rss_2.0Medicine FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Medicine Feed of doxycycline residues in bones after oral administration to broiler chickens<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Chicken bones, a by-product of the poultry industry, can directly or indirectly enter the food chain. Bone meal and bone products could be sources of many contaminants. Considering the wide range of uses made of bones in the culinary and food industries, this material needs to be safe and antibiotic residue–free. To determine if such is the case, the concentration of doxycycline in chicken bones was investigated, this antimicrobial being one of the most commonly used in poultry production.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Ross 308 broilers were grouped into three experimental and one control group. Doxycycline was administered in drinking water at therapeutic and sub-therapeutic doses, as well as <italic>via</italic> spray treatment. The concentration of doxycycline in bones was determined post slaughter by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Doxycycline was quantified at 135 μg/kg 22 days after the last day of antibiotic administration at therapeutic doses; 2,285 μg/kg after sub-therapeutic treatment for 27 days and 9.62 μg/kg 22 days after the end of spray application.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>High concentrations and long persistence of doxycycline in bones were found in this study. Doxycycline can contaminate all bone-derived products in the food and fertiliser industries.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue vesicles in cattle infected with bovine leukaemia virus: isolation and molecular analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Exosomes are nanosized lipid bilayer membranous microvesicles, extracellularly released from a variety of mammalian cells. They mediate intercellular signalling by transporting several types of RNA, lipids and proteins and participate in the intercellular exchange of DNA, RNA, micro RNA, proteins and other components. These microvesicles are present in all body fluids in physiological and pathological conditions and reflect the state of the host organism. The aim of the study was the isolation and molecular determination of exosomes in blood and supernatant fluids of bovine dendritic cell cultures infected with bovine leukaemia virus (BLV).</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation from the blood sera, plasma and supernatant of bovine BLV-infected and uninfected control dendritic cell cultures and their presence was confirmed with scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. Western blot analysis of the structural BLV glycoprotein 51 (Env) and protein 24 (Gag) and of the tetraspanin exosomal markers CD9, CD63 and flotillin-1 was undertaken in BLV+ and control BLV− cattle.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>In exosomes of leukaemic cattle both BLV proteins and exosomal markers were detected. In healthy control animals only exosomal markers were determined.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Proteins of BLV were released with exosomes and could be transferred into recipient cells as an alternative propagation route not requiring virus infection.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of transfer of different sulphonamides from contaminated beeswax to honey<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>No maximum residue limits in honey have been legislated in the EU for antimicrobial substances such as sulphonamides, and they are not permitted, therefore, for treating honey bees unless in a cascade system. Since sulphonamides are used illegally in apiculture to treat foulbrood, their residues can be found in honey and other apiculture products, including beeswax. The study aimed to assess the contamination of honey from beeswax containing residues of 10 sulphonamides (sulphadimethoxine (SDM), sulphadoxine (SDX), sulphamonomethoxine (SMM), sulphamethoxazole (SMX), sulphameter (SMT), sulphamethazine (SMZ), sulphamerazine (SMR), sulphadiazine (SDA), sulphathiazole (STZ) and sulphacetamide (SCA)).</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Wax-based foundations fortified with 10 sulphonamides at 10,000 μg/kg were evaluated for sulphonamide concentrations and then placed in a beehive so that honey bees (<italic>Apis mellifera</italic> L.) could build honeycombs with them. Frames of capped honey were taken out of the hives one month later and honey was sampled from them. The honeycombs were subsequently incubated in a laboratory at 35°C for five months, and honey was sampled monthly. The honey sulphonamide concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and compared to the wax-based foundation concentrations.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The maximum transfers to honey of the initial amount of SDM, SDX, SMM, SMX, SMT, SMZ, SMR, SDA, STZ and SCA in the wax-based foundations were 42.6, 34.3, 31.7, 30.1, 29.5, 25.2, 18.7, 16.1, 9.5 and 8.6%, respectively.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>This study demonstrated that every tested sulphonamide could migrate from beeswax in antimicrobial-tainted honeycombs to honey, SDM having the highest migration potential and SCA the lowest.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue to Reuse Spent Coffee Ground: a Brief Overview<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Currently, coffee is among the most consumed non-alcoholic beverages in the world. Due to the increased consumer demand for coffee, there is an excessive production of waste arising during this beverage preparation. The accumulated waste from coffee consumption is in literature named spent coffee grounds (SCG). The accumulation of SCG can adversely affect the environment. When significant amounts of SCG are disposed of inlandfills, their anaerobic degradation occurs, which leads to the formation and emissions of greenhouse gases such as methane and carbon dioxide. Furthermore, chemical substances are released into the environment, such as tannins, polyphenols or caffeine, which can affect soil fertility. In order to reduce the undesirable impact on the environment, various repeated methods of this by-product utilization and their application on the market are being studied. The aim of the work was to create an up-to-date overview of the use of SCG invarious branches of industry. The information obtained can be considered usable foundation and base for further research about SCG.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue divisions for models of cardiopulmonary interaction – preliminary tests<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Introduction:</italic> The perfusion of a part of the lung depends on its distance from the pulmonary trunk (differences in vascular resistance) and on the horizontal plane (differences in hydrostatic pressure). The aim of this study was to determine the geometric parameters characterising their positions and sizes in order to analyse the diffusion of the ventilation/perfusion ratio.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods:</italic> A developed virtual respiratory system has been supplemented with an appropriate model of pulmonary circulation that uses a lung outline that is divided into parts based on an anatomical atlas and a CT image; it comprises a 3D geometric model of the lungs that was developed using the Inventor CAD software (Autodesk, Inc, San Francisco, USA). Each panel was divided into 2 horizontal and 8 vertical parts; the 16-part division was then modified.</p> <p><italic>Results:</italic> When taking human lungs as a research object and simulating their accompanying physical, biological, or biochemical phenomena, one necessary task is to construct a spatial model of the lungs that takes into account, and maintains awareness of, the limitations of the source of data that is relied upon. The developed modified geometric model of lung division turned out to be useful and was successfully applied to a virtual patient, among others, as part of the VirRespir project.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions:</italic> Finally, we can conclude that the virtual cardiorespiratory system thus elaborated may serve as a proper tool for the preliminary analysis of such complex interactions, considering the elaborated model of the lung’s divisions and its future improvements.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue dependence of GafChromic LD-V1 film dose response to X-ray photons in the 60 to 180 kV range<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Introduction:</italic> Radiochromic film (RCF) is suitable for use as a dosimeter owing to its inherently superior spatial resolution and near-water equivalence. A new model of RCF recommended for measuring imaging dose in the kV nominal energy range was recently introduced onto the market. In this study, we investigate the dependence on the beam quality of GafChromic LD-V1 film’s radiation dose response.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods:</italic> Pieces of LD-V1 film were irradiated to air kerma ranging from 0 to 570 mGy in X-ray photons with beam qualities of 60 kV (HVL = 1.32 mm Al), 100 kV (HVL = 2.83 mm Al), 120 kV (HVL = 5.11 mm Al), 150 kV (HVL = 6.23 mm Al), and 180 kV (HVL = 0.54 mm Cu). The net reflectance from each film was obtained from a color flatbed scanner. For each beam quality, an analytical power function was fitted to the net reflectance - air kerma relationship and tested for differences.</p> <p><italic>Results:</italic> We have found that for the beam qualities investigated, the response of the Gafchromic LD-V1 film was not significantly dependent on energy, and a single calibration curve could be used. The total relative uncertainty and absolute error reached maxima of 18% and 80%, respectively for air kerma values less than 50 mGy, and remained below 10% for air kerma in the range 50 mGy to 570 mGy.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions:</italic> The results of our investigation revealed that the response of Gafchromic LD-V1 film is not significantly dependent on beam quality. A minimum air kerma irradiation of 50 mGy is recommended to minimise uncertainty.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of changes caused by HR-HPV infection in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck using Raman microspectroscopy in combination with multivariate statistical analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Introduction:</italic> Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region (HNSCC), with a positive status for high oncogenic potential human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), represents a clinically distinct disease entity compared to HPV-independent cases. Patients exhibit variations in prognosis and proposed therapy regimens. A prompt and reliable diagnosis of the presence of HPV infection could optimize the treatment for these patients. Currently employed treatment methods are long-term, expensive, and lack specificity, especially when administered separately.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods:</italic> The research objective of this study is to explore significant differences in the Raman spectra of biological samples taken from patients with HNSCC, facilitating the confirmation of HPV virus presence. Study groups were delineated based on histopathological diagnosis and molecular biology tests, confirming the biological activity of the virus and the presence of the HR-HPV form with a diagnosis of a specific subtype.</p> <p><italic>Results:</italic> To identify high oncogenic potential human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection as a crucial factor in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region, an effective automatic data analysis system was established, relying on Raman microspectroscopy and multivariate analysis. Our results showed clear ranges of the Raman spectrum that differentiated between HPV-associated and non-HPV-associated cancers.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions:</italic> In conclusion, our experience shows a great diagnostic potential of Raman confocal microscopy with multidimensional statistical analysis. In the future, the use of this method may allow for the creation of an effective and automated HR-HPV detection system in neoplastic tissue.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Impact on Air Quality in Repurposed Museum Space<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigates the air quality and ventilation effectiveness in a repurposed museum space with a hybrid ventilation system in Ljubljana, Slovenia. Focusing on CO<sub>2</sub> and particulate matter concentrations, the aim is to determine the correlation between these parameters and the suitability of the ventilation system following a change in space use. Measurements were conducted over a four-month period, analyzing data during different occupancy and ventilation scenarios. The study compares observed values with World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, specifically targeting PM<sub>2.5</sub>, PM<sub>10</sub>, and CO<sub>2</sub> concentrations. Findings reveal inadequate ventilation in the repurposed museum space, even with hybrid ventilation. CO<sub>2</sub> concentrations correlated with PM<sub>2.5</sub> and PM<sub>10</sub> levels, suggesting CO<sub>2</sub> monitoring as an indirect indicator of overall air quality. Recommendations include improving ventilation efficiency and limiting occupancy to ensure adherence to air quality standards.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue association of rationed nursing care and the level of teamwork in acute care setting: a cross-sectional study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Aim.</bold> To explore the association of rationed nursing care and the level of teamwork from the perspective of nurses working in an acute care setting in Slovakia.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2022 and February 2023. Data collection was carried out using a set of questionnaires that involved the Basel Extent of Rationing of Nursing Care – Revised (BERNCA-R) and the Nursing Teamwork Survey (NTS) to explore the level of teamwork. The sample consisted of 206 nurses from three district hospitals from Slovakia.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> The mean score of the BERNCA-R was 2.11 (SD = 0.65) and for NTS, it was 3.64 (SD = 0.35). A statistically significant association was found between rationed nursing care and the level of teamwork, more specifically, Trust (r = -0.583), Team orientation (r = -0.381), Backup (r = -0.657), Shared mental model (r = -0.768), and Team leader (r = -0.535) and the overall score of the NTS (r = -0.174).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> These findings underscore the importance of addressing the phenomenon of rationed nursing care among registered and practical nurses to foster better teamwork and enhance patient care outcomes in acute care settings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Donor–Recipient Chimeric Cells Restores Peripheral Blood Cell Populations and Increases Survival after Total Body Irradiation-Induced Injury in a Rat Experimental Model<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Current therapies for acute radiation syndrome (ARS) involve bone marrow transplantation (BMT), leading to graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). To address this challenge, we have developed a novel donor–recipient chimeric cell (DRCC) therapy to increase survival and prevent GvHD following total body irradiation (TBI)-induced hematopoietic injury without the need for immunosuppression. In this study, 20 Lewis rats were exposed to 7 Gy TBI to induce ARS, and we assessed the efficacy of various cellular therapies following systemic intraosseous administration. Twenty Lewis rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups (<italic>n</italic> = 5/group): saline control, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT), DRCC, and alloBMT + DRCC. DRCC were created by polyethylene glycol-mediated fusion of bone marrow cells from 24 ACI (RT1a) and 24 Lewis (RT11) rat donors. Fusion feasibility was confirmed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The impact of different therapies on post-irradiation peripheral blood cell recovery was evaluated through complete blood count, while GvHD signs were monitored clinically and histopathologically. The chimeric state of DRCC was confirmed. Post-alloBMT mortality was 60%, whereas DRCC and alloBMT + DRCC therapies achieved 100% survival. DRCC therapy also led to the highest white blood cell counts and minimal GvHD changes in kidney and skin samples, in contrast to alloBMT treatment. In this study, transplantation of DRCC promoted the recovery of peripheral blood cell populations after TBI without the development of GVHD. This study introduces a novel and promising DRCC-based bridging therapy for treating ARS and extending survival without GvHD.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Cells and the Establishment of Fetomaternal Tolerance for Successful Human Pregnancy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Pregnancy is a remarkable event where the semi-allogeneic fetus develops in the mother’s uterus, despite genetic and immunological differences. The antigen handling and processing at the maternal–fetal interface during pregnancy appear to be crucial for the adaptation of the maternal immune system and for tolerance to the developing fetus and placenta. Maternal antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as macrophages (Mφs) and dendritic cells (DCs), are present at the maternal–fetal interface throughout pregnancy and are believed to play a crucial role in this process. Despite numerous studies focusing on the significance of Mφs, there is limited knowledge regarding the contribution of DCs in fetomaternal tolerance during pregnancy, making it a relatively new and growing field of research. This review focuses on how the behavior of DCs at the maternal–fetal interface adapts to pregnancy’s unique demands. Moreover, it discusses how DCs interact with other cells in the decidual leukocyte network to regulate uterine and placental homeostasis and the local maternal immune responses to the fetus. The review particularly examines the different cell lineages of DCs with specific surface markers, which have not been critically reviewed in previous publications. Additionally, it emphasizes the impact that even minor disruptions in DC functions can have on pregnancy-related complications and proposes further research into the potential therapeutic benefits of targeting DCs to manage these complications.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue as a paraneoplastic event from prostate cancer relapse<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>We wish to investigate whether there is a known connection between prostate cancer and glomerulonephritis.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>We present a case report of a patient whom we diagnosed with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis as a result of prostate cancer relapse.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>In rare cases, prostate cancer is associated with crescentic glomerulonephritis.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Every patient with cryptic glomerulonephritis should be screened for cancer.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Study of Erythrocytes in Donkeys and Horses<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The aim of this study was to examine morphometric values of erythrocytes in donkeys and horses. While the hematological and biochemical profiles of horses and donkeys have been previously documented in literature, there are no precise morphometric data regarding erythrocytes in donkeys. Given the increasing presence of donkeys in the world, the need exists to improve knowledge about this species. Balkan donkey is a large autochthonous breed found in Serbia. Blood cell parameters such as red blood cell count (RBC), Mean Corpuscular Volume or Mean Cell Volume (MCV) are well documented in horses. However, papers examining blood morphometry in donkeys, especially erythrocyte size, are scarce. The clinical examination in this study included a total of 72 horses and donkeys. All animals were adults, located in Vojvodina, Northern Province of Serbia. Blood samples were evaluated and analyzed using ImageJ program. Following the analysis of the morphometric diameters of erythrocytes in donkeys and horses, it can be concluded that donkeys have the largest erythrocyte diameters. The precise reason for this phenomenon is still unknown.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Pulmonary Lesions in Slaughtered Fatteners as Indicators of Respiratory Diseases in Pigs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The goal of this research was to identify lung lesions in slaughtered fatteners originating from registered farms. Evaluation of lung lesions was based on their visible macroscopic features, which were then associated with corresponding diseases. Data on lung lesions in slaughtered fatteners were collected over the period spanning from October to December 2022 from three slaughterhouses (A, B, C), involving 150 fattening animals from each slaughterhouse. The examination of slaughtered pig lungs from all three slaughterhouses in our study revealed that Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae lesions in the lungs are the most prevalent, while Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia and bronchopneumonia occurrences are rare.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Susceptibility in Clinical Mastitis Cases on Simmental Farms in the Mačva Region (Serbia)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The battle against mastitis remains an enduring challenge in contemporary animal farming. This paper presents the frequency of bacterial pathogens isolated from milk samples collected on 3 farms with a previous history of clinical mastitis in the Mačva region during the year 2022. A total of 77 Simmental cows were enrolled in the study, ranging from the first to sixth lactation and managed in a tie-stall system. The results obtained indicate that the frequency of clinical mastitis in the animals considered was 16.9%. Of a total of 13 pathogenic isolates with clinically present mastitis, Staphylococcus aureus was recorded in 5 (38.4%), Streptococcus uberis in 3 (23.1%), Escherichia coli in 2 (15.4%), Klebsiella pneumoniae in 2 (15.4%), and Streptococcus dysagalactiae in 1 (7.7%). Notably, the largest number of clinical mastitis cases (namely 8, or 61.5%) was recorded during the winter period. Both cases of mastitis caused by K. pneumoniae were detected in the summer, the occurrence of which was implicated in changes in the bedding straw. According to the stage of lactation, the highest frequency of mastitis was found in the early stage of lactation totaling 8 cases (61.5%), followed by 4 (30.8%) in the middle phase of lactation, and only 1 (7.7%) in the late stage of lactation. The causative agents of the Streptococcus genus showed susceptibility to β lactamates in all the cases, whereas all of the E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates were found resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Economic Viability of Farms in Serbia using the Opportunity Cost Approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The purpose of this paper is to observe and evaluate the economic viability of Serbian farms engaged in different types of farming on the basis of data obtained from the Serbian Farm Accountancy Data Network of 2021. Farm economic viability was assessed using the opportunity costs of the main factors of production in agriculture (namely labour, land, and capital). The share of unpaid labour was found highest in the livestock farms specialising in milk production and grazing livestock. The farms specialising in permanent crops and horticulture had the largest share of their own utilized agricultural land, representing a very intensive type of farming usually organized on small acreages. The highest share of economically viable farms was recorded in the field crop farming system, followed by horticulture and permanent crops. In the viable group, the field crop farms were dominant with the largest coefficients of short- and long-term viability, which increased with the economic size of the farm. In general, the farms engaged in plant production exhibited much higher economic viability levels than the livestock farms (excluding the granivore farms). The most endangered were the farms specialising in grazing livestock, with the largest proportion of non-viable farms and the lowest coefficients of economic viability. A notable number of these farms lack economic justification for agriculture. However, ceasing agricultural production may not be the best solution for them, particularly as farms in remote rural areas are managed by elderly and low-skilled farmers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Between Types Of Organic Food And Socio - Demographic Characteristics Of Buyers In Serbia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>An increasing number of consumers are buying organic foods, resulting in an enhancement of the value of this market, which recorded constant growth both before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Concerns for health, environmental protection, animal welfare, and support for the local economy contribute to greater purchases of organic foods, whereas high prices, lack of trust in certification, scarce supply, and unavailability of organic products represent obstacles to their purchase. This paper examined the prevalence of certain types of organic food in purchasing, as well as its relationship with the level of physical activity, gender, education, and age of the consumer. The sample consists of 600 respondents with different socio-demographic characteristics. The SPSS program was used for data processing. In addition to descriptive statistics, non-parametric techniques were also used due to the distribution of scores on the tested variables, which significantly deviates from the normal. The results obtained indicate that among the organic foods in the Republic of Serbia, fruits and vegetables are the most purchased, and that females, persons with higher education, and older people are the most typical buyers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Aspects Of Plum Production In The Republic Of Serbia And Worldwide<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Plums are the predominant fruit crop in Serbia. In the period under consideration (2012–2021), the Serbian plum area accounted for, on average, 42.52 % of the total fruit area in the country, far surpassing all other fruit crops. The Republic of Serbia is one of the leading plum producers in the world. With an average annual plum production of 440.91 thousand tons, Serbia ranks third in the world (following only China and Romania), contributing 3.77% to the world’s total plum production. Nevertheless, the country faces challenges such as low yields per unit area, approximately 5.35 t/ha (FAO, 2023). Presently, the economic significance of plum production is not as high as in previous decades, and cultivation potential remains underutilized. To revitalize plum production in Serbia and reclaim its historical prominence, it is imperative to assess the current state of plum production both globally and regionally and implement appropriate measures to enhance economic performance in this traditional fruit sector.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Heavy Metals (Cd, Pb, As, Hg) in the Liver of Wild Boars in the Republic of North Macedonia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Wild boars, being a common game species, inhabit regions across Eurasia, the southern regions of Asia and certain Indonesian islands. Being omnivorous and due to their relatively long lifespan, wide distribution and a relatively high number of shot animals per annual legal hunting season, they are suitable to be biological indicators of occurrence of heavy metals. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, arsenic and mercury were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry in the livers of free-living wild boars (n = 58) from two locations in the Republic of North Macedonia. In all four examined heavy metals, no statistically significant difference between the locations was found (p &gt; 0.05). The mean levels of heavy metals were Cd 0.391 mg/kg and 0.339 mg/kg; Pb 0.213 mg/kg and 0.204 mg/kg; Hg 0.034 mg/kg and 0.037 mg/kg; As 0.035 mg/kg and 0.029 mg/kg in the livers of boars from Bitola and Gevgelija hunting sites, respectively. Although some samples (two samples of Hg, ten samples of Cd and two samples of Pb) exceeded the legal limits, the average values for all heavy metals were far below the maximum permitted values. These findings are promising since they suggest that the ecosystem in the Republic of North Macedonia is stable concerning heavy metal pollution.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Soil Salinity in the Low-Chellif Plain, North-West Algeria, By Joint Measurements Of Electrical And Hydraulic Conductivities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Land use in arid and semi-arid regions is a serious challenge for sustainable production, owing not only to drought and climate change but also to water availability. Irrigated perimeters in these regions are subject to secondary salinization that negatively impacts soil quality and agricultural productivity. Monitoring and diagnosing the extent of soil contamination requires a more innovative approach to optimize rehabilitation of affected areas. In the present study, diagnosing of saline soil degradation is conducted by using two key indicators: electrical conductivity of saturated paste extract (ECe) and saturated hydraulic conductivity (HCs). The results of the study reveal that the value of ECe in 85% of the Lower Chellif Plain area (north-west Algeria) is ECe &lt; 2 dS m<sup>−1</sup>, while 78% of the area is moderately permeable. These findings underscore high spatial variability in salinity distribution, indicating that the process of salinization has not yet reached a critical stage. Furthermore, it is concluded that ECe and HCs are appropriate indicators for diagnosing salinity of soil in relation to its structural and permeability characteristics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue