rss_2.0Materials Sciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Materials Sciences Sciences Feed Importance of Digital Transformation (5.0) in Supply Chain Optimization: An Empirical Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The topic of digital transformation in supply chain optimization has garnered considerable attention in recent years due to its importance. The purpose of the study was to offer empirical evidence and insights into the advantages and obstacles linked with digital transformation in supply chain management. To investigate the effects of digital transformation on supply chain optimization, the research employs a hybrid methodology and comprehensive approach that includes a thorough literature review, the creation of a theoretical framework, and the presentation of empirical finings through various case studies using the predefined selection criteria. The case analyses highlight crucial elements that support effective digital transformations, including real-time data analytics, teamwork, blockchain technology, digital twin augmented and virtual reality and collaborative robots. The practical implications from the findings of this study, proffers insights that can be extremely helpful for professionals in various industrial sectors and businesses planning similar digital transformation journeys. This empirical study with regards to the implication of Digital transformation 5.0 on supply chain management is novel to the body of literature. It is however necessary to conduct more study to confirm the results, apply them to a wider range of businesses, and investigate different aspects of digital transformation in supply chain optimization.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Resource Productivity: Integrating Resilience Engineering, Motivation, and Health Safety<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigated the multifaceted relationship between resilience engineering practices, work motivation factors, health, safety, and environment (HSE) management to achieve employee productivity within a mining company in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Employing structural equation modelling (SEM) on data from 178 workers, intriguing results are diverged from established research. While resilience engineering practices and work motivation factors significantly enhanced productivity, robust HSE management demonstrated a surprisingly insignificant association. This unexpected finding necessitates a closer examination of the unique context of Indonesian mining culture and HSE implementation practices. Several potential explanations emerge, including ingrained communal responsibility for safety, limited applicability of imported frameworks, prioritisation of immediate needs over long-term safety due to competitive pressures, and possible erosion of trust in bureaucratic systems. These factors highlight the need to consider cultural nuances and industry challenges when designing effective HSE interventions. Moving forward, research and practice must prioritise developing culturally sensitive HSE practices, fostering trust and employee engagement, bridging the gap between formal systems and daily realities, and gathering qualitative data to understand employee perspectives. By addressing these considerations, future interventions can effectively align HSE efforts with employee productivity, contributing to a safer, more productive, culturally relevant work environment for Indonesian miners.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue design in Indonesian manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises: Review and further research<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Workplace design is an essential process for the manufacturing industry to realize a low manufacturing cost with high productivity and competitive advantage, as well as high employee performance and well-being. Although research on workplace design in the Indonesian manufacturing industry began more than 20 years ago, workplace conditions in the manufacturing industry, especially in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia, have remained subpar, with high material handling costs. This review article aims to evaluate recent research on workplace design in the Indonesian manufacturing SMEs and explore possible directions for further research. The results of this review indicate that the research on workplace design in Indonesian manufacturing SMEs is mostly focused on the department area (micro-level), using systematic layout planning methods to improve material handling activities. Even though environmental conditions are unfavorable with low levels of occupational safety and health, research that consider these two in the process of designing workplace in Indonesian manufacturing SMEs is still limited. This review also shows the possibility of developing an integrated workplace design by involving environmental ergonomics and occupational safety and health in manufacturing SMEs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Control in Flow Shops with Bottleneck Shifting and Process Time Variability<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Manufacturing industries struggle to devise precise planning and scheduling solutions due to unpredictable business situations. Additionally, uncertainties in production such as machine breakdowns, labour absenteeism, cycle time deviations, etc., would further deteriorate production plans and lead to uncertainty in decision-making processes. Flow shops with bottlenecks are particularly susceptible to these disturbances. Moreover, the random variations in cycle time variations can cause the bottleneck to shift between different stages. Literature indicates that conventional job release methods are ineffective in addressing these difficulties. In contrast, workload control methods would provide better solutions. Hence, a flow shop model has been developed and simulated using the variables like process time variations and bottleneck shifting on the discrete-event simulation software. The flow shop model incorporates realistic shop characteristics which are subjected to random process time variations, so as to assess the performance. The outcomes of the experimentation demonstrate that order release methods play a pivotal role in improving the performance of flow shops in more volatile situations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of industrial systems in terms of the crucial role of humans in the Industry 5.0 environment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The fourth industrial revolution (4IR) means the ubiquitous digitization of economic processes using more economical and efficient production technologies. Orientation to productivity, flexibility and low production costs results in a slow process of dehumanization of industry and concentration only on implementing Industry 4.0 (I4.0) digital technologies. A natural consequence of this trend is the concern of governments, employees and communities about new challenges and the importance of man in the economic ecosystem. The hope is the emergence of a new industry concept suggested by the European Commission (EU), which expands the components of the existing I4.0 concept to include human-centric, environmental and resilience aspects. Industry 5.0 (I5.0) is an excellent alternative to the development of today's digital and dehumanized world.</p> <p>The article aims to identify the key research areas related to the formation of the role of the human being and the safe work environment in implementing the I5.0 concept. The article analyzes the research areas related to implementing the I5.0 concept based on a systematic review of the literature indexed in the Web of Science and Scopus databases. Identifies key issues related to the role of humans in the I5.0 environment. In addition, the priority directions for developing the identified research areas and their impact on forming a safe work environment are determined based on the knowledge of experts with experience in implementing digital technologies of the 4IR.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of a systematic approach to the implementation of modern information technologies in manufacturing enterprises<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper aims to show the possibilities of using modern information technologies in production management. Successive stages of production process preparation and implementation are characterized. Information technologies that are currently being implemented in manufacturing enterprises are discussed. The focus was on the part of the process related to the product's manufacture. The paper presents the concepts of two methodological approaches to the adoption of modern information technologies: the top-down approach and the bottom-up approach. The successive stages of each of these approaches are discussed. The advantage of the top-down approach is the ability to comprehensively implement various technologies, and the disadvantage is the significant level of resource commitment. The advantage of the bottom-up approach is the high efficiency of the proposed solution, and the disadvantage is the limitation of application to projects of limited size. The proposed approaches have been verified using the example of two companies: the automotive and the control automation industries. There are correlations between the choice of the methodology used and the type and extent of implementation of the technology in question. The study's key conclusion is that both approaches are applicable in practice. The most important thing in the decision-making phase is to identify the barriers and constraints related to the organization's maturity to use a given technology. Enterprises can use the study results to help them prepare for their digital transformation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue impact of employment restriction on the risk of an accident at work in the mining industry in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The European Union's energy policy has necessitated a reduction in coal mining, with significant consequences for occupational safety within the industry. This study investigates the correlation between employment reduction and accident risk within Poland's mining sector during 2006-2020, a period marked by over a 40% decrease in coal extraction and a corresponding 30% decrease in mining employment. An escalation in the relative risk (RR) of accidents was observed, increasing from 1.28 to 2.33. More critically, the RR of fatal accidents rose from 2.54 to 8.22 by 2019. Analysis revealed a critical employment threshold: a fall in mining employment below 140,000 is associated with a marked increase in accident risk, particularly fatal accidents. A linear model was developed to suggest that a reduction in the RR of accidents to 0.7 is requisite to achieve a national average risk for fatal accidents (RR = 1). The findings advocate for targeted safety interventions and propose a preventive strategy model. The implications are vital for policymakers and industry stakeholders aiming to improve worker safety in response to employment changes within the mining sector.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the effects of machining parameters on cutting conditions during orthogonal turning of austenite stainless steel<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The 1.4306 austenite stainless steel has been prominently utilized as a material in the automotive and aerospace industry. Considerable interest has been garnered in the machinability of stainless steel owing to its high strength and poor thermal conductivity. The aim of this study is to ascertain the influential cutting parameters, specifically the cutting speed and feed rate, on cut-ting forces, cutting temperature, and chip evaluation. Thus, austenite stainless steel was subjected to free-cutting using a carbide recessing tool under dry conditions. The principle of measuring cutting temperature, a complex procedure due to varying thermal homogeneity, was elucidated. For the turning experiments in question, the standard Taguchi orthogonal array L9 (3<sup>2</sup>), featuring two factors and three levels, was employed. The experimental results were analyzed using MiniTab 17 software. The findings reveal a substantial effect of feed rate on cutting force, cutting temperature, and chip evaluation. The highest cutting force and cutting temperature were observed at a feed rate of 0.15 mm/rev. Conversely, the cutting force was minimized at a cutting speed of 100 m/min, indicating potential for increasing the cutting speed. The augmentation of feed rate led to chip compression and discoloration, attributed to elevated cutting force and a larger chip cross-section that efficiently dissipates heat from the cutting zone.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue efficiency in household sector<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Energy efficiency and behavioural changes are among the key pillars of decarbonization of the global energy system. Residential sector is responsible for a large share of fossil fuels final consumption, therefore the growth of its energy efficiency can bring a valuable impact on decarbonization speed and scale. In countries with growing economies residential energy consumption can increase dramatically due to the desire of the population to improve their standard of living, therefore striking a balance between economic growth and energy efficiency improvement is a complex policy challenge. The purpose of this study is to analyze attitudes and assess barriers of energy efficient behavior in Republic of Armenia as a country with growing economy and standards of living. The paper contributes to the literature by providing new empirical evidence of consumers’ attitude toward different forms of energy efficient behavior in Armenia and reveals how general pro-environmental consciousness and social conditions influence on it. The results of the study prove that the level of general environmental consciousness of the population has a direct impact on the frequency of practical application of various patterns of energy-efficient behavior. As a policy application for emerging economies, our study proposes that the main direction of energy efficiency policy can be education of the population and raising its level of environmental self-awareness.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in the steel chain in Industry 4.0. Some results of survey on the Polish steel market<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper discusses the changes occurring in the steel industry and related markets as they move towards Industry 4.0. With significant investments in new technologies, steel mills are creating a smart environment for cooperation between producers, distributors, and consumers of steel products. The influence of Industry 4.0 within mills is being transferred to other participants in the steel product chains, and vice versa. The research aimed to determine the impact of Industry 4.0 technologies on the steel product chains in the Polish steel market. The research was conducted in Poland. The obtained database comprised 208 respondents (company executives), including steel mills and steel product manufacturers. Technologies (the pillars of Industry 4.0) are grouped into five technological fields: automation and robotics; warehouse automation; Computer systems, systems integration, mobile technologies, Big Data and IIoT, Blockchain and cybersecurity. Analysis was realized in the three respondent segments representing the steel chain in Poland [RSs]: Producer [P], Distributor [D], and Consumer [C]. The results of the research can help companies improve their steel product chains. The study takes a value chain approach, considering steel production, distribution of steel products, and services for orders and consumers of steel and steel products.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Kaizen and Kaizen Costing in SMEs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The research problem revolves around an attempt to answer the questions: “<italic>Are enterprises from the SME sector</italic> interested in implementing strategic management accounting instruments, including <italic>Kaizen Costing</italic>? <italic>Is Kaizen Costing more widely used in SMEs operating in Poland?</italic>" The aim of the article is therefore to highlight the importance of Kaizen and Kaizen Costing and to draw attention to how much support these solutions can be for SMEs in the current social, economic, and environmental conditions. The article presents the results of surveys conducted in this regard.</p> <p>The accomplishment of the established objective of the work required conducting a review of the literature on the subject and presenting conclusions from previous own research in the above respect. The method of participant observation, critical analysis and synthesis was used in the study.</p> <p>According to the research results, there is little interest in these instruments in large enterprises, however, in medium-sized enterprises, the interest and degree of application of Kaizen and Kaizen Costing is negligible. The research results indicate the need for further development and broadening the dialogue on the usability and benefits which enterprises, in particular SMEs, may derive from the introduction of such innovative solutions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue aspects of products improvement in SMEs from V4 countries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Sustainable development has caused companies to try to adapt their activities to changing customer expectations, but also to climate change. This poses a particular challenge for SMEs from developing countries. Therefore, the objective of the investigation was to analyse the qualitative-environmental aspects of the improvement of the products in SMEs from the countries of the Visegrad Group (V4). The results analysed constituted a research sample of 379 companies in the electrical machinery industry (machine processing industry), which were obtained in the period from March to September 2023 through a targeted survey. The area of analysis included, e.g.: (i) environmental issues of selected areas of activity, (ii) measures of environmental activity, and (iii) selected qualitative-environmental aspects. Analyses of the research results were carried out using quantitative and qualitative analyses, including comparative analyses, e.g. regarding the implementation status of ISO 14001, EMAS, and ISO 9001. These techniques were used: word cloud, ANOVA test and Mann Whitney U test at the significance level of α=0.05. It has been shown that SMEs in V4 countries focus their activities on improving products to improve their quality rather than limiting their negative environmental impact. Originality of the research is the identification of significant differences in the qualitative-environmental aspects undertaken when SMEs from V4 countries. Research results may contribute to the development activities more effective and coherent in the V4 countries, to achieve a stable and competitive advantage on the market as part of the qualitative and environmental improvement of the products. The research results and the conclusions drawn from them can be used by scientists and practitioners to shape the target states of enterprises in the period of increasing involvement in proecological ideas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Wind Flow's Impact on Multi-Storey Buildings: A Quest for Quality Improvement<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This scientific article delves into the intricacies of wind flow's impact on multi-storey buildings, presenting results from a series of experimental investigations. The research encompasses an examination of wind interactions with buildings of varying heights and geometric profiles. Furthermore, it unveils the effects of tall structures on the natural ventilation and smoke evacuation systems of shorter edifices, considering different wind flow directions. The study leverages specialized wind tunnel and measurement techniques for a comprehensive analysis of wind-induced loads on buildings. The acquired insights furnish crucial input for the design of single-story temporary modular constructions within densely populated urban areas, subject to wind-induced stresses. Additionally, they hold potential applicability in the advancement of energy-efficient technologies and strategies within the realm of construction. The acquired dataset underscores the criticality of scrutinizing wind flow's impact on structures of varied typologies and dimensions and will allow to significantly improve the quality and efficiency of modern buildings in the future.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of biomimetic anisotropic crescent-shaped microstructured surfaces by laser shock imprinting<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The crescent-shaped microstructure bionic to the slip zone of the slippery zone of the carnivorous plant genus <italic>Nepenthes</italic> was fabricated on the surface of copper foil by laser shock imprinting (LSI). The microstructure of crescent-shaped grooves was initially fabricated on the surface of the micro-mold by etching, and then the microstructure was replicated on the surface of copper foil through plastic deformation under laser shock loading. Increasing the laser shock energy or the number of shocks can increase the degree of replication of the crescent-shaped microstructure, the height of the crescent-shaped microstructure, and the contact angle of water droplets on the surface. The wettability of the surface of the crescent microstructure is anisotropic and increases with an increase in offset distance. The anisotropy of the crescent-shaped microstructure causes the solid–liquid contact line in the direction of the bottom of the arc to become a long and approximately straight line. According to the rule that controlling LSI processing parameters can fabricate surfaces with different heights and wettability, a gradient wetting surface consisting of crescent-shaped microstructures was designed to achieve the directional spreading of droplets. By altering the distribution of crescent-shaped microstructures, a type-I flow channel with the ability to limit the spreading range of water droplets was fabricated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Tubes using Bonded Magnetic Abrasive Powder in an Abrasive Medium<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Magnetic abrasive flow finishing (MAFF) is an unconventional process capable of producing fine finishing with machining forces controlled by a magnetic field. This process can be utilized for hard to achieve inner surfaces through the activity of extrusion pressure, combined with abrasion activity of a magnetic abrasive powder (MAP) in a polymeric medium. MAP is the key component in securing systematic removal of material and a decent surface finish in MAFF. The research background disclosed various methods such as sintering, adhesive based, mechanical alloying, plasma based, chemical, etc. for the production of bonded MAP. This investigation proposes bonded MAP produced by mechanical alloying followed by heat treatment. The experiments have been conducted on aluminum tubes to investigate the influence of different parameters like magnetic field density, extrusion pressure and number of working cycles. The bonded magnetic abrasive powder used in MAFF is very effective to finish tubes’ inner surfaces and finishing is significantly improved after processing.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Corrosion Resistance of WC-Co Coating on AZ91 Applied by Electro Spark Deposition<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In order to enhance the surface properties of a magnesium-based substrate, WC-Co coating was applied on AZ91 alloy by electro spark deposition (ESD), successfully for the first time. The optimum parameters of the ESD process were achieved, based on the corrosion behavior and calculated corrosion rate of the coated samples when 5kHz and 25 A were chosen. For evaluation of the corrosion performance of the achieved WC-Co layers, polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests were carried out in the 3.5 wt % Na<sub>3</sub>PO<sub>4</sub> solution at room temperature. Polarization results show that the corrosion rate (mpy) is in the optimum condition almost half of a bulk sample of uncoated AZ91. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to examine the surface morphology of applied coatings. These results show that at a lower current, the amount of deposited WC-Co was reduced. The maximum surface microhardness obtained was 193 HV0.2.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Metallurgy Progress, an international open-access journal with 20 years of publishing history the Extension of the Journal`s Scope Electrical Characteristics of Disc-Shaped Compacts Fabricated using Calcined Eggshell Nano Powder and Dry Cassava Starch<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Disc-shaped compacts were fabricated from two mix proportions of calcined eggshell nanopowder and dry cassava starch and then used as test samples. The electrical resistance (R), thermal sensitivity index (β) and electronic activation energy (E<sub>a</sub>) of the samples measured over a temperature range from 35 to 75<sup>o</sup>C were found to decrease non-linearly in values with increasing temperature. It was also observed that the results obtained (R = 3.691E6 Ω – 6.210E7 Ω, β = 3812K – 5316K and Ea = 0.33 eV – 0.46 eV) fulfill market requirements by comparing very well with the established values for NTC thermistors. Hence, from manufacturing viewpoint, recycling of chicken eggshell wastes and cassava effluents can avail electronic industry with promising and alternative materials for fabrication of temperature sensing / monitoring / control devices suitable for engineering applications. This will also help to reduce environmental pollution.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Metallurgy Manufacturing of Iron Aluminides with Different Aluminium Contents and Magnesium Addition by Reactive Hot Pressing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this work, iron aluminide materials, which are promising candidates for high temperature applications, are manufactured through reactive hot pressing of elemental powder mixes, facilitating a straightforward preparation of well-densified materials with a high degree of microstructural homogeneity. The impact of varying Al additions on reaction behavior, microstructural and compositional features of the resulting materials is evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of adding 1 wt. % Mg on reactivity and phase formation is illustrated. The results show that reactive hot pressing of elemental powders in the Fe-Al and Fe-Al-Mg systems at 1000 °C results in residual porosities well below 5 %. Magnesium addition significantly increased reactivity between constituents, leading to slightly improved densification without exhibiting potentially detrimental segregation phenomena. The processing approach presented in this work leads to material characteristics which are promising in the context of developing materials with favorable mechanical and tribological performance at elevated temperatures.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Phosphate Cement Modified with Silicon Nitride/Tricalcium Phosphate Microgranules<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Tetracalcium phosphate/monetite biocement was modified with 10 and 30 wt. % addition of highly porous silicon nitride/α-tricalcium phosphate (αTCP) microgranules with various content of αTCP. A composite cement powder mixture was prepared using mechanical homogenization of basic components. The accelerated release of dexamethasone from composite cement was revealed, which indicates their possible utilization for controlled drug release. The wet compressive strength of cements (&lt;17 MPa) was significantly reduced (more than 30%) in comparison with the unmodified cement and both compressive strength and setting time were influenced by the content of αTCP in microgranules. The addition of microgranules caused a 20% decrease in final cement density. Microgranules with a higher fraction of αTCP showed good in vitro SBF bioactivity with precipitation of hydroxyapatite particles. Microstructure analysis of fractured cements demonstrated excellent interconnection between microgranules and cement calcium phosphate matrix, but also showed lower mechanical strength of microgranule cores.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue