rss_2.0Materials Sciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Materials Sciences Sciences Feed of a structure with soil elastic waves released in non-linear hysteretic soil upon unloading<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>High-frequency motion is often observed in small-scale experimental works carried out in flexible containers under simplified seismic loading conditions when single harmonic sine input motions are introduced at the base of a soil specimen. The source of the high-frequency motion has often been sought in experimental inaccuracies. On the other hand, the most recent numerical studies suggested that high-frequency motion in the steady-state dynamic response of soil subjected to harmonic excitation can also be generated as a result of soil elastic waves released in non-linear hysteretic soil upon unloading. This work presents an example of a finite element numerical study on seismic soil–structure interaction representative of an experimental setup from the past. The results show how high-frequency motion generated in soil in the steady-state response, apparently representative of soil elastic waves, affects the steady-state response of a structure, that is, it is presented how the structure in the analysed case resonates with the soil elastic waves. The numerical findings are verified against the benchmark experimental example to indicate similar patterns in the dynamic response of the structure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Electrical resistance and self-sensing properties of pressure-sensitive materials with graphite filler in Kuralon fiber concrete<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to investigate conductivity behavior of concrete containing graphite and its sensitivity to the effects of pressure. Graphite powder was added to concrete to replace partial cement (4 wt.%, 8 wt.%, 12 wt.%, and 16 wt.%) as conductive fillers with a water-to-cementitious ratio of 0.45. Specimens with 0.5 vol.% Kuralon fibers were treated to enhance the performance of self-sensing properties to investigate the influence of graphite and fiber contents on electrical resistivities. The relationship between the axial load and changes in resistivity was determined using cyclic loading tests, indicating the existence and development of internal cracking in concrete. The results indicated that the compressive strength presented a linear decline proportional to the addition of graphite. Specimens with 8% graphite reached the lower bound of self-sensing properties, and with an increase in the amount of graphite, resistivity gradually decreased. In the cyclic loading tests, specimens containing &gt;8% graphite were able to better reflect the relationship between loading and resistivity. Kuralon fibers in concrete had further improvement in resistance and self-sensing properties. In inclusion, the mixture with 8% graphite provided the best self-sensing properties to warn for preventing the effects of cracking, as well as achieved better mechanical properties.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of silane coating surface treatment on friction and wear properties of carbon fiber/PI composites<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>PAN-based carbon fiber was surface-modified with silane coating, and a composite material was prepared using a PI resin as a matrix. The structure and surface properties of carbon fibers were studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and SEM. The tensile strength of the composite was measured by a tensile tester, and the friction properties of the composite were measured by a micro-nano mechanics comprehensive test system. The results show that treatment with silane coating can improve the surface roughness and chemical activity of carbon fiber, improve the interface between carbon fiber and PI resin matrix, and improve the tensile strength and wear rate of the composite.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Production of pumice-containing nanofibers by electrospinning technique<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The scope of the study involves identifying the optimal means to effectively use the electrospinning technique to obtain pumice-containing nanofibers. Nanofiber containing pumice in a solution was electrospun to obtain smooth, cylindrical, bead-free, and ultrafine nanomaterials.</p> <p>The study also analyzed the molecular [Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)], thermal [differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)], zeta potential, size, polydispersity index [dynamic light scattering (DLS)], and surface [scanning electron microscope (SEM)] parameters of the pumice-containing nanofibers having JP6 (applied voltage: 6 kV) and JP12 (12 kV) properties. While the distance (10 cm), flow rate (0.8 mL/h), and other parameters of the electrospinning process were fixed, two different voltages were applied to obtain the pumice-containing nanofiber. The average diameter of the nanoencapsulated pumice produced at 6 kV was defined as 98.6 nm in gelatin nanomats with 31.8 nm. The average diameter of the nanocapsule pumice produced under a 12 kV voltage was found to be 85.8 nm, and the average diameter of the nanomats (non–nanoencapsulated) was 35.2 nm. The average zeta potential values of the pumice-containing nanofiber were also determined in the nanosize range. The JP6 and JP12 PDI values were determined as 0.165 and 0.566, respectively. Peaks characteristic of pumices as defined in the literature were observed in the FTIR results, while DSC analysis results revealed strong endo- and exothermic peaks. As a result of this study, it has been proved that pumice can be reduced to nanosize with the electrospinning technique and it is nanoencapsulated in nanofiber. When the obtained pumice-containing nanofiber was examined, it was determined that the surface area of the nanofiber was large and resistant to thermal heat.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Bias-Correction of Diffuse Solar Irradiance Modeled Through Parametric Models<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper, a bias-correction of clear-sky models in prediction of the diffuse solar irradiance is presented. High quality ground date from two networks is used for model input and validation: aerosol optical depth from AERONET and diffuse solar irradiance from BSRN. Four established clear-sky models are tested: REST2, Yang, PS and MAC2. Two types of bias-corrections are developed: i) a correction for multiple aerosol scattering (MSC), accounting for extinction at high turbidity, and ii) a general regression on the model errors as a function of Sun elevation angle (h) and turbidity (β) correction (MOS). While the impact of MSC proves marginal, the MOS correction shows good results. Two versions of MOS are developed, one on the global dataset and a site-specific adaptation. Both versions bring significant improvements over the original implementation of the models, while the site-specific version reduces the errors with a few additional percentage points. The aggregate nRMSE of the REST2 model is reduced from 17.8% (no correction) to 11.3% (global MOS) and 9.4% (site-specific MOS).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Theoretical Investigation of Structural, Electronic, and Optical Properties of ZnSnP Semiconductor<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The structural, electronic, and optical properties of ZnSnP<sub>2</sub> compound were determined using the first principles calculations. We applied the full-potential enhanced plane wave method (FP-LAPW) within the framework of density functional theory (DFT) as implemented in the Wien2k package. The exchangecorrelation potential term was treated using the local density approximation (LDA), the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), the Engel–Vosko generalized gradient approximation (EV–GGA) and GGA plus modified Becke– Johnson (mBJ). The lattice parameters of the ZnSnP<sub>2</sub> obtained by minimizing the total energy are consistent well with the existing theoretical and experimental results. The Dugdale and MacDonald Grüneisen parameter was found to be 1.43 from the GGA and 1.44 from the LDA, respectively.</p> <p>According to the electronic properties, the band structure analysis of ZnSnP<sub>2</sub> shows that it has a direct band gap in the (Γ-Γ) direction with a value of 1.43 eV. We have investigated the optical properties of ZnSnP<sub>2</sub> semiconducting compound. The data of the dielectric functions shown that the peaks are positioned at around 2.41, 3.21, 3.83 and 4.09 eV, respectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Leaching of Elements from Soil in Grassland Field Crops Treated with Raw and Acidified Slurry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The state of soils was presented in the aspect of environmental protection when using acidified slurry was used as fertilizer to protect ammonia from escaping into the atmosphere. The use of concentrated sulfuric acid to lower the pH of the slurry and thus retain nitrogen in the soil and then use it by crops gives a double benefit, reduces nitrogen losses, and reduces the cost of mineral fertilizers that should be purchased. Injecting raw slurry below the surface of the soil has some benefits in the form of reducing ammonia emissions, but it does not affect the use of fertilizers with the addition of sulfur, which is ensured in the case of acidification of the slurry. Additional benefit is to obtain environment protection. Leaching of elements from grassland and corn crop soil treated with raw cattle slurry and acidified cattle slurry (m<sup>3</sup>·ha<sup>−1</sup>) was presented. The K content was highest in the leachate collected after the application of the last batch of acidified slurry. Yield tests were conducted on similar soils as presented in the tables for grass, using six 500 m<sup>2</sup> plots with corn, cultivar <italic>ES Cirrus</italic>, with acidified slurry and one test plot with non-acidified slurry. Analysis of variance and significant difference among the treatment means were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at a probability level of 0.05. Based on statistical analysis, it was demonstrated that crop yields of corn grain increased when fertilized with acidified slurry, at an average of 4 t·ha<sup>−1</sup>. During field tests corn crop yield varied from 14 t·ha<sup>−1</sup> to 18 t·ha<sup>−1</sup> when non-acidified and acidified slurry were used. The yield on the grassland was approx. 30 t·ha<sup>−1</sup>. The soil sorption complex, in combination with its buffer properties and acidification, did not affected the pH value. This makes the acidification process safe for plants and for the soil environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Optimization of Parameters of a Vibroconveyor System for Infrared Drying of Soy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper proposes a method to determine the optimal parameters for the drying of soybean using a kinematic vibration dryer. Among the main parameters of the investigated vibroconveyor are heat and mass transfer, physical and mechanical. The paper presents a mathematical model of the dependence of parameters of the soybean drying process of soybean built based on experimental data obtained by organizing an effective experiment plan with a sufficiently large number of factor levels. To determine the rational parameters for drying soybean, it is important to build the most accurate and adequate mathematical model, which will determine the most accurate values of the required parameters. For this purpose, it is recommended to conduct an experiment with as many levels of factors as possible. The article proposes an experiment established on a dedicated balanced orthogonal plan, which is optimal according to the D-efficiency criterion. Based on the experimental data, an adequate mathematical model of the dependence of the drying characteristics of soybean (moisture of the processed material (%), temperature inside the product layer (<sup>°</sup>С) on the parameters – vibration amplitude (mm), distance from the conveyor surface (mm), radiation power (Wt), weight (g·min<sup>−1</sup>). Following the analysis of the constructed mathematical model, optimal parameters of the developed vibroconveyor infrared dryer were substantiated. The main characteristics of the vibroconveryor mechanism of interoperational transportation of bulk products in the working area were also determined, and a technical and economic analysis of the developed oscillatory system was conducted.