rss_2.0Linguistics and Semiotics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Linguistics and Semioticshttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/LShttps://www.sciendo.comLinguistics and Semiotics Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/Lingustics_&_Semiostics.jpg700700Non-Native Parents Raising a Bilingual Child in Turkeyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2024-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This case study explores the bilingual upbringing of a 5 year 2 months old child in Turkish and English through “non-native parents (NNP) strategy” within a context where English is neither the first nor the majority language of the community. Drawing on the Parental Discourse Hypothesis (Lanza, 1992) and Modeling Hypothesis (Comeau et al., 2003), the researchers examined not only the development of the child’s English, but also the approach of the father towards the child, and his self-perception as a father seeking opportunities to raise a bilingual child. The data were collected by means of a series of video recordings of the interaction between the child and the father, as well as via two semi-structured interviews with the father. The findings show that even quite limited exposure to a (second) language may lead to the acquisition of that language thanks to strict adherence to NNP strategy, and the parents’ concentrated efforts at refraining from code-mixing in their own speech.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2024-00062024-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Promoting Multilingual Skills in Children with Autism: Parent and Teacher Perspectives on Teaching ESLhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2024-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Research on autistic children who grow up in multilingual environments remains sparse, despite more than half of the global population being multilingual. Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by severe impairments in communication and language skills. Many ASD parents ask specialists for advice about whether their child should study both languages simultaneously in a bilingual environment. The study investigated the challenges faced by teachers and parents in educating children with ASD in learning English as a Second language (ESL). The study sample consisted of nine parents and five teachers of children with ASD who were interviewed using a qualitative approach. According to the findings of the study, teaching English as a Second Language to children with autism spectrum disorders with visual aids, modeling, and repetition has been shown to be an effective method to enhance the language and social abilities of children with autism. While it is difficult to develop teaching strategies that are effective for children with autism spectrum disorders, teachers have found that these children are extremely proficient in acquiring new languages. Additionally, to ensure successful language learning programs for children with ASD, it is essential that educators and parents collaborate in order to make the programs successful. Moreover, this study demonstrates various methods that educators and parents could use in order to assist children in achieving bilingualism. The study recommends that more research is needed to fully comprehend the difficulties that ESL teachers face when they are trying to teach children with ASD how to learn languages.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2024-00052024-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Intentionality and Adaptability in Family Language Policyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2024-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Heritage language maintenance is affected by many different factors. Particularly for families in subtractive bilingual environments, it is crucial to have a well-defined family language policy (FLP). Even with an established FLP, major disruptions and changes, as well as smaller shifts in families’ lives, can significantly affect children’s multilingual development and threaten heritage language maintenance. These shifts can be sudden or gradual. This study focuses on the importance of bringing the need for a FLP into multilingual families’ awareness and explores the challenges of sustaining it. More specifically, this study uses two parents’ reflections regarding their own families’ language policies to gain a better understanding of the challenges and to make recommendations to other families. It is guided by the following questions: To what extent are parents aware of their family’s multilingual habits and policies? How can parents support their children’s heritage language development in the face of significant disruptions or even subtle life changes? Two linguists raising multilingual children in different contexts agreed to become accountability partners to gain a better understanding of their own dynamic situations and support each other to become more intentional in their family multilingual development. Data were collected over a six-month period. Findings suggest that intentionality increased due to the accountability partnership. Furthermore, this study challenged several of the researchers’ assumptions, particularly regarding the amount of heritage language spoken, how transitions affect the family, what it takes for linguistic changes to occur, and the ease of tracking one’s own family’s linguistic habits. This study suggests that having a FLP is not sufficient, but that it requires periodic updating, and changes need to be implemented to match the evolving plan.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2024-00022024-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Heritage Language Use and Identity Construction: A Study of Two Korean-American Bilingual Adolescentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2024-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study examines heritage language use and identity construction of two Korean-American bilingual adolescents who have acquired a high level of proficiency in the heritage language. An analysis of the interview narratives showed that the high level of their heritage language proficiency played a crucial role in understanding the heritage culture and its people, developing a strong sense of self, and building social relationships with members of the heritage language and mainstream communities. In addition, it was found that their ethnic identities were co-constructed and reshaped over time not only by their individual choices but also by various sociocultural factors — the environment, their surroundings, and their relationships with others. However, although both participants agreed that their heritage language and culture were fundamental parts of their identities, the forces and processes that shaped each participant’s identities were different. One participant developed his dual identities by maintaining cultural boundaries and group differentiation whereas the other participant tried to combine two cultural characteristics in creating a new self, having invested in dual identities — Korean and American — which she would assume in the private and public spheres of her life, respectively. The findings shed light on the complex process of bilingual adolescents’ identity construction.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2024-00012024-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Possible Factors Influencing the Willingness to Use English in Teaching Japanese as a Foreign Language by Non-Native Speakershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2024-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years, teachers have had students from diverse language and cultural backgrounds in their classrooms due to increasing human migration in many countries. Therefore, multilingual learning and teaching have become a widespread phenomenon. Research on English language teaching and learning in multilingual contexts has gained great importance. However, teaching languages other than English and foreign language teachers’ practices in this specific context have received little attention so far. Teaching the highly contextualised Japanese language poses challenges in multilingual classrooms, and teachers more frequently resort to using English as the medium of instruction. To shed light on Japanese non-native teachers’ practices, the study explored and analysed two hundred and seventy-four teachers’ responses to the questionnaire “Teaching the Japanese language in multilingual classrooms – English medium instruction approach (EMI)”. The research attempts a worldwide study on using EMI in teaching Japanese as a foreign language (JFL). It examines a broad geographic scope of JFL teachers’ practices from fifty-seven predominantly non-Anglophone countries. The present article focuses on investigating various factors affecting JFL teachers’ willingness to use EMI that can be classified into <italic>demographic</italic>, <italic>linguistic</italic>, and <italic>contextual</italic>. The results revealed several factors of significant influence, such as JFL teachers’ work experience, the highest education level attained, educational stage, geographic region, native language group, Japanese language proficiency, and knowledge of other languages (multilingualism). The factors that appeared to be of insufficient influence were age, study of teaching methods/linguodidactics and level of Japanese taught. The factor of JFL teachers’ language proficiency (both English and Japanese) falls into a separate category of influence, where a significant difference was noted for proficient and near-native levels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2024-00032024-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00An Analysis of the Most Common L1 Interference Grammar, Vocabulary and Syntax Errors of Lithuanian Learners in Written Englishhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2024-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper describes a study on the most common English mistakes among Lithuanians in written tasks on the topic of business and finance. The study was conducted with high school students and university students, and the effectiveness of error feedback in reducing the occurrence of errors was also examined by comparing 2 written texts of each participant. Grammatical errors related to the use of articles and punctuation were found to be the most common types of errors, and feedback on errors was found to be an effective tool in increasing learner motivation and understanding, reducing common errors but not reducing the most common types of errors. The research showed that detailed, personalized feedback can help minimize mistakes in writing assignments, especially if it can be accessed during or in between tasks. However, it is uncertain whether this method will have long-lasting benefits or if improvements are dependent on continual feedback reference. Participants were advised to keep their error feedback forms and utilize teachers’ feedback as a constant guide for improvement. We plan to utilize data on frequently occurring errors to conduct additional research on tackling and enhancing language errors that have become ingrained, employing various strategies. Based on the findings, directions for future research were identified. In the future we intend to carry out a study, using controlled texts with a pre-determined number of errors in diagnostic testing. This would allow us to more precisely analyse learners’ improvements in the use of given structures, through a more extensive research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2024-00042024-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00A Corpus-Based Study of Dual Pronoun Translationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2024-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article aims to answer the following questions: what is the distribution of dual pronouns in original and translated Lithuanian fiction texts; what English language patterns are rendered by Lithuanian dual pronouns; and how Lithuanian dual pronouns are translated into English. In line with the unique items hypothesis, it is hypothesized that dual pronouns, as a characteristic feature of the Lithuanian language, should be less frequent in translations, as English texts do not have an obvious translation stimulus. Corpus based methods were used for data extraction and analysis. Firstly, from the morphologically annotated ORVELIT corpus, all occurrences of pronouns in original and translated fiction were identified, and all dual forms were extracted. Parallel concordances of dual pronoun translations were obtained from the Lithuanian-English Corpus of Prose LECOP and the Parallel Corpus (English-Lithuanian translation direction) using the ParaConc software (Barlow, 2009). The most frequent forms of personal pronouns were chosen for further analysis: <italic>mudu, judu</italic> and <italic>jiedu</italic>. It has been found that differently from initial prediction, Lithuanian translations have similar or slightly higher numbers of dual pronouns in comparison to original Lithuanian texts. The data from English-to-Lithuanian translations shows several patterns rendered by dual pronouns, for example, when English plural personal pronouns describe two referents or when a combination of a personal pronoun and another referent is used with the conjunction <italic>and</italic>. When translating duals from Lithuanian into English, translators choose English plural forms of pronouns or use the formula ‘pronoun + referent/referent + pronoun’. To compensate for the loss of information about the number of referents or their proximity, translators use the number <italic>two</italic>. In original English texts, unlike in translated English texts, this usage was not frequent or common.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2024-00102024-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Need for Translation Services in the Globalized World: A Periphery-Informed Explanationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2024-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The relationship between globalization and translation is one of the new areas of research in Translation Studies. Globalization has led to unstoppable spread of the English language across the globe. Yet, contrary to expectations, not only has the need for translation services not diminished, but it also has increased. This, according to Pym (2003), sounds paradoxical since as the global use of English is on the increase, the need for translation should be waning. In other words, in spite of the fact that the use of English is triumphant and English is already considered the language of the global village, not only has the number of translations not decreased, but the demand for them is increasing. The present study was an attempt to investigate Iranian translators’ views on this paradox. In other words, the study sought the perspectives of translators in the periphery on the paradox to see how the paradox proposed by Pym can be explained from the point of view of Iranian translators. Using snowball sampling, twenty-two translators (all holding an MA or a PhD in Translation Studies) were selected. To collect data, semi-structured interviews were conducted. Interpretive analysis of the data revealed that there are numerous reasons that raise the status and role of translation and translators in the Iranian context, which were categorized under three broad categories, namely the limited target language (English), a preference for Persian over English and ideological issues. As regards the limited English language knowledge, the in-depth interviews showed that the younger generation’s proficiency is mostly confined to oral skills and cannot cover all aspects of the English language. In other cases, technical differences between the two languages were pointed out, which was taken as a barrier for feeling at ease with using English. Additionally, the pervasiveness of English words and phrases in society, and especially technological tools, makes people with little English proficiency feel the need for the translation of these foreign words and phrases. Another broad category concerns the preference of Iranians for Persian over English. Throughout the interviews, even PhD holders pointed out that they were not that much at ease with English, and some mentioned in the interviews that if they had both the English and the Persian version of a text, they would probably prefer the Persian version. Another reason for such preference was shown to be their lack of confidence in their knowledge of English even though they had an advanced level of understanding English texts/talks. The final category dealt with ideological issues at both macro- and micro-level. At the macro-level, some participants referred to the government policy that prioritizes the Persian language over foreign languages in society. At the micro-level, one participant believed that some individuals intentionally use Persian words and phrases to prevent the marginalization of the Persian language.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2024-00092024-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Dynamics of Language Teaching at the Institute of Foreign Languages of Vytautas Magnus University: Challenges and Perspectiveshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2024-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this article is to analyze the situation of foreign language teaching and learning at the Institute of Foreign Languages of Vytautas Magnus University (VMU), within the framework of the promotion of multilingualism in the European Union and the language policy of VMU. Knowledge of the mother tongue and at least two foreign languages at a sufficient level for effective communication is an aspiration set out in the European Union documents. In this study, we examine how the university’s language policy contributes to the goal of EU multilingualism and the challenges posed by its implementation. For this purpose, data on language teaching at VMU Institute of Foreign Languages over the last ten years are analyzed. In addition, a survey conducted in spring 2022 is presented which aimed at finding out which factors influence the students’ learning of other languages. The results of these two investigations reveal that, while students acquire the proficient user level in English, there is a steady decline in the interest to study other languages apart English, and the number of students who choose other languages has been decreasing. Only a small percentage of them reach the proficient user level (B1–B2 on the CEFR scale), whereas the majority of them become familiar with a new language and end their studies at initial levels (A1–A2 on the CEFR scale). The students’ responses suggest that there is room for improvement in the university system to promote multilingualism; the lack of awareness of the importance of languages, the increasing predominance of English and the lack of motivation, as well as the negative experiences associated with learning, have a significant influence on the decline of interest in other foreign languages, thus constituting a major threat to the implementation of multilingualism policies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2024-00072024-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The Use of Spanish Light Verb Constructions in the Advocate General’s Opinions of the Court of Justice of the European Unionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2024-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Over the past few decades, increasing attention has been devoted towards the study of formulaic language, both in Lithuania and abroad. It is assumed that stable word combinations, rather than single words, are preferred in speaking and translating processes, which makes this study increasingly relevant. The idea of formulaic language is well reflected by light verb constructions as one of the collocation types, therefore this article aims to describe the use of these constructions in the analytic Spanish language. The article provides a theoretical overview of light verb constructions, their identification using the <italic>Sketch Engine</italic> computer program, and their usage in a representative-size corpus, compiled from the EUR-Lex database of documents from the original Spanish texts of the Advocate General’s Opinions of the Court of Justice of the European Union. The analysis of the use of Spanish light verb constructions in the analyzed text provided large objective data on their use, revealing the light verb constructions and their patterns typical to administrative Spanish. It has been found that the grammatical meaning of these light verb constructions is mostly represented by the following support verbs: <italic>tener</italic>, <italic>poner</italic>, <italic>dar</italic>, <italic>tomar</italic> and <italic>hacer</italic>. In combinations with nouns, these support verbs mark grammatical aspects such as mood, tense, person, and number. The frequent repetition of light verb constructions in the corpus indicates a standardized lexicon within the Spanish administrative language. In general, the high number of light verb constructions in the corpus reveals their importance in analytic Spanish, especially in the administrative legal language of the Advocate General‘s opinions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2024-00082024-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Review: Theresa Neumaier. . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2023. xvi. 288 pp. ISBN 9781108936996https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icame-2024-0008ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icame-2024-00082024-05-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Review: Jesse Egbert, Douglas Biber and Bethany Gray. . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2022. 300 pp. ISBN 978-1316605882https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icame-2024-0006ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icame-2024-00062024-05-28T00:00:00.000+00:00How real is the quantitative turn? Investigating statistics as the new normal in linguisticshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icame-2024-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Statistical approaches in linguistics seem to have gained in importance in recent times, especially in the field of Corpus Linguistics. In particular, the last ten years have seen an upsurge of linguists being dedicated to statistical methods and the improvement of statistical knowledge. This has repeatedly been described as ‘the quantitative turn’ in linguistics. In the present paper, we assess how real this quantitative turn actually is and whether statistics can be considered the ‘new normal’ in (corpus) linguistics. To this end, we have analyzed the contributions to six high-impact journals (<italic>Corpora, Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory, ICAME Journal, English World-Wide, Journal of English Linguistics</italic>, and <italic>Language Variation and Change</italic>) for a period of eleven years (January 2011 until December 2021). Our results suggest that, indeed, statistical methods seem to be on the rise in linguistic studies. However, their frequency strongly varies between the journals, and, in general, we have identified some room for improvement in the use of advanced statistical methods, in particular the discussion of true prediction.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icame-2024-00012024-05-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Review: Agnieszka Leńko-Szymańska and Sandra Götz (eds.). . Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2022. vi. 327 pp. ISBN 9789027212580 (HB)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icame-2024-0007ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icame-2024-00072024-05-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Against level-3-only analyses in corpus linguisticshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icame-2024-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the last few decades, much work in corpus linguistics has attempted to discover, and then interpret, differences in the frequencies of use of linguistic elements (words, patterns, constructions, discourse features, etc.). It is probably fair to say that such studies were particularly frequent in (i) learner corpus research, (ii) corpus-based varieties research, and (iii) sociolinguistically motivated studies. For instance, many studies have discussed the differences in how often certain elements are used (i) in corpus data from native speakers vs. corpus data from learner from different L1 backgrounds, (ii) in corpora representing different inner- and outer-circle varieties, or (iii) by speakers in corpora representing people of different gender or sexual identities.</p> <p>This paper will make the admittedly bold claim that any such study can in fact by definition unable to ‘prove’ what is often their main points, namely that the distributional differences found are in fact due to the one hypothesized explanatory variable(s) of L1, VARIETY, or, e.g., GENDER even when the distributional differences are significant and come with a decent effect size. To substantiate this claim, I will discuss some terminology from the family of methods known as multi-level modeling, namely the distinction between level-1, level-2, ... level-<italic>n</italic> variables and its relevance for many corpus studies. Second, I will then demonstrate how studies using only the above kinds of variables cannot distinguish the effect of their favored predictors from the effect of local/contextual level-1 variables. Third, in discussing this, I will exemplify how such effects need to be explored quantitatively instead.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icame-2024-00022024-05-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Exploring variation in English as a lingua franca: Multivariate analysis of modal verbs of obligation and necessity in the VOICE corpushttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icame-2024-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The modal verbs of necessity and obligation, a testing ground of grammatical change, have been shown to exhibit change and variation in world Englishes. Previous studies have primarily concentrated on English as a native language (ENL) and English as a second language (ESL) varieties. The present study extends this line of research and explores variation in modal verbs of necessity and obligation in English use as a Lingua Franca (ELF). Descriptive statistics indicate that ELF resembles American English and also shares similarities with ESL varieties. In addition, ELF further exhibits divergence from both ENL and ESL varieties that arises in multilingual interactions. The multivariate analysis of this study employs mixed-effects logistic regression on the use of must and have to. Integrating social and linguistic factors, this analysis exploits metadata gathered from the VOICE corpus, which has thus far been underused. The results of the inferential statistics indicate that the same sociolinguistic factors that influence the variation in ENL and ESL varieties also shape ELF grammar. These findings not only bring ELF closer to other English varieties but also demonstrate the advantage of studying ELF from a variationist sociolinguistic perspective.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icame-2024-00032024-05-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Mapping shared lexical bundles onto rhetorical moves in nursing research articles: A comparative study of paradigmatic variationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icame-2024-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Previous studies have identified frequent lexical bundles associated with qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods research paradigms. These paradigmatic investigations of lexical bundles conducted thus far seem to have two limitations. One is that they have primarily concentrated on distinctive lexical bundles, without much analysis of the shared bundles in qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods research paradigms. Another shortcoming is that they tend not to explore in which contexts lexical bundles are likely to occur. These two problems deserve attention, as shared bundles are also frequently used to facilitate fluent linguistic production and analysing lexical bundles in their surrounding contexts can help reveal their specific textual meanings. To address these two limitations, this study seeks to link shared lexical bundles with rhetorical moves based on a corpus consisting of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods nursing research articles. The findings of this study show that in certain move-steps, shared lexical bundles have distinctive discourse functions in mixed methods research. Meanwhile, the findings also show that there are move-steps where shared lexical bundles have similar discourse functions in two or three research paradigms. Revealing shared lexical bundles’ discourse functions in specific contexts may enable learners to know where to use the bundles in a text.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icame-2024-00052024-05-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Semantic prosody, semantic transfer and semantic changehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icame-2024-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article investigates semantic prosody in a diachronic perspective. Although prosodies have been shown to change over time, there is no consensus regarding the source of such changes. The present study explores this further through a corpus study of the development of the lemmas <sc>fabric</sc>, <sc>fabricate</sc> and <sc>fabrication</sc> from the late 15th century to the late 20th century, drawing on material from Early English Books Online, the Corpus of Late Modern English Texts and the British National Corpus. The results of the study show that prosodic changes coincide with the emergence of new senses and indicate that these processes are related to and possibly caused by semantic transfer induced by persistent prosodies over time.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icame-2024-00042024-05-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Erratumhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/lf-2024-0001ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/lf-2024-00012024-05-10T00:00:00.000+00:00From Corpus Data to Constructional Networks: Analyzing Language with the Usage-Based Construction Grammar Frameworkhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jazcas-2024-0019<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Construction Grammar (CxG) is an innovative approach to language that has become increasingly popular in the Anglosphere over the last 30 years. In CxG, the basic units of linguistic analysis are constructions: arbitrary and conventional form-meaning pairings, reminiscent of Saussure’s linguistic sign, but applied to levels of linguistic analysis beyond the lexicon. A large body of research has provided ample evidence in support of CxG. However, the theory remains unknown to many colleagues outside the Anglosphere.</p> <p>In this paper, I highlight a particularly interesting strand of CxG that is referred to as ‘usage-based’, an approach that assumes constructions are learned based on input frequency, that is, through repeated exposure to and use of a linguistic structure (hence <italic>usage-</italic>based). The main aim of this paper is thus to demonstrate how corpus data can be analyzed to find evidence for ‘entrenchment’ of linguistic structures and thus, the existence of constructions. I will illustrate this procedure by applying so-called covarying-collexeme analyses to data from the Slovak National Corpus (SNC) and the Slovak Web 2011 corpus from which I extracted 785 tokens of the so-called Comparative Correlative (CC) construction (e.g. <italic>Čím viac čítam, tým viac rozumiem).</italic></p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jazcas-2024-00192024-03-30T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1