rss_2.0Medicine FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Medicine Feed in Adolescent Hygiene Habits Caused by the COVID-19 Pandemic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to examine and determine hygiene habits in the adolescent population depending on whether the Covid 19 pandemic affected the improvement of hygiene habits in the same population. The research is designed as a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire created using the Google Docs platform was used as an instrument. The sample consisted of 89 respondents of both sexes, aged 18 to 23 years. The analysis shows that there is a difference in maintaining hygienic habits before and after the introduction of the state of emergency. In 20.22% of cases, hygienic habits were better during the state of emergency, and after the mitigation of measures, compared to the period before the introduction of the state of emergency, and in 5.62% of respondents hygienic habits were worse, while in 74.16% of respondents there were no change in hygienic habits. The analysis of the use of disinfectants and masks shows that 60.68% of respondents used disinfectants and masks more often after mitigation of emergency measures compared to the period before the introduction of the state of emergency, 5.62% of respondents used less, while in 33.70 % of respondents there were no changes in the use of disinfectants and masks.</p> <p>The results of this study show a positive relationship between hygiene habits before and during the Covid 19 pandemic, and after mitigation, as well as between the use of disinfectants and masks before and during the Covid 19 pandemic, and after mitigation, which justifies further research in this area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00External Validation of the 4C Mortality Score and PRIEST COVID-19 Clinical Severity Score in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia in Greece<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Background:</italic> Prognostic scores can be used to facilitate better management of patients suffering from life-threatening diseases, provided that they have been tested in the population of interest.</p> <p><italic>Aim:</italic> To perform external validation of the 4C Mortality Score and PRIEST COVID-19 Clinical Severity Score.</p> <p><italic>Study Design:</italic> Prospective Observational Study.</p> <p><italic>Methods</italic>: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia in a tertiary hospital in Greece were enrolled in the study. The prognostic scores were calculated based on hospital admission data and ROC curve analysis was performed. We assessed a composite outcome of either in-hospital death or need for invasive ventilation.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Both 4C and PRIEST scores showed good discriminative ability with an AUC value of 0.826 (CI 95%: 0.765-0.887) and 0.852 (CI 95%: 0.793-0.910) respectively. Based on the Youden Index the optimal cut-off for the 4C score was 11 (Sensitivity 75%, Specificity 75.5%) and 10 for the PRIEST score (Sensitivity 83% and Specificity 69.4%). Calibration was adequate for both scores, except for the low and very high risk groups in the PRIEST score.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion:</italic> The 4C Mortality Score and PRIEST COVID-19 Clinical Severity Score can be used for early identification of patients with poor prognosis in a Greek population cohort hospitalized with COVID-19.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Association between serum midkine levels and tumor size in Indonesian hepatocellular carcinoma patients: a cross-sectional study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background:</bold> The incidence of liver cancer is increased worldwide with 75%–85% are diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Current practice has low sensitivity limitations to diagnose the early stages of HCC, thus urging the need for a biomarker with higher sensitivity to detect HCC, specifically in the early stage. This study aimed to determine the association between Midkine levels and progressiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), according to tumor size, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC), and presence of portal venous thrombosis.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> This cross-sectional study involved 100 patients in Adam Malik General Hospital diagnosed with HCC, collected with a consecutive sampling method, whose diagnosis were confirmed by findings of hypervascular on arterial phase imaging and portal vein or delayed phase washout triple-phase CT Scan. Samples are later categorized according to Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stages, tumor size, and presence of portal venous thrombosis. Blood samples were drawn to measure serum Midkine using ELISA. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were conducted to determine the difference of Midkine levels based on tumor size, BCLC staging, and presence of portal venous thrombosis.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Serum Midkine level shows a significant difference over tumor size (p=0.014), no significant difference found compared to BCLC stages and presence of portal venous thrombosis.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> Serum Midkine levels are associated with the tumor size of HCC, thus helping physicians determine treatment plans.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of scoring systems for predicting remission of Type 2 diabetes in sleeve gastrectomy patients<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> This study aims to compare the predictive capacity of ABCD, DiaRem2, Ad-DiaRem, and DiaBetter scoring systems for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remission in Turkish adult morbidly obese patients who underwent SG.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> This retrospective cohort study included 80 patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy (SG) operation, were diagnosed with T2DM preoperatively, and had at least one-year follow-up after surgery. Because bariatric surgery is performed on patients with class III obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2) or class II obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2) with obesity releated comorbid conditions in our hospital, our study cohort consisted of these patients.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The diagnostic performance of the DiaBetter, DiaRem2, Ad-DiaRem and ABCD for identifying diabetes remission, assessed by the AUC was 0.882 (95% CI, 0.807-0.958, p &lt; 0.001), 0.862 (95% CI, 0.779-0.945, p &lt; 0.001), 0.849 (95% CI, 0.766-0.932, p &lt; 0.001) and 0.726 (95% CI, 0.601-0.851, p = 0.002), respectively. The AUCs of the Ad-Diarem, DiaBetter and DiaRem2 were statistically higher than AUC of the ABCD (all p-value &lt; 0.001). Besides, there was no statistically significant difference in AUCs of the Ad-Diarem, DiaBetter and DiaRem scores (all p-value &gt; 0.05).</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> Ad-Dairem, DiaBetter and DaiRem scoring systems were found to provide a successful prediction for diabetes remission in sleeve gastrectomy patients. It was observed that the predictive power of the ABCD scoring system was lower than the other systems. We think that the use of scoring systems for diabetes remission, which have a simple use, will become widespread.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Empathy and Type D personality as the correlates of level of social skills of primary healthcare nurses<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> Social skills are a very important element in the work of a nurse. These skills support patient-centered care and improve the quality of care, and for nurses, they are a protective factor against burnout syndrome, also they improve team work. Therefore, it is so important to search for their determinants. The objective of the article was to evaluate the relation between empathy and type D personality with the level of social competences of primary healthcare nurses.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> The research was conducted among primary healthcare nurses from the Lubelskie Voivodeship, using the following tools: The Social Competences Profile (PROKOS); Type D Personality Scale (DS-14), Empathic Understanding of Other People Questionnaire (KRE) and the sociodemographic data questionnaire.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> We analyzed the responses of 446 nurses. In the study group 65% of the nurses had an average level of social competences. The research also evaluated the level of empathy demonstrated by primary healthcare nurses. The mean score for the level of empathy was M=64.63 points (SD=10.16). When it comes to 39% of the researched group of nurses (n=172), they demonstrated type D personality. The correlation analysis proved that the level of empathy among primary healthcare nurses significantly (p&lt;0.001) supported their social competences. Furthermore the negative aff ectivity and social inhibition correlated significantly negatively (p&lt;0.001) with social skills of nurses.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> Our research enabled us to discover the relations between empathy and type D personality with the level of social competences of primary healthcare nurses. Research further indicated insufficient level of social skills of nurses and the need to investigate factors, which could support their shaping. Further, in-depth research is required in this field, including quantitative analysis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Health problems of the patient after oncological treatment osteosarcoma with persistent thymus<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> Bone sarcomas, as rare tumour types, constitute only about 1% of malignant tumours. The treatment process is an additional burden on the human body, especially at a young age. The surgery has a long-term eff ect on the patient’s mobility and requires great eff ort and motivation to regain physical fitness. The discomfort resulting from having a persistent thymus gland makes it significantly more difficult for patients to return to their precancerous state.</p> <p><bold>Aim.</bold> The aim of this study is to diagnose the patient’s health problems resulting from the presence of persistent thymus gland and a history of oncological treatment for osteosarcoma, together with the presentation of measures to improve functioning in daily life.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> The research method of the individual case study and the research techniques used were: interview, observation, measurement and analysis of medical records. Additionally, 9 scales were used, which allowed for a comprehensive assessment of the patient’s health status.</p> <p><bold>Results and summary.</bold> The following health problems were identified: dyspnoea, cough, muscle weakness, pain in the spine and left lower limb, dizziness and fatigue. Close cooperation of the interdisciplinary team, the patient and her relatives and a holistic approach is the key to developing an eff ective care plan together with tailoring such therapeutic and caring activities that increase the patient’s comfort of life.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Implementation of the first skin-to-skin contact after cesarean sections in maternity hospitals in Warsaw<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Aim.</bold> The aim of the study was to assess the skin-to-skin contact after Caesarean sections in Warsaw maternity hospitals.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> The study used the method of direct observation. The material for the research was collected using the original observation sheet designed for the purpose of the study. The research was carried out in 11 maternity facilities in Warsaw of varied referral levels.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> In 11.73% of cases after Caesarean sections, the mother’s contact with the child occurred immediately after birth. The duration of the first contact varied and amounted to: a few seconds – 30.10% of observations, from 1 to 5 minutes – 32.14%, from 6 to 15 minutes – 16.84%. The longest contact lasted 16-30 minutes, and it was performed only in 6.12% of cases.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> In most cases, the initiation of mother-child contact after Caesarean section is not carried out in line with the recommendations, it terms of its initiation, duration and form.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Knowledge and attitudes towards addiction to psychoactive substances in professional groups of health care workers, teachers and the police in the Lubuskie Voivodeship<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Drug addiction is a common phenomenon that increases with the progress of the European integration process. Professional help to people addicted and under the influence of drugs or other psychoactive substances should be provided primarily by health care institutions. An important and interesting issue seems to be the assessment of how people who have the most frequent contact with addicts are prepared to provide help, what is their knowledge and attitude to the phenomenon of drug addiction and to people addicted to psychoactive substances. The material for the research was a questionnaire for people who have contact and / or work professionally with people addicted to psychoactive substances. A total number of 253 people who had professional contact with people addicted to psychoactive substances were examined, including 102 men and 151 women. The respondents most often acquired knowledge in the field of drug addiction through the mass media. The exception is the professional group of doctors, which was the only one to refer to professional literature. Contact with drug addicts was not worried by 68.6% of doctors, 68.4% of policemen, 45.9% of nurses and only 39.0% of teachers. Fear may be caused mainly by possible aggressive behavior, which is feared by 49.8% of the respondents, including 58.3% of women and 37.2% of men. When it comes to 90.1% of respondents, they believe that the cause of aggression is the lack of control over their emotions. The results of the work can be helpful in creating new, satisfying solutions to difficult situations and developing cooperation characterized by empathy and acceptance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00The development of the Metabolic-associated Fatty Liver Disease during pharmacotherapy of mental disorders - a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Metabolic-associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD) is a term for Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) that highlights its association with components of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). MAFLD is becoming a clinically significant problem due to its increasing role in the pathogenesis of cryptogenic cirrhosis of the liver.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods:</bold> The resulting work is a review of the most important information on the risk of MAFLD development in the context of the use of particular groups of psychotropic drugs. The study presents the epidemiology, with particular emphasis on the population of psychiatric patients, pathophysiology and scientific reports analyzing the effect of the psychotropic medications on MAFLD development.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The drugs that can have the greatest impact on the development of MAFLD are atypical antipsychotics, especially olanzapine, and mood stabilizers (MS) - valproic acid (VPA). Their effect is indirect, mainly through dysregulation of organism’s carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The population of psychiatric patients is particularly vulnerable to the development of MAFLD. At the root of this disorder lies the specificity of mental disorders, improper dietary habits, low level of physical activity and tendency to addictions. Also, the negative impact of the psychotropic drugs on the systemic metabolism indirectly contributes to the development of MAFLD. In order to prevent fatty liver disease, it is necessary to monitor metabolic and liver parameters regularly, and patients should be screened by ultrasound examination of the liver. There are also important preventive actions from the medical professionals, including education of patients and sensitizing to healthy lifestyle.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Epidural Analgesia for Labour: Comparing the Effects of Continuous Epidural Infusion (CEI) and Programmed Intermittent Epidural Bolus (PIEB) on Obstetric Outcomes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>In the last few years there is a trend of transiting from the continuous epidural infusion (CEI) method for epidural analgesia to a new method – programmed intermittent epidural analgesia (PIEB). This change improves the quality of epidural analgesia, thanks to an increased spread of the anaesthetic in the epidural space and higher maternal satisfaction. Nevertheless, we must make sure that such change of method does not lead to worse obstetric and neonatal outcomes.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and Methods</title> <p>This is a retrospective observational case control study. We compared several obstetrical outcomes between the CEI and PIEB groups, such as the rates of instrumental delivery, rates of caesarean section, duration of first and second stages of labour well as APGAR scores. We further segmented the subjects and examined them in groups of nulliparous and multiparous parturients.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>2696 parturients were included in this study: 1387 (51.4%) parturients in the CEI group and 1309 (48.6%) parturients in the PIEB group. No significant difference was found in instrumental or caesarean section delivery rates between groups. This result held even when the groups were differentiated between nulliparous and multiparous. No differences were revealed regarding first and second stage duration or APGAR scores.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Our study demonstrates transition from the CEI to the PIEB method does not lead to any statistically significant effects on either obstetric or neonatal outcomes.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00“Fighting the Minotaur” A Complex Blunt Chest Trauma Due to a Bull Attack: A Case Report<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Bull-related injury continues to contribute to an unacceptable number of serious injuries and deaths, and bullfighting continues to be a popular, deeply traditional celebration of the culture of many Iberic-American countries. Most accidents due to bull attacks are horn-related penetrating traumas. Blunt chest trauma can cause a wide range of clinical presentations and injuries, making the diagnostics and therapies extremely challenging. Consequently, it is vital to quickly identify major life-threatening chest wall and intrathoracic injuries. In this case report, we aimed to describe the complexity of the management and the treatment of a blunt trauma patient hit by a bull.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluating the Effect of Dexmedetomidine Intravenous Infusion on Labour Pain Management in Primipara Pregnant Women: A Nonrandomised Clinical Trial Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background and aims</title> <p>The pain of labour is very severe. Most women prefer painless labour to routine labour if they are aware of the methods of analgesia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine intravenous infusion on labour pain management in primipara term pregnant women.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>In this nonrandomised clinical trial with control group, all primipara term pregnant women from August 2019 to March 2020 were included. In the intervention group, after the active phase of labour, dexmedetomidine was given according to the protocol and continued until phase 2 of labour. The control group received no intervention to reduce pain. Patients in both groups were evaluated for fetal heart rate, Apgar scores, vital signs, pain intensity, and sedation score.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>There were no significant differences in primary fetal heart rate, primary maternal hemodynamics, and mean Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes between the two groups (p &gt; .05). There was no significant difference in the mean fetal heart rate in different stages between the two groups. Intragroup analysis in the intervention group showed that mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly decreased after drug administration but were in the normal range. The active phase of labour in the intervention group was significantly shorter than in the control group (p = 0.002). The mean Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score after dexmedetomidine administration decreased significantly from 9.25 at baseline to 4.61 after drug administration, 3.88 during labour, and 1.88 after placental expulsion. The mean Ramsay Sedation Scale score after dexmedetomidine administration increased significantly from 1.00 at baseline to 2.05 after drug administration, 2.22 during labour, and 2.05 after placental expulsion.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Based on the study's results, the administration of dexmedetomidine to manage labour pain with careful monitoring of mother and fetus is recommended.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of the effect of Intubation Box Use on Tracheal Intubation Difficulty with King Vision and Truview Videolaryngoscope in Manikin in a Tertiary Care Hospital<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>The procedures of introducing an airway by intubation are associated with increased risk of aerosolisation of SARS-CoV-2 virus, posing a high risk to the personnel involved. Newer and novel methods such as the intubation box have been developed to increase the safety of healthcare workers during intubation.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods (design)</title> <p>In this study, 33 anaesthesiologist and critical care specialists intubated the trachea of the airway manikin (US Laerdal Medical AS™) 4 times using a King Vision<sup>®</sup> videolaryngoscope and TRUVIEW PCD™ videolaryngoscope (with and without an intubation box as described by Lai). Intubation time was primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were first-pass intubation success rate, percentage of glottic opening (POGO) score and peak force to maxillary incisors.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Intubation time and the number of times a click was heard during tracheal intubation were considerably higher in both groups when an intubation box was used (<xref ref-type="table" rid="j_rjaic-2021-0004_tab_001">Table 1</xref>). When comparing the two laryngoscopes, the King Vision<sup>®</sup> videolaryngoscope enabled much less time to intubate than did the TRUVIEW laryngoscope, both with and without the intubation box. (P&lt;0.001) In both laryngoscope groups, first-pass successful intubation was higher without the intubation box, although the difference was statistically insignificant. POGO score was not affected by intubation box but a higher score was observed with King Vision<sup>®</sup> laryngoscope (<xref ref-type="table" rid="j_rjaic-2021-0004_tab_001">Tables 1</xref>,<xref ref-type="table" rid="j_rjaic-2021-0004_tab_002">2</xref>).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>This study indicates that use of an intubation box makes intubation difficult and increases the time needed to perform it. King Vision<sup>®</sup> videolaryngoscope results in lesser intubation time and better glottic view as compared to TRUVIEW laryngoscope.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Antiemetic Efficacy of Palonosetron Compared with the Combination of Ondansetron and Dexamethasone for Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Gynaecological Surgery<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background and aims</title> <p>For the prevention of PONV, we evaluated the efficacy of palonosetron compared with ondansetron along with dexamethasone in patients undergoing laparoscopic gynaecological surgery.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>A total of 84 adults, posted for elective laparoscopic surgeries under general anaesthesia were included in the study. The patients were randomly allocated to two groups (n = 42 each). Immediately after induction, patients in the first group (group I) received 4 mg ondansetron with 8 mg dexamethasone, and patients in the second group (group II) received 0.075 mg palonosetron. Any incidences of nausea and/or vomiting, the requirement of rescue antiemetic, and side effects were recorded.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>In group I, 66.67% of the patients had an Apfel score of 2, and 33.33% of the patients had a score of 3. In group II, 85.71% of patients had an Apfel score of 2, and 14.29% of the patients had a score of 3. At 1, 4, and 8 hours, the incidence of PONV was comparable in both groups. At 24 hours there was a significant difference in the incidence of PONV in the group treated with ondansetron with dexamethasone combination (4/42) when compared to the palonosetron group (0/42). The overall incidence of PONV was significantly higher in group I (23.81%: ondansetron and dexamethasone combination) than in group II (7.14%: palonosetron). The need for rescue medication in group I was significantly high. Conclusion: Palonosetron was more efficacious compared to the combination of ondansetron and dexamethasone for preventing PONV for laparoscopic gynaecological surgery.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of Goal-Directed Fluid Therapy Using LiDCOrapid System with Regular Fluid Therapy in Patients Undergoing Spine Surgery as a Randomised Clinical Trial<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) is a new concept to describe the cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume variation to guide intravenous fluid administration during surgery. LiDCOrapid (LiDCO, Cardiac Sensor System, UK Company Regd 2736561, VAT Regd 672475708) is a minimally invasive monitor that estimates the responsiveness of CO versus fluid infusion. We intend to find whether GDFT using the LiDCOrapid system can decrease the volume of intraoperative fluid therapy and facilitate recovery in patients undergoing posterior fusion spine surgeries in comparison to regular fluid therapy.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>This study is a randomised clinical trial, and the design was parallel. Inclusion criteria for participants in this study were patients with comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease undergoing spine surgery; exclusion criteria were patients with irregular heart rhythm or severe valvular heart disease. Forty patients with a previous history of medical comorbidities undergoing spine surgery were randomly and evenly assigned to receive either LiDCOrapid guided fluid therapy or regular fluid therapy. The volume of infused fluid was the primary outcome. The amount of bleeding, number of patients who needed packed red blood cell transfusion, base deficit, urine output, days of hospital length of stay and intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and time needed to start eating solids were monitored as secondary outcomes.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The volume of infused crystalloid and urinary output in the LiDCO group was significantly lower than that of the control group (p = .001). Base deficit at the end of surgery was significantly better in the LiDCO group (p &lt; .001). The duration of hospital length of stay in the LiDCO group was significantly shorter (p = .027), but the duration of ICU admission was not significantly different between the two groups.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Goal-directed fluid therapy using the LiDCOrapid system reduced the volume of intraoperative fluid therapy.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparative studies of the macro- and microstructures of stump-root wood and stemwood<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>It is found that the existing problem of wood resources can be partially solved by attracting additional reserves, in particular, stump-root wood (SRW). In order to apply SRW in woodworking and to fill the scientific base with indicators of the macro- and microstructures of the stump-root systems of individual species, studies were carried out on the main characteristics that are decisive for using composite materials in the industrial production. Based on the study results, it was found that there are differences in the internal structure between SRW and stemwood (SW). It was found that in all species, the width of annual rings in the SRW was greater than that in the SW, in particular, in pine (<italic>Pinus sylvestris</italic> L.) – by 84.62%; in spruce (<italic>Picea abies</italic> Karst.) – by 73.68%; in fir (<italic>Abies alba</italic>) – by 93.75%; in aspen (<italic>Populus tremula</italic> L.) – by 35.71% and in birch (<italic>Betula pendula</italic> Roth.) – by 105.00%. It has been found that the content of late wood in the SRW of coniferous tree species is less than that in the SW, on average by 20–25%, and the number of annual rings per 1 cm in the SRW is 40–52% less than in the SW. Differences in the microscopic structure between SRW and SW are revealed, which consist in the difference in the size of tracheids in softwoods and of vessels and fibres of libriform in hardwoods. It was found that the transverse dimensions of early tracheids in the SRW were larger than in the SW, in particular, in the radial direction by 19–33% and in the tangential direction by no more than 15%, and the interval of dimensions in the radial direction was 1.5–2.5. It was found that the early tracheids of root wood had thinner walls (by 19–28%) and a larger internal cavity (by 15–25%) compared to similar elements of SW. It was revealed that the diameters of vessels and fibres of libriform in SRW are greater than in SW, in particular, in aspen (<italic>Populus tremula</italic> L.) – by 20.41% for vessels and by 12.95% for libriform fibres and in birch (<italic>Betula pendula</italic> Roth.) – by 20.69% for vessels and by 18.41% for libriform fibres. The practical significance of the studies lies in the fact that the obtained characteristics of the structural components of the SRW can be used to predict the strength indicators of composite materials.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Understanding forest land conversion for agriculture in a developing country context: An application of the theory of planned behaviour among a cohort of Nigerian farmers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Natural and forest-rich ecosystems are determinants of environmental sustainability, which are threatened by forest land conversion for agricultural purposes, especially in less-developed contexts. Moreover, human behaviour is central to achieving the much desired ecologically balanced environment. Hence, a partly novel model informed by the theory of planned behaviour was used in the examination of forest land conversion for agricultural purposes.</p> <p>The study design was a cross-sectional survey targeted at a group of farmers of southwestern Nigeria. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire among 320 randomly selected crop farmers. Independent samples <italic>t</italic> test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to test the significance of difference in respondents' forest conversion behaviour across subgroups of gender and age/education, respectively. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to identify the determinants of forest conversion behaviour.</p> <p>Results showed that 87.8% of respondents had ever engaged in forest conversion. Gender and education had no significant effect on forest conversion behaviour (<italic>p</italic> &gt; 0.05), but age did (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05). Attitude was the best determinant (β = 0.289, <italic>r</italic> = 0.510, <italic>R</italic><sup>2</sup> = 0.260, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001), subjective norm was better (β = 0.257, <italic>r</italic> = 0.496, <italic>R</italic><sup>2</sup> = 0.055, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001), while perceived behavioural control was good (β = 0.131, <italic>r</italic> = 0.398, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001, <italic>R</italic><sup>2</sup> = 0.012, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.005). The three variables correlated with intention by a degree of 57.2% (multiple <italic>R</italic> = 0.572), while they explained 32.7% of the variance in intention (<italic>R</italic><sup>2</sup> =0.327). Intention was also found to be a significant determinant of behaviour (β = 0.222, <italic>r</italic> = 0.222, <italic>R</italic><sup>2</sup> = 0.049, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001).</p> <p>Middle age predisposes to, whereas younger and older age protects against greater extent of forest conversion. The partly novel model derived from the theory of planned behaviour proves the likely viability of the pursuit of socio-psychologically predicated interventions to enthrone forest conservation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Coleopterous predators of pine bark beetles in the last years of the outbreak recorded in Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this study was to identify the species composition of coleopterous predators and their occurrence in different parts of the stem depending on the health condition of Scots pine (<italic>Pinus sylvestris</italic> L.) in the collapsing foci of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). The research was carried out in 2019–2021 at 38 sample plots located in five State Forestry Enterprises of Sumy region (Ukraine). All sample plots are located in pure Scots pine stands in relatively poor forest site conditions. The relative density of stocking is 0.6–0.7, and the age of stands is between 60 and 110 years. The health condition for each tree was evaluated on visual characteristics by the classes: first – healthy; second – weakened; third – severely weakened; fourth – drying up; fifth – recently died and sixth – died over a year ago. Bark beetles’ nuptial chambers and predators were counted on 25 × 25 cm pallets, which were located at the lower, middle and upper parts of the stem with thin, thick and transitional bark, respectively. The significance of differences in the performance of predator species depending on the tree part, health condition and year was analysed using the nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis (K–W) test. The species composition of predators in different years, stem parts and tree health condition was compared using the Sorensen–Chekanovsky index.</p> <p>In the collapsing foci of bark beetles, the health condition of Scots pine in 2019–2021 tended to worsen. The infestation density of <italic>Ips acuminatus</italic> (Gyllenhal, 1827) and <italic>Ips sexdentatus</italic> (Boerner, 1767) was 0.62 ± 0.032 and 0.64 ± 0.017 nuptial chambers per 1 dm<sup>2</sup>, respectively, and also decreased in 2019–2021. In the galleries of bark beetles, seven species of coleopterous predators were collected: <italic>Aulonium ruficorne</italic> (Olivier, 1790) (Zopheridae), <italic>Platysoma elongatum</italic> (Leach, 1817) (Histeridae), <italic>Rhizophagus depressus</italic> (Fabricius, 1792) (Monotomidae), <italic>Corticeus pini</italic> (Panzer, 1799) (Tenebrionidae), <italic>Thanasimus formicarius</italic> (Linnaeus, 1758), <italic>Thanasimus femoralis</italic> (Zetterstedt, 1828) (Cleridae) and <italic>Salpingus ruficollis</italic> (Linnaeus, 1761) (Salpingidae). Two more species – <italic>Glischrochilus quadripunctatus</italic> (Linnaeus, 1758) (Nitidulidae) and <italic>Pytho depressus</italic> (Linnaeus, 1767) (Pythidae) – were singly collected in the foci. <italic>T. formicarius</italic> and <italic>P. elongatum</italic> were the most abundant. The ratio of predator–prey significantly increased from the upper to the lower part of the stem with thick bark. It, however, decreased in this stem part from the fourth to the sixth class of the health condition of the host tree.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-22T00:00:00.000+00:00 () as the causative agent of bacterial wetwood disease of common silver fir ( mill.)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent decades, in many regions of the planet, there has been a widespread deterioration in the health condition and dieback of dark coniferous forests, caused by the combined action of various stress factors of biotic and abiotic origin. Forests with the participation of species of the genus <italic>Abies</italic> Mill. are particularly prone to degradation and dieback. The aim of the research is to study the symptoms of bacterial wetwood disease of <italic>Abies alba</italic> in the Ivano-Frankivsk region (state enterprise ‘Kutske forestry’) and to determine the anatomical, morphological and cultural properties of the pathogen. Some of the common symptoms of the disease include cracks and ulcers on the trunks with exfoliated rhytidome and exudate secretion, massive development of epicormic shoots, saturated xylem and phloem, wet rot with a characteristic odour of fermentation and pathological nucleus.</p> <p>Based on the syntaxonomic analysis of fir forests, an attempt has been made to identify the objective causes that lead to excessive development of phytopathogens and dieback of <italic>Abies alba</italic>. Our research established that the primary cause of dieback of <italic>Abies alba</italic> Mill. forests is a systemic, vascular–parenchymal disease known as bacterial wetwood of fir, which affects all plant tissues at all stages of ontogenesis. We isolated and experimentally confirmed that the causative agent of the disease is a phytopathogenic bacterium <italic>Lelliottia nimipressuralis</italic> (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_ffp-2022-0017_ref_005">Carter 1945</xref>) <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_ffp-2022-0017_ref_002">Brady et al. 2013</xref>, which also causes bacterial wetwood in many species of forest woody plants, and also studied its common morphological, physiological and biochemical properties.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Conversion of low-value stands by corridor method in Left-Bank Forest-Steppe, Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study was to identify the influence of different widths and cardinal directions of felled corridors on the condition and mensuration characteristics of the English oak trees planted there during the conversion of low-value young stands using the corridor method. The study was carried out in oak forests in the forest-steppe zone at a permanent sample plot. The experiment included the conversion of a low-value 8-year-old stand to improve its species composition. The sample plots were laid out in a fertile hardwood forest site. The conversion was realised by felling corridors of various widths (6, 9 and 12 m) and directions and planting English oak trees (<italic>Quercus robur</italic> L.) within them in rows. For the planted oaks, tending felling was carried out three times: weeding (8 years), cleaning (13 years) and thinning (32 years). A comparative analysis of mensuration characteristics (average height, diameter, growing stock, radial increment, health condition, etc.) was carried out for 32-year-old oak trees grown in the corridors and a part of a low-value stand in the unfelled strips after the tending felling. It was found that the average height and diameter at breast height of oaks in the 6, 9 and 12 m wide corridors of different cardinal directions did not differ significantly. The difference in oak stocks within 6 and 9 m wide corridors of different cardinal directions was also insignificant. The stock differences were statistically significant for 6 and 12 m wide corridors as well as for 9 and 12 m wide ones. The article made recommendations on the width of felled corridors and unfelled strips to effectively convert low-value young stands by the corridor method.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-22T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1