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Study of synthesis parameters on the physical properties and morphology of smart PNIPAAm hydrogels<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Bone loss is common in human old age and new materials that promote bone regeneration are an active line of research. In the present work, seven smart hydrogels based on PNIPAAm were synthesized with the prospective to be used in tissue engineering as a scaffold for bone growth. By changing the stoichiometric concentrations of the reagents and the synthesis parameters, hydrogels with different physical properties and morphology were obtained. Swelling, degradation properties, and crystallinity were analyzed. Physical properties were characterized using <sup>1</sup>H-NMR, FTIR, and TGA. The results showed that the swelling degree (degree of mass expansion) varied at room temperature from 1,400% for less rigid hydrogels to 550% for stiffer hydrogels. With heating to body temperature, swelling decreases to 300% and 200%, respectively. The samples presented three-dimensional morphology, but they acquired different structures according to the magnetic stirring during the synthesis process. The crosslink and initiator concentrations have an important effect on the polymeric structure and thermal stability of the hydrogels. The PNIPAAm synthesized using 8.9 and 15.7 mol % of MBA are the most promising compounds to be used in the future as a scaffold for biomedical applications due to their high thermal stability, satisfactory 3D surface morphology, and shrinking-swelling property.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Time History on Long-Term Deformation of Gypseous Soils<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The time-dependent behavior of three gypseous soils was investigated. The soils had gypsum content of 66%, 44%, and 14.8%. The mineralogical and chemical properties of the soils were determined. Two series of tests were performed. In the first, collapsibility characteristics were investigated for a long period (60 days) by conducting single and double oedometer tests. In the second series, the effect of relative density on collapse with time was investigated. The samples were compacted to 40%, 50%, and 60% relative density and then tested. The results of collapse tests showed that the relationship between the strain and logarithm of effective stress has two vertical lines. The first one represents the collapse settlement taking place within 24 h, while the second one represents the long-term collapse. The collapse potential (CP) in both single and double oedometer tests increases when the gypsum content increases from 14.8% to 66% and when the initial void ratio increases.</p> <p>The CP–logarithm of time relationship for soaked samples prepared at different relative densities under 800 kPa indicated that the CP increased with time for the soil sample compacted at 60% relative density and the increase was higher than those compacted at 40% and 50% relative density. The curves started with a straight line and then a concave downward curve was observed with a high strain. For samples compacted at 40% and 50% relative densities, the curves were interrupted by little soil collapses, while the third curve exhibited smooth relation following the collapse.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of suction on the mechanical behaviour of unsaturated compacted clay–sand mixtures<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this work, a series of unconfined compression tests at different water contents were performed to investigate the mechanical behaviour of clay–sand mixtures compacted in standard Proctor conditions. For studying the effect of water content and suction on unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and on strain secant modulus (<italic>E</italic>50 modulus) of these mixtures, drying–wetting paths were defined by measuring the soil–water characteristic curves (SWCCs) using osmotic and salt solution techniques and filter paper method. The results highlighted that an increase in sand content of the mixture leads to an increase in the maximum dry densities and a decrease in the optimum water content of the materials. However, at the given state, when clay is mixed with 25% of sand, the UCS and <italic>E</italic>50 modulus increase to 37% and 70%, respectively, compared to those of clayey samples. But when clay is mixed with 50% of sand, the UCS and <italic>E</italic>50 modulus decrease to 38% and 46%, respectively, compared to those of clayey samples. The results also indicate that the UCS and <italic>E</italic>50 increase with a decrease in the water content and an increase in suction, irrespective of the sand content.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-09T00:00:00.000+00:00The 18th Romanian Textiles and Leather Conference<DIV align=justify><P>The Romanian Textiles and Leather Conference CORTEP 2022 is a major international scientific event organized in Romania by the Faculty of Industrial Design and Business Management of the “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi. </P> <P>Now in its 18th edition, the Conference provides a platform for professionals and managers from the textiles, clothing, leather and footwear (TCLF) sector to exchange knowledge, new ideas and experiences, and gain an insight into the state-of-the-art in the current developments, solutions and research results. </P> <P>The CORTEP events started in 1960 with a view to transforming our decades of experience in academic education and scientific research in the fields of textile and garment technologies, fashion design and industrial management. The further editions evolved into a successful and traditional conference. </P> <P>The conference is addressed to a large variety of stakeholders, from those interested in research and academia to specialists and managers from TCLF and other industrial sectors, professional associations and government organizations. This wide range of participants provides opportunities for fruitful exchange of new ideas and experiences, networking and development of research and/or business relations, as well as possible partners for future collaborations. </P> <P>With each edition, the conference is adapted to meet the needs of our community and industry. </P> <P>Topics for the 18th CORTEP International Conference include: New fibres and advanced materials; Textile science and technology; Innovative textile structures and processing; Smart textiles; Sustainable and functional textiles and clothing; Machinery developments; Fashion design and product development; Innovations in textile finishing; Advancements in leather processing; Footwear design and technology; Ecology in textiles and leather processing; New business models and emergent ecosystems; Entrepreneurship and innovation; Engineering education. </P>BOOKStudying CdS:In green phosphor's impacts on white-light emitting diode with higher luminous flux<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A lumen efficiency (LE) simulation model with the Monte Carlo method is introduced to the white-light-emitting diode devices that utilize the red LED (light-emitting diode) dyes instead of red-emitting phosphors (R-WLEDs). By simulating this model, the desirable spectrum-related indices and photometric efficiencies, which are adequate for superior chromatic consistency (or R<sub><italic>f</italic></sub> &gt; 97), can be accomplished for R-WLEDs under the correlated color temperature (CCT) range of 5000–8000 K. The structure of the R-LED has LEDs in red and blue colors (650 nm and 448 nm) combined with phosphors possessing yellow and green emissions (586 nm and 507 nm). In comparison with pc-WLEDs (WLEDs operating with conversion phosphors) and QD-WLEDs (WLED devices with quantum dots), pc/R-WLED devices could present its outperformance to the others and become a promising way to achieve remarkable chromatic generation, particularly under the condition of small color temperature limit, and act as a substitute for the pc-WLED devices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Preparation of rGO/ZnO photoanodes and their DSSCs performance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, we report a mild and controllable preparation method for graphene oxide (GO) and ZnO ultrafine powder, respectively. On this basis, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/ZnO composite powder for the photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was synthesized by chemical reduction method. Phase composition, microstructure, chemical structure, conductivity, and specific surface area were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, respectively. Photoelectric performance of DSSCs was studied by the current density-voltage (J-V), electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) photoelectric test system. As rGO possesses higher adsorption capacity and excellent conductivity, hence it may effectively promote separation of electrons and holes, transmission ability of electrons and holes, and utilization of the light. By contrast, the as-synthesized zinc oxide (ZnO) may increase adsorption capacity of dye molecules, so photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the solar cells is increased by means of synergistic effects. When adding rGO in the rGO/ZnO composite powder at 1.25 wt%, PCE reaches to 6.27%, an increase of 20.6% more than that of pure ZnO as the photoanode.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Features of the hot recycling method used to repair asphalt concrete pavements<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The recycling methods used in the construction and repairing of asphalt concrete pavements are being constantly improved, and the improvements mostly fall under one of the following common avenues of innovation: developing new binders based on bitumen and cement; developing new varieties of asphalt concrete and other materials having an equivalent utility and function; and developing additives that can be used in the production of new types of binders that can enhance the performance properties of the pavements. This article aims to develop the composition and determine the physical-mechanical and structural-rheological properties of asphalt concrete reclaimed by the hot recycling method and reinforced by fiber of fly ash from thermal power plants (TPP). The author of this article developed a mechanism for the interaction between fiber and bitumen in asphalt binder and acquired an optimum composition of hot granular asphalt concrete. During the research, the author evaluated the utility of fiber used as an additive in reclaimed asphalt concrete, studied its effect on the properties of hot reclaimed asphalt concrete, and examined the technological and performance properties and durability of the material obtained. The fiber of fly ash used in the hot recycling method made it possible to reduce the cost and ensure the high quality and durability of the structural layer of road pavement. Our experiments with analyses of the obtained composition indicated that employing it in the construction of the structural layer of road payment would result in superior structural integrity. Hot recycling made it possible to obtain thick bound layers characterized by the homogeneity of the material. For the first time, the author studied the effect of using fiber of fly ash from Chinese TPP in hot reclaimed asphalt concrete, and the results have proved the rationality of using this composition.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-07T00:00:00.000+00:00How many neurons are needed to make a short-term prediction of the Bitcoin exchange rate?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The goal of our work was to select a neural network architecture that would give the best prediction of the Bitcoin exchange rate using historical data. Our work fits into the very important topic of predicting the value of the cryptocurrency exchange rate, and makes use of recent data which, as a result of the high Bitcoin exchange rate dynamics of the last year, differs significantly from those of previous years. We propose and test a number of neural network-based architectures and conduct a discussion of the results. Unlike previous state-of-the-art works, we conducted a comprehensive comparison of three different neural network-based models: MLP (multilayer perceptron), LSTM (long short-term memory) and CNN (convolutional neural network). We tested them for a wide range of parameters. The results we present are, to the best of our knowledge, the most up to date when it comes to the application of artificial intelligence methods for the prediction of cryptocurrency exchange rates. The best-performing architectures were used for a website that gives real-time predictions of the Bitcoin exchange rate. The website is available at <ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href=""></ext-link>. Source codes of our research are available to download in order to make our experiment reproducible.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:003 Key notions for road transport sustainability: Resilience, Climate action and Energy transition<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper, we study the relationship between resilience and sustainable development in order to determine the place of road resilience in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) such as climate action and energy transition.</p> <p>This study shows that road resilience is inseparable from adaptation to climate change, its mitigation and the energy transition. Therefore we address the issue of adapting road infrastructure to climate change and to the decarbonization of transport. It also emphasizes that resilience of road infrastructure is a necessary condition for any adaptation strategy and reminds us that the contribution of road transport to climate change mitigation overlaps in practice with the decarbonization goal resulting from energy transition.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Optimising New Zealand’s State highway low-noise road surface<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Since 2017, several porous asphalt trials have been built in New Zealand in order to investigate the effects of air voids, stone size and layer thickness on tyre/road noise. These trials have shown that all three variables play an important role in noise from porous asphalt surfaces. The trial results have led to a 40 mm thick EPA7 surface (porous asphalt with 7 mm nominal stone size) becoming the preferred low-noise surface for use on New Zealand State highways, with a slightly thicker 50 mm version being preferred in particularly noise-sensitive areas. Regular CPX testing is being conducted to monitor the long-term acoustic behaviour of the surfaces, and this testing has not shown any significant changes in L<sub>CPX:P1,80</sub> to date. Further trials are planned for early 2022 to optimise the air voids content for the preferred EPA7 surface.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Roundabout with a strong U-Turn traffic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The traffic capacity of a roundabout depends very much on the existing traffic volumes on each approach, each direction of travel having an impact on the other movements in the intersection, especially on those with which it conflicts.</p> <p>Roundabouts where the turning maneuver has significant values, such as roads / streets where the left turn is allowed at long distances, substantially influence the capacity of the approach with which it intersects. This maneuver includes calculating delays and vehicle queues at all other arms, resulting in a reduction in their capacity and, ultimately, in the entire intersection.</p> <p>As can be seen from the results of the analyzed roundabout, U-turn (which replaces the left turn movement) produces a significant increase in delays on the rest of the approaches, thus preventing further development of the community.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Mobility Styles and Affinity for Public Transport Services in Romanian Urban Areas<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Attitudes and perceptions expressed by respondents in questionnaire surveys play an important role in creating informed policy decisions. Under a complex environment policy, within the European Union, that is aimed at tackling urban mobility challenges, member states such as Romania have recently been transposing and assimilating Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans into urban development regulations. The legacy of business-as-usual approaches are still dominating urban transport interventions, mainly addressing level-of-service for private motorized transport, while measures dedicated to public and active transport are either lacking consistency or are being delayed for years. With shallow and hastened public consultation procedures, and little consideration for the role of attitudes and perceptions in urban transport quality assessment, this paper aims at providing local administrations with exploratory tools to understand and segment the mobility styles of their citizens. The data used in this article is based on a research-based mobility survey in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, and the results will help decision-makers understand travel behavior and provide them with alternative information in shaping urban transport policy decisions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1