence of Hungarian in this particular LL indexes collective identity and describes the positioning strategies of the Hungarian minority speakers. The study also explores the processes of identity negotiation in which they are engaged.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Report: Termini Online Hungarian Dictionary and Database (TOHDD): A Dictionary for Hungarian Varieties Spoken in the Carpathian Basin<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Termini Online Hungarian–Hungarian Dictionary and Database describes the lexicon of the Hungarian language as spoken in the countries neighbouring Hungary. It is considered to be a general dictionary of present-day Hungarian. Each entry contains authentic example sentences to illustrate the use of the headword, making it possible to examine the special use of a word or construction in a grammatical and pragmatic context. The lexicographical database is edited online in eight countries. The editors of the dictionary are members of the Termini Hungarian Language Research Network. Online editing makes it possible for the dictionary to expand – even simultaneously – as a result of activity in eight countries. In the present study, the authors review the novelties and peculiarities of the dictionary in some detail, touching on the following topics: dictionary structure, IT support, database character, multimedia elements, and labelling system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Texts and Their Translation in Translator Training<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>With the development of medicine, the demand for the translation of medical texts has increased significantly. Translations play an important role in disseminating medical knowledge and new medical discoveries and are vital in the provision of health services to foreigners, tourists, or minorities. Translating medical texts requires a variety of skills. In our study, we assess the extent to which translation and interpretation students at Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania are able to translate medical texts from English into their mother tongue (Hungarian) and Romanian (the official language of the country). With the purpose of curriculum development, we examine whether the lack of medical knowledge affects the work of translators and what strategies can be used in translation in the absence of this expertise. We also examine our students’ attitude related to translating medical texts and becoming a medical translator.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Ethnonyms: The Case of<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, we aim to analyse the origin and semantics of one of the lexemes used by Romanians to refer to Hungarians: <italic>boanghin(a)</italic>, also used as <italic>boanghen(a)</italic>. Besides a meta-analysis of this ethnic slur (emergence, meaning, semantic shifts, and etymology), we also refer to literary works in which these terms have been used. The archaic <italic>boanghin</italic>, or <italic>boanghen</italic> seems to be a political construct which has the purpose of naming the enemy and personifying the evil. It is a typical case of verbal abuse, mockery, or insult which used to display a significant amount of collectively formed, pejorative connotation. Today it is old-fashioned, as it has been replaced by another slur, i.e. <italic>bozgor</italic>, which is going to be presented in a forthcoming study.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue