rss_2.0Medicine FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Medicine Feed microbiological characteristics of gingival pockets in the periodontal diseases of dogs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0005_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Canine periodontitis results among other factors from a disturbed balance of dental plaque microflora and an inadequate host inflammatory response to a stimulus. This investigation sought to identify microorganisms associated with canine periodontitis.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0005_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Microbiological analysis was undertaken of gingival pockets in an experimental group of 36 dogs with periodontal diseases. Swabs were collected with the use of Pet Test (MIP Pharma, Berlin, Germany) from patients with gingival pockets deeper than 5 mm. Samples were aggregated and placed in separate shipping containers with the Pet Test kit.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0005_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Identification was made of the most common microorganisms, <italic>e.g</italic>. <italic>Porphyromonas gingivalis</italic>, <italic>Treponema denticola</italic> and <italic>Prevotella intermedia</italic>. The red complex constituted the largest proportion of all analysed organisms (84.26%). <italic>Capnocytophaga gingivalis</italic> was isolated from 33 dogs, <italic>Peptostreptococcus micros</italic> from 32 dogs, <italic>Fusobacterium nucleatum</italic> from 29 animals and <italic>P. intermedia</italic> from 20.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0005_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The highest percentage of pathogens was supplied by <italic>P. gingivalis</italic> (61%). It is thought that dogs acquire them by means of cross-species transmission. The inter-study variability of results may depend not only on the method of periopathogen detection, but also on environmental factors, host immune status or genetic background. Depending on the state of periodontal disease, patients show varied microbiological profiles of the gingival pockets.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue composition, whey protein profile, and fatty acid profile of milk from Sokólski horses in relation to Polish Halfbred horses<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study was carried out on milk from cold-blooded Sokólski mares and warm-blooded Polish Halfbred mares. Milk samples were analysed for content of dry matter, protein, fat, lactose, and ash; density; energy value; percentage of α-lactalbumin (α-La), β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg), serum albumin (SA), immunoglobulin (Ig), lactoferrin (Lf) and lysozyme (Lz) in the total protein; and fatty acid profile. Milk from cold-blooded mares was found to be similar in protein and fat content to that of warm-blooded mares, but had higher content of dry matter, including lactose and ash. It also had significantly (P≤0.01) higher content of α-La, SA and Lz, and lower content of β-Lg, Ig and Lf in comparison to milk from warm-blooded mares. Milk from Sokólski horses had a significantly (P≤0.01) higher proportion of SFA, including C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C16:0 (P≤0.01) and C18:0 (P≤0.05), while the milk of warm-blooded mares had a significantly (P≤0.01) higher proportion of MUFA, including C16:1n-9 and C18:n-9, and PUFA, including C18:2n-6 and C18:3n3. The share of n-6 and n-3 PUFA was significantly (P≤0.01) higher in milk from warm-blooded horses, but their ratio (n-6/n-3) was lower (more favourable) in milk from cold-blooded mares. In addition, milk from warm-blooded horses had a lower (P≤0.01) share of HSFA and a higher proportion of DFA compared to cold-blooded horses, as well as lower values for AI and TI. Despite these minor differences in comparison with warm-blooded mares (Polish Halfbred), milk from cold-blooded Sokólski mares was shown to be a food product of high nutritional value, which is one argument in favour of the use of this horse breed for dairy purposes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue waste in animal feed: A review of nutritional potential, impact and prospects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Pineapple is a commodity and economic fruit with a high market potential worldwide. Almost 60 % of the fresh pineapple, such as peels, pulp, crowns and leaves, are agricultural waste. It is noteworthy that the waste has a high concentration of crude fibre, proteins, ascorbic acid, sugars and moisture content. The pineapple waste utilisation in animal feed has recently drawn the attention of many investigators to enhance growth performance and concomitantly reduce environmental pollution. Its inclusion in animal feed varies according to the livestock, such as feed block, pelleted or directly used as a roughage source for ruminants. The pineapple waste is also fermented to enrich the nutrient content of poultry feed. To date, the inclusion of pineapple waste in animal feed is optimistic only not for livestock but also for farmed fish. Indeed, it is an ideal strategy to improve the feed supply to the farm. This paper aims to overview the source, nutritional composition, and application of pineapple waste in animal feed. The recent findings on its effect on animal growth performance, nutrition and disease control are discussed comprehensively and summarised. The review also covers its benefits, potential impacts on sustainable farming and future perspectives.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue association of gene polymorphisms with milk production and mastitis resistance phenotypic traits in dairy cattle<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between gene polymorphisms (SNPs) and mastitis indicators and their relationship with milk production profitability in dairy herd.A functional analysis was also performed of five genes containing the studied SNPs and those located close by. DNA was isolated from the hair bulb of 320 dairy cows kept in three herds and SNP-microarray analysis was performed. The data on 299 cows was subjected to final statistical analysis using AI-REML method with one-trait repeatability test-day animal model and pedigree information using the DMU4 package. Five from 35 SNPs significantly associated with mastitis indicators or production traits and located within a gene or no more than 500,000 nucleotides from the gene were selected for the functional and economic analysis. A questionnaire was also developed to collect associated economic data of 219 cows from three herds, such as the value of milk production and direct costs incurred over three years; this allowed the gross margin, direct profitability index and direct costs incurred to produce one liter of milk to be determined, among others. None of the five studied SNPs were related to protein content. The rs110785912(T/A), found near <italic>CXCR4</italic>, and rs136813430(T/C), located in the <italic>TLR4</italic> gene exon, were associated with lnSCC, while rs110455063(C/G), located near <italic>IGFI</italic>, was associated with milk yield, fat and total solid contents. rs109421300(T/C), associated with fat/protein content ratio, as well as fat and total solid content, is located in the <italic>DGAT1</italic> gene intron. rs41587003(A/C), located in the <italic>DLG2</italic> gene intron, was associated with lactose content. The economic analysis revealed differences between the variants of the three tested SNPs. The T/C variant of the rs136813430(T/C) SNP was characterized by the highest gross margin, the highest direct profitability index and the lowest costs incurred to produce 1 liter of milk. The T/A variant of rs110785912(T/A) was related to low lnSCC and was characterized by the highest direct profitability index. In turn, the C/C variant of the rs41587003(T/C) was related to the lowest level of lactose and the highest costs of milk production. It appears that rs136813430(T/C) may be the most promising of the tested SNPs for increasing the profitability of milk production. To our knowledge, it is the first effort to assess directly a correlation between the DNA polymorphism and economic output of a dairy enterprise.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue review and meta-analysis of selected plant protein sources as a replacement of fishmeal in the diet of tilapias<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Numerous studies on the replacement of fishmeal with plant protein sources in tilapias have been undertaken. In order to quantify the effect of replacing fishmeal with plant protein sources on the growth performance of tilapias, a meta-analysis approach was applied. Despite the high heterogeneity and funnel plot asymmetry, the meta-analysis showed that replacing fishmeal with plant protein sources has a significant positive effect on the growth performance of tilapias. Thus, tilapias appear to be preadapted to utilizing plant protein sources. Furthermore, the feed value, nutritional quality and cost of the commonly used plant ingredients (soybean, sunflower, canola, cottonseed, kikuyu and azolla meals) were explored. The Solver function in Excel was used to formulate least cost diets using the plant meals. Azolla had the highest nutritional index (9.7436). This was attributed to its excellent amino acid profile that exceeded the requirements of tilapias. Nutritional index and feed value were lowest in kikuyu because of its poor amino acid profile as it registered the lowest amino acid index (0.4918). These results indicate that the amino acid profile is more important in the determination of nutritional quality than the percent protein content. Azolla and soybean meal are good candidates for the replacement of fishmeal in the diets of tilapias.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue mammary carcinoma: current therapeutic targets and future perspectives – a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Canine mammary carcinoma (CMC) is the most common neoplasm in bitches, and it shares many biological similarities with breast cancer in humans. Drug resistance, high epigenetic mutations, and relapse rates are among the challenges which eventually urge the need for a veterinary oncologist to discover new therapeutic approaches that are more effective and safer. Therefore, in this review, we also cover the current therapeutic strategies from human medicine for the future perspectives of tumor immunotherapy in veterinary medicine. These strategies have great potential to be employed as therapeutic or prophylactic options due to their ability to modulate a specific and potent immune response against CMC. As we acquire a better understanding of canine tumor immunology, we can move towards a brighter prognosis. Additionally, we report on the recent successful studies in breast cancer that may benefit canines as well.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue protozoa population and carbohydrate-digesting enzymes in sheep fed a diet supplemented with hydrolysable tannins<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study was to compare the effect of adding different sources of hydrolysable tannins to the sheep diet on protozoa population and carbohydrate digestion in the rumen. The study was performed in 3 Polish Lowland ewes fistulated to the rumen in a 3 × 3 Latin -square design. Control sheep (CON) received (g/d): meadow hay (600), barley meal (300), soybean meal (100) and vitamin-mineral premix (20). Sheep from the experimental groups were additionally administered 12.6 g/kg DM oak bark extract (OAK) and 3.91 g/kg DM tannic acid (TAN). The net consumption of tannins was approx. 0.4% DM for both additives. Regarding the count of protozoa, a significant interaction between diet and sampling time was documented for all ciliates (P&lt;0.01), with a significant effect of both factors when considered separately. Experimental diets reduced the number of total protozoa and <italic>Entodinium</italic> spp. (before, 2 and 4 h after feeding; P&lt;0.01), while increasing the abundance of <italic>Isotricha</italic> spp. population (4 h after feeding; P&lt;0.01) in the rumen. Interestingly, the count of <italic>Ophryoscolex</italic> spp. after feeding the TAN diet increased before feeding and 2 h after feeding in comparison to the CON and OAK groups, respectively, and subsequently decreased compared to the CON diet (4 and 8 h after feeding, P&lt;0.01). A significant interaction between the diet and sampling time was observed for xylanolytic activity (P&lt;0.01) in the rumen, with a significant effect of sampling time, which decreased its activity in CON (after feeding) and OAK sheep (2 h after feeding; P&lt;0.01). For amylolytic activity (P&lt;0.10), there was a trend towards a significant interaction between experimental factors, with a significant effect on both diet and sampling time. Detailed analysis showed that the TAN diet significantly reduced amylolytic activity 2 h after feeding compared to the CON group (P&lt;0.05). In conclusion, the TAN diet significantly reduced the number of total protozoa and <italic>Entodinium</italic> spp., which consequently reduced amylolytic activity in the rumen, without any significant effect on pH and carbohydrate fermentation in the rumen.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue role of plant polysaccharides as immunostimulants in aquaculture: a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Aquaculture is one of the primary food-producing sectors in the world that ensures human nourishment. However, aqua farmers are facing serious problems due to disease out breaks and development of antimicrobial resistance. Until now, chemical or antibiotic based strategies has been applied to control disease related concern in aquaculture. Frequent usage of antibiotics in feed or usage of disinfectant to overcome the disease may end up with negative impacts to the environment and human. Utilization of plant derived polysaccharides has been drastically increased due to their effective roles and could serve as a best replacement for chemical agents and antibiotics. In addition, plant derived compounds and plant extracts was utilized to improve the immunity, intestinal health and growth performance of aquaculturable organisms. In addition, large number of plant-based polysaccharides was utilized as immunostimulants in aquaculture. Hence, this review aims to highlight the multifunctional properties of plant-based polysaccharides in aquaculture. Moreover, advantages and different concentration of plant polysaccharides as a feed additives in aquaculture sector has been discussed herein.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue review of black soldier fly () as a potential alternative protein source in broiler diets<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Since <italic>per capita</italic> global meat utilization is predicted to increase to 40% from 2019 to 2050, global use of cultivable land in livestock, poultry, and feed production is 30%. Use of alternative protein sources as animal feed can be a solution to minimize cropland usage in conventional feed production. Commonly used protein sources in animal diets like soybean meal and fish meal are facing challenges of high demand, but the current production might not fulfill their dire need. To overcome this issue, the discovery of alternative protein sources is the need of the hour, insect meals like black soldier fly (BSF) are one of these alternative protein sources. These flies are non-infectious, bite-less, can convert the variant types of organic waste (food wastes, animal and human excreta) proficiently into rich profile biomass with reduced harmful bacteria count and do not serve as a vector in disease transmission. Based on the substrate used, the BSF larvae protein, fat and ash contents vary from 37-63%, 7-39% and 9-28% on dry matter basis, respectively. Previous studies have reported that using BSF and its byproducts as alternative protein sources in broiler diets with partial or complete replacement of conventional protein sources. In this review, a brief introduction to insect meal, BSF origin, life cycle, nutritional profile, influences on growth performance, carcass characteristics, fatty acid profile of meat, biochemical properties of blood, gut morphology and microbiota of the caecum along with its influence on laying performance of layers has been discussed in detail. Studies have concluded the partial replacement of conventional protein sources with BSF is possible, whereas complete replacement may cause poor performance due to reduced digestibility up to 62% attributable to chitin content (9.6%). Further studies to corroborate the effect of dietary BSF on growth performance, carcass characteristics, fatty acid profile of meat, and gut morphology and caecum microbiota are required to standardize the inclusion levels in feeds for higher performance of poultry.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue luteal progesterone synthesis observed in gilts with PMSG/hCG-induced estrus affects the expression of steroid, prostaglandin, and cytokine receptors in the endometrium and myometrium during the peri-implantation period<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present study aimed to examine the effect of impaired progesterone (P4) synthesis, observed in gilts with gonadotropin-induced estrus, on the uterine expression of receptors important for pregnancy establishment. Twenty prepubertal gilts received 750 IU PMSG and 500 IU hCG 72 h later, while 18 prepubertal gilts in the control group were observed daily for estrus behavior. Gilts were inseminated in their first estrus and slaughtered on days 10, 12, and 15 of pregnancy to collect endometrial and myometrial tissues for mRNA analysis using real-time PCR. As we previously described, gilts with PMSG/hCG-induced estrus showed decreased luteal P4 synthesis on days 10 and 12 of pregnancy. PMSG/hCG treatment did not affect P4 receptor mRNA expression in either uterine tissue. In the endometrium, a greater mRNA transcript abundance of estrogen receptors (<italic>ESR1</italic> and <italic>ESR2</italic>), androgen receptor (<italic>AR</italic>), prostaglandin (PG) E2 receptors (<italic>PTGER2</italic> and <italic>PTGER4</italic>), PGF2α receptor (<italic>PTGFR</italic>), interleukin 6 receptor (<italic>IL6R</italic>), and tumor necrosis factor α receptors (<italic>TNFRSF1A</italic> and <italic>TNFRSF1B</italic>) was detected in gilts with natural than with PMSG/hCG-induced estrus (P&lt;0.05). In the myometrium, the mRNA expression of <italic>AR</italic>, <italic>PTGER2</italic>, and <italic>PTGFR</italic> was lower, while PGI2 receptor (<italic>PTGIR</italic>) transcript abundance was elevated in the gilts treated with PMSG/hCG as compared with the control animals (P&lt;0.05). In summary, a decreased luteal P4 level during the peri-implantation period in gonadotropin-stimulated pigs affects endometrial and myometrial receptor expression, with the endometrium being more sensitive to impaired P4 synthesis. Whether the observed changes alter uterine receptivity to local and systemic factors remains to be elucidated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effect of feeding fattener pigs with hybrid rye on selected growth and carcass traits and on meat quality characteristics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Modern hybrid varieties of the rye can be successfully used for feeding pigs. The aim of the research was to determine the effects of different levels (20 %, 40 % and 60 %) of hybrid rye in diet on the growth, slaughter value, chemical composition, physical and sensory traits and the fatty acids profile in pork meat. The experiment was performed with 100 Polish Landrace pigs that were randomly allocated into 4 groups: control, without rye and experimental with hybrid rye addition. After slaughter lean meat content estimation, carcass traits, quality characteristics and the fatty acids profile of the <italic>longissimus lumborum</italic> muscle were determined. No significant influence on the growth performance, carcass traits and the majority of physical traits, basic composition, cholesterol content and sensory features of LL m. was found. The type and levels of cereals significantly change the FA profile. More favourable values for PUFA and the ratio of n-6 / n-3 acids were obtained in pigs fed with hybrid rye than with a mix of wheat with barley. In conclusion, feeding pigs with hybrid rye at the level of 20-60% in the diet results in positive effects in the fatty acids profile, without compromising daily gain, feed intake, carcass traits, physicochemical and sensory attributes of pork meat.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of ghrelin gene polymorphisms with slaughter traits in pig<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>It has been hypothesized that mutations in the ghrelin gene in pigs may play a similar role as in humans and may be associated with obesity. The aim of study was to analyse the polymorphisms of ghrelin gene and to evaluate its effect on pigs’ carcass traits. The effect of <italic>c.-93A&gt;G</italic>, <italic>4428T&gt;C</italic> and <italic>g.4486C&gt;T</italic> polymorphisms at the ghrelin gene on slaughter performance were analysed in 346 gilts represented by three breeds (Polish Landrace, Duroc, Pietrain). Animals were fattened from 30 to 100 (±2.5) kg body weight. After slaughter, the carcasses were chilled for 24 hours (4ºC), weighted and the right half-carcasses were dissected and evaluated. A number of data were obtained including: meat weight in primary cuts, weight of ham, backfat thickness and carcass yield. From breeding and production point of view, the favourable results were obtained for pigs with the <italic>GG</italic> genotype at the <italic>c.-93A&gt;G</italic> locus, characterized by better carcass results than those with the <italic>AA</italic> genotype, e.g. higher ham weight and lower average backfat thickness. In pigs with the <italic>TT</italic> genotype at the <italic>g.4428T&gt;C</italic> locus, we found lower mean backfat thickness than pigs with the <italic>CC</italic> genotype.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue digestion and metabolism: effect of different fat sources and fat mobilisers in broilers diet on growth performance and physiological parameters – a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Commercial broilers have a short production cycle and a high requirement for energy (3000 kcal/kg in starter phase and 3200 kcal/kg in finisher phase). Therefore, the need to add energy rich lipids to their diet is inevitable. Digestibility of fat depends on its multiple properties: chain length, the composition of fatty acids, ratio of saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and free fatty acids. The high cost of vegetable oils and less availability due to their consumption in human diet are the main reasons for searching cheaper alternative fat sources. Animal oils like poultry and fish oil are the by-product of rendering plants and after refining, they are used in poultry diets as an energy source. Due to presence of impurities and free fatty acids, the digestibility of animal fat is less. There is a limited amount of bile acids and lipase available during early age and when birds are reared on high energy diet (finisher phase). Supplementation of emusifier or lipase in broilers diet increase fat utilisation. Emulsifiers increase fat digestibility by increasing active surface area of lipid droplets. Lysolecithin and Lysophospholipids are produced from hydrolyses of lecithin and phospholipids by phopholipase A2. The bile acids mainly compose of cholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid and have strong emulsification properties. Triacylglyceryl acylase (lipase) is an enzyme involved in catalysis and the hydrolysis of lipids. It can be concluded that use of emulsifier and lipase in broilers diet improves growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal histology in broilers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue activity of metallic-core gold and silver nanoparticles against some animal pathogens<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current work aimed to find substitutes for antibiotics because of the side effects of antibacterial agents and the expansion of bacterial resistance to these agents. The scope of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of gold and silver nanoparticles (AuNPs and AgNPs) against selected animal pathogens (<italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic>, <italic>Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae</italic>, <italic>Escherichia coli, Bacillus abortus</italic> and <italic>Mycobacterium bovis)</italic>. The synthesized nanoparticles were distinguished by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and tested for antibacterial activity with the broth microdilution method, well diffusion assay, and minimum bactericidal concentration procedure. Results showed that both AuNPs and AgNPs displayed good antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria. The strongest antibacterial action of AgNPS (18 mm) was contra <italic>E. coli</italic>. AuNPs displayed good antibacterial activity against <italic>S. aureus</italic> and <italic>B. bovis</italic> with a suppression area of 14 mm. Therefore, it is suggested that AgNPs and AuNPs could be effectively used against animal pathogens and may contribute to reducing antibiotic resistance. However, there is a need for further research on the <italic>in vivo</italic> toxicity and mechanisms of action of AuNPs and AgNPs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of carcass lesions and their effects on welfare, carcass composition and meat quality in slaughtered pigs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of carcass lesions in slaughtered pigs and to quantify their relationships with different animal characteristics, pre-slaughter factors, blood measurements, performance indices, carcass composition and meat quality traits. Data was recorded for 30 journeys referring to 1080 market-weight pigs that originated from 15 commercial small-scale finishing farms. Carcass lesions were visually assessed on the slaughterline in different parts of the carcass, i.e., anterior, middle and posterior, using a three-point scale. Complete blood count was investigated. The following performance indices and carcass composition traits were measured: average lifetime daily weight gain, live, hot and cold carcass weights, cooler shrinkage, dressing percentage, backfat thickness and meatiness. Meat pH and temperature were measured 45 minutes postmortem. Of the 1080 pigs slaughtered in 30 batches, 70.28% displayed some degree of lesions on the carcass (moderate – 30.00%; severe – 40.28%). The carcass lesions were the most prevalent (50.20%) in the posterior part of the pig carcass. RYR1 genotype, live weight, loading density, lairage time, lairage density and slaughter season affected the carcass lesion prevalence. The presence of carcass lesions, irrespective of severity, was associated with alterations in blood measurements in slaughtered pigs, indicating compromised animal welfare. The presence of severe carcass lesions in slaughtered pigs was significantly associated with increased meat pH45min, which led to the highest occurrence of dark, firm and dry pork. In contrast, there was strong evidence of association between the presence of moderate carcass lesions in slaughtered pigs and both decreased meat pH45min and increased meat T45min, which led to the highest occurrence of pale, soft and exudative pork among the carcass lesion groups. In conclusion, this study showed a high prevalence of carcass lesions in slaughtered pigs, whereby the risk of their occurrence was affected by both animal characteristics and pre-slaughter conditions. Also, the presence of carcass lesions in slaughtered pigs, irrespective of severity, was significantly associated with alterations in the blood measurements and pork quality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as an alternative to antibiotic use in aquaculture: a mini-review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The use of antibiotics for the control of infections has not only been banned by FDA for use in food-producing animals, but also several countries have prohibited their use in aquaculture because of several reasons such as the occurrence of antibiotic-tolerant microorganisms, accumulation of antibiotic residues in fish and shrimp flesh, and aquatic environmental effluence concerns. These issues have led researchers and aquaculture scientists to conduct several studies to find antibiotic alternatives. Numerous substitutes have been evaluated, such as probiotics, synbiotics, prebiotics, postbiotics, phytogenics, essential oils, and several others. Results show that these supplements demonstrate proven efficacy in enhancing immune responses, reducing mortalities resulting from experimental infections, and reducing antibiotic usage in medicated aquafeed. Nonetheless, using antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to control fish diseases and be used as antibiotic alternatives is a promising and interesting research topic. AMPs are a vital class of small peptides that could stimulate the innate immune system against challenging pathogens and also possess significant potent defensive responses against a variety of infectious and non-infectious pathogenic agents, including bacteria, parasites, fungi, and viruses. Regarding their source origin, AMPs can be classified into six main types: mammalian-, amphibian-, insect-, aquatic-, plant-, and microorganism-derived AMPs. On account of their unique structure, they can display an essential function in therapeutic strategies against infectious diseases affecting fish and shrimp. Reports showed several kinds of AMPs had a wide spectrum of antimicrobial properties. These effects are besides their prominent immunostimulatory functions. Thus, they may be considered a functional alternative to antibiotics in aquaculture. This article provides information on the current knowledge about the modes of action, sources, classification, functions, and potential applications for the development of aquatic animal health. The information included in this context will be valuable to enhance the sustainability of aquaculture.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effects of a and phytase mixture added to broiler diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and cecal microecosystem<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to evaluate the effects of <italic>Bacillus licheniformis</italic> and 6-phytase added alone or in combination to broiler chicken diets on the growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility coefficient (AID) of nutrients, microbial activity, and cecal bacterial communities. In total, 400 one-day-old female Ross 308 chicks were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments (10 replicate pens, 10 birds each). The following groups were defined: NC (negative control), basal diet without any feed additive supplementation; NC+Pro, basal diet with addition of the <italic>B. licheniformis</italic> preparation (500 g/t of diet); NC+Phy, basal diet with addition of phytase (200 g/t of diet); and NC+Pro+Phy, basal diet combined with both studied additives. <italic>B. licheniformis</italic> positively affected (P&lt;0.05) the feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in the first 10 d of bird rearing. Moreover, phytase supplementation elevated the FCR from 21 to 35 d. In the entire experiment, an interaction between phytase and probiotic was observed only in terms of decreasing the bird FI (P=0.005) without a negative effect on the FCR (P&gt;0.05). Furthermore, the AID of ether extract was improved by phytase supplementation. In terms of the cecal microecology, both separately administered factors promoted Lactobacillaceae in the ceca. Interactions between probiotic preparation and phytase were noted that indicated a decreased Clostridiales population and favored Ruminococcaceae proliferation. It can be concluded that for the first time in the available literature, the favorable interactions between <italic>B. licheniformis</italic> and phytase resulted in improved performance and cecal microbiota changes in broilers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue status of piglets during the first week of life: Current knowledge, significance and assessment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The immune system of neonate piglets differs from adult pigs in structure and competence. Although piglets are born immunocompetent, they are genuinely immunologically defenceless. To survive in the environment, piglets need passive protection provided by sow’s colostrum and milk when constantly exposed to numerous pathogens. Early assessment of piglets’ immune status may enable rapid intervention in case of detection of any deficiencies or disorders. Moreover, awareness of the piglets’ immunocompetence and the level of maternally-derived antibodies (MDA) may allow the creation of a proper vaccine schedule. Hence, extending knowledge of prenatal ontogeny of the porcine immune system, the immune status of neonate piglets’ and the immunological components of porcine colostrum is crucial. Since animal welfare has become a more critical element of animal production, new, non-invasive sampling methodologies are highly desirable for the evaluation of piglets’ immune status.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue meat labeling – current worldwide legislation status<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A growing interest has been noted if both industry operatives and consumers in cell-based meat (CBM), as visible in the increasing investment into this technology by major food industry corporations. However, in almost all countries worldwide, there is a lack of clear legislation with regard to the labeling of such products. The aim of the article is to collect and review current legal regulations concerning the international approval and labeling these types of products. In the manuscript, we reviews and analyze the legal situation of CBM and its labelling in countries from 4 different continents (EU members, the UK, the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, Japan, Singapore and Israel). Aside from Singapore, no other country has approved CBM for placement on the market. The US has reached an agreement and established regulatory frameworks on CBM matters, where both the USDA and the FDA will be the control institutions. Within the European Union, CBM products will be evaluated under the Novel Food Regulation. The most anticipated process in other countries is the evaluation of CBM under the legislation on novel foods and subsequent amendments. Since local laws are still being developed, special care should be taken by the policymakers to avoid implementing local laws which could cause a negative approach to the technology by the consumers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Externa in Dogs: Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Spp. Isolates<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study aimed to investigate the <italic>Staphylococcus</italic> species from dogs with chronic otitis externa in Istanbul and to determine their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Ear swab samples were collected from 100 dogs suspected of otitis externa admitted at the clinics of Istanbul University - Cerrahpaşa, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. The dogs were of different age, gender, and breed. The bacterial isolation was performed by conventional methods. BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System was used to confirm bacterial identification by conventional methods and to test antimicrobial susceptibility. <italic>Staphylococcus</italic> spp. were isolated from 36% of the samples collected from the dogs. <italic>S. pseudintermedius, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. hyicus</italic> and <italic>S. chromogenes</italic> were identified in 41.6%, 22.2%, 11.1%, 5.5%, and 5.5%. In <italic>Staphylococcus</italic> spp. isolates, enrofloxacin, penicillin, and ampicillin-sulbactam resistance was 8.3%, marbofloxacin resistance was 11.1%, doxycycline resistance was 16.6%, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, erythromycin, and gentamicin resistance was 19.4%, tetracycline, clindamycin, and sulphonamide resistance was 25%. Methicillin resistance was not observed in any of the isolates. However, multiple drug resistance (MDR) was detected in 11 (30.5%) of 36 isolates. In conclusion, the early detection and antimicrobial sensitivity testing of <italic>Staphylococcus</italic> spp in dog otitis externa cases that do not respond to empiric therapy could be beneficial for appropriate antibiotic selection and treatment thus preventing MDR.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue