rss_2.0Philosophy FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Philosophyhttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/PLhttps://www.sciendo.comPhilosophy Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/Philosophy.jpg700700Le roman entre inachèvement et clôturehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phainomenon-2021-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The novel gives us access to fictional universes in a fundamentally unfinished mode, which allows the reader to give free rein to his or her imagination, in a freedom that is nevertheless monitored and controlled by rules. This article tries to understand the nature of this incompleteness, by discussing some classical readings. How does this specific dimension of fiction relate to Umberto Eco’s concept of the “open work” or to the idea, developed by the phenomenologist Roman Ingarden, that literary works are “schemas” destined to be “concretized” in the consciousness of the reader? How does Hans Robert Jauss’s aesthetics of reception help us to think about the incompleteness of the work in the proper time of its different readings? Through the fruitful dialogue of these different theories, it is a question of highlighting two important points. First, these theories, while discussing the respective roles of the author and the reader, neglect a a third character who is nevertheless essential to the fictional narrative, the narrator. However, taking into account the latter sheds light on the problems encountered. Secondly, this relationship between the incompleteness of the narrative and the narrator’s position is not in itself specific to fiction. It is not absent from scientific texts, when they are thought of as narratives about reality susceptible of different readings in their history.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Virtuality and Truth. On Literature in Merleau-Ponty’s Indirect Ontologyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phainomenon-2021-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper aims to investigate the importance of literature in Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s reflections concerning two strictly connected phenomenological themes: 1) the virtuality of objects and of existence itself; 2) the genesis of truth and the intuition of essences. According to Merleau-Ponty, modern novelists have adopted a phenomenological method: instead of ‘explaining’ the world through words, they ‘show’ the lifeworld and its paradoxes indirectly. In his view, and against Jean-Paul Sartre’s position, analyzing literature means developing a theory integrating perception and the imagination. Moreover, at the beginning of the 1950’s, this perspective led Merleau-Ponty to a deep revision of the Sartrian concepts of spontaneity and engagement in literary practice in favour of a theory of expression as style. As a conclusion, the paper argues for the key-role of literature in Merleau-Ponty’s indirect ontology as a way of rediscovering unity and harmony behind the metamorphosis of reality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-17T00:00:00.000+00:00: Phenomenology and Literaturehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phainomenon-2021-0011ARTICLE2021-05-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Phénoménologies « de » la littérature – phénomène, imagination, fictions littéraireshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phainomenon-2021-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper intends to offer a first sketch of a pluralist account of contemporary phenomenologies “of” literature. It does so (1) by distinguishing two phenomenological “families” — hermeneutical phenomenology and constitutive phenomenology —, illustrated by two different authors — Ricœur and Husserl —, each of which relies on a distinctive account of the notion of “phenomenon”— <italic>qua</italic> hidden entity providing the ground for what shows itself first and foremost, and <italic>qua</italic> intended unity of a multiplicity of conscious experiences —; (2) by fleshing out the two conceptions of “imagination” — productive imagination and <italic>phantasia</italic> — these accounts of the “phenomenon” give rise to; and finally, (3) by underlining the way in which these two phenomenological accounts lead to alternative ways of apprehending the specific phenomenon of fictional imagination — narrative literary imagination vs. reproductive <italic>phantasia</italic> of the narrative work — thus specifying two relevant senses in which the tasks of a “phenomenology <italic>of</italic> literature” could be understood. Such a complex path should enable us to justify the following claim: while hermeneutical phenomenology “of” literature aims at uncovering literature itself <italic>as</italic> a form of phenomenology, a constitutive phenomenology “of” literature rather understands its task as a way to clarify the fundamental concepts of a whole host of theoretical and practical disciplines <italic>about</italic> literature. Hence the ambiguity of the genitive “phenomenology <italic>of</italic> literature”, which could be read either as ascribing phenomenology <italic>to</italic> literature itself (subjective genitive), or as turning phenomenology <italic>towards</italic> literature (objective genitive). In its conclusion, this paper will tentatively assess the resources of a Husserl-inspired constitutive phenomenology of literature.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Ingarden and Derrida on empty space in literaturehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phainomenon-2021-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article undertakes a comparative study of Ingarden and Derrida in regards to literature. It is being shown that the former’s concepts of ‘spots of indeterminacy’ and ‘empty spots’ resemble the latter’s notions of ‘spacing’ and ‘blanks’. Yet, although they both share a background in Husserlian phenomenology, it is argued that their ideas can hardly be equated to one another. Moreover, Derrida seemed to have avoided any association with Ingarden. This is due to their fundamentally different take on the literary work. Whereas Ingarden mainly considered the ontological nature of literature, Derrida took into account the broader context of the world in which literature takes place. For Ingarden, Derrida would have strayed too far from the subject matter. For Derrida, Ingarden hardly understood its complexity and only examined a small fragment of the issue: the question what makes us grasp literature as such. To Ingarden, those aspects were essential. To Derrida, they were merely objective rules.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-17T00:00:00.000+00:00The contribution of “time novels” to a phenomenology of temporality. Thomas Mann, Martin Heidegger, and our experience of timehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phainomenon-2021-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper insists on similarities between Heidegger’s presentation of Dasein’s authentic understanding of time in <italic>Being and Time</italic> (§§ 79-80) and Thomas Mann’s attempts to “narrate time itself” in <italic>The Magic Mountain.</italic> It shows that Thomas Mann’s temporal experiments can contribute to a phenomenology of temporality, not merely by “illustrating” philosophical theses, but also by achieving something that goes beyond any phenomenological consideration on time: the enactment of fundamental temporal experiences.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-17T00:00:00.000+00:00L’inépuisabilité de l’œuvre littéraire: Réflexion autour de L’œuvre ouverte de Umberto Ecohttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phainomenon-2021-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper focuses on the main claim of Umberto Eco’s <italic>Open Work</italic>, according to which any work of art is an inherently ambiguous message, <italic>i.e.</italic> is inexhaustible, or in principle likely to be the object of an infinite number of interpretations. It does so, first, by restricting itself to the specific topic of the literary work of art, and, secondly, by making a detour, that Eco himself suggests, though he does not really explore it, <italic>via</italic> Sartre’s ontological phenomenology. This detour will eventually lead the reader from <italic>Being and Nothingness</italic> to <italic>What is Literature?</italic>; from Sartre’s “theory of the phenomenon” to his description of the poetic and prosaic attitude; and from a theory of literature <italic>qua</italic> ambiguity-inexhaustibility to that of openness <italic>qua</italic> esthetic phenomenon. Finally, it is the capacity of Sartre’s phenomenology to ultimately clarify, or provide a foundation to, Eco’s own theory, as well as the latter’s originality with regard to the former, that will be studied and accounted for.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Phenomenology and the Transformation of the Modern Novelhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phainomenon-2021-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article examines in what way and to what extent phenomenological philosophy has given rise to a new understanding of the modern novel and to a transformation of its narrative techniques. The starting point for this examination is the claim, made by Merleau-Ponty in “Metaphysics and the Novel”, according to which, in phenomenological philosophy, the task of philosophy is inextricably bound to that of literature. I examine this claim in two ways. First, I situate it historically with regard to the modern novel’s characteristic realism. Then, I show how the phenomenological attitude – formulated by Husserl as a methodological device in distinction with the natural attitude – transforms the novel’s narrative technics. Sartre’s first novel, La Nausée, constitutes an exemplary case to assess this transformation. Combining these two ways, I argue that the claim made by Merleau-Ponty is paradoxical: on the one hand, the intrinsic connection between phenomenological philosophy and literature promotes the cognitive value of the modern novel, but on the other hand, it breaks with the conventions of the novel form and initiates a fragmented writing.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-17T00:00:00.000+00:00On the Phenomenon of Literary Empathyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phainomenon-2021-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper, drawing on Husserl, as well as on certain other phenomenologists such as Merleau-Ponty and Richir, I claim that the phenomenon of the apprehension of the perspectives and emotions of literary characters deserves to be called <italic>literary empathy</italic>. In order to support this claim, I’ll firstly argue that empathy is principally an act of presentification closely related with perception, memory and imagination. Secondly, I’ll argue that <italic>literary empathy</italic> with literary characters is an imaginative reproduction of the reader’s bodily sedimentations under the instruction offered by the literary text. Thirdly, I’ll argue that through <italic>literary empathy</italic>, a reader forms a peculiar intersubjective link with the literary character. The subjects in play are thus the real existential “I” and the imagined Other. Asymmetry of existence-positing and lack of interaction do not prevent the imagined characters from exerting an effective influence upon the reader and reconfiguring her actual life.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Spontaneous Appearance of Life and the Second Law of Thermodynamicshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/biocosmos-2022-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>It is often argued both by scientists and the lay public that it is extremely unlikely for life or minds to arise spontaneously, but this argument is hard to quantify. In this paper I make this argument more rigorous, starting with a review of the concepts of information and entropy, and then examining the specific case of Maxwell's demon and how it relates to living systems. I argue that information and entropy are objective physical quantities, defined for systems as a whole, which allow general arguments in terms of physical law. In particular, I argue that living systems obey the same rules as Maxwell's demons.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Sustaining Resources for : The Potential Application of Synthetic Biology for the Settlement of Marshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sh-2022-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The recent success of the Mars 2020 project and the high quality images relayed back to Earth have provided further impetus and expectations for human missions to Mars. To support space agency and private enterprise plans to establish a sustainable colony on Mars in the 2030s, synthetic biology may play a vital role to enable astronaut self-sufficiency. In this review, we describe some aspects of where synthetic biology may inform and guide <italic>in situ</italic> resource utilisation strategies. We address the nature of Martian regolith and describe methods by which it may be rendered fit for purpose to support growth and yield of bioengineered crops. Lastly, we illustrate some examples of innate human adaptation which may confer characteristics desirable in the selection of colonists and with a future looking lens, offer potential targets for human enhancement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-05T00:00:00.000+00:00On Liberty and Cruelty: A Reply to Walter Blockhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sh-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A standard argument for ethical vegetarianism contends that factory farming – the source of nearly all animal products – is morally wrong due to its extreme cruelty, and that it is wrong to buy products produced in an extremely immoral manner. This article defends this argument against objections based on appeal to libertarian political philosophy, the supposed benefit to animals of being raised for food, and nonhuman animals’ supposed lack of rights.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Back to the Future: The Rise of Human Enhancement and Potential Applications for Space Missionshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sh-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Rapid advances in biology, electronics, computer and data science have turned invention into products, changing the lives and lifestyles of millions of people around the world. This mini-review will describe some remarkable progress made over the last 10 years which serves both healthy individuals and patients alike. With a forward looking lens towards long term space missions and the potential colonisation of the Moon and Mars, we discuss three technologies under development. We conclude with a distant looking perspective on the prospect of gene mediated human enhancement and highlight the importance of aligning benefit for people on Earth with goals for future space missions and the need to establish regulatory and ethical guidelines.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Predictions and Possible Solutions for the Sustainability of Mars Settlementhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sh-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>With the end of the Cold War, political and ideological competition has decreased as a stated reason for space exploration. The possibility of establishing a settlement on Mars is being seriously evaluated by state and commercial space agencies, which includes objectives to expand human civilization and ensure the continuity of the human species. The technological challenges associated with space settlement continue to receive significant attention, but the success of space settlement will also depend on other human factors. This study presents a high-level overview of some potential issues that could arise with the development of a permanent populationand a space economyon Mars. This study highlights some of the anticipated problems of overnance, trade, production, and proliferation that will need pragmatic solutions to ensure the sustainability of a martian settlement. This paper is intended to instigate further discussion and research regarding human and economic factors that could enable or constrain future settlements on Mars.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-05T00:00:00.000+00:00A New Theory of Serendipity: Nature, Emergence and Mechanismhttps://sciendo.com/book/9788366675872<DIV align=justify>The book explores the nature, underlying causes, and the information processing mechanism of serendipity. It proposes that natural or social survival demands drive serendipity, and serendipity is conditional on the environment and the mindset, on both individual and collective levels. From Darwin’s evolution theory to Sun Tzu’s war tactics, major innovations throughout human history are unified by this key concept. In the rapidly changing world, information is abundant but rather chaotic. The adaptive power of serendipity allows people to notice treasures within this wild sea, but only for those who understand how it works. To increase the probability of encountering and attaining serendipity, one should employ the mindsponge mechanism and the 3D process of creativity, for without these frameworks, serendipity is truly an elusive target. The book also discusses methods to build environments and cultures rich in navigational and useful information to maximize the chance of finding and capitalizing on serendipity. As a skill, serendipity has a resemblance to how kingfishers observe and hunt their prey.BOOKTransformative Learning: Reflections on opportunities and challengeshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijtr-2021-0005ARTICLE2022-02-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Projects to Revive National Music in Warsaw in 1919–1926https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/prm-2021-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The year 1918 found Polish national music in a state of extreme neglect, to which had “contributed” — as far as Warsaw was concerned — the period of partitions as well as the time of the Prussian occupation (1915–1918). Attempts to catch up in the field of production and popularisation of national music made from late 1918 by Warsaw activists associated with the a disruption in the existing structure of the public following the influx into ruling party (National Democracy) came up against obstacles caused by Warsaw of impoverished Poles from the provinces, including Russia, as well as an intensification of conflicts between the Polish and Jewish populations. Programmes for a revival of the national music tradition focused primarily on practical actions aimed at improving the lot of Polish musicians by providing them with support from the state and educating a new Polish audience. The third aspect of these programmes was the organisation of a government campaign promoting Polish music abroad. The paper presents unknown sources from the daily Warsaw press of the first half of the 1920s illustrating Warsaw’s everyday musical life in these aspects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Where Is My Home? https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/prm-2021-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There are many countries in which the national anthem has its permanent place not open to discussions. With the Czech national anthem <italic>Where Is My Home?</italic>, however, the case is precisely the opposite. It first appeared under this title in a theatrical farce in 1834 and soon became popular across the nation. In the second half of the nineteenth century, it went through a phase of politicisation (various textual paraphrases, performances at demonstrations as an anti-Habsburg symbol, a resulting ban on singing the piece) as well as one of criticism (in which it was pointed out that the lyrics were outdated and archaic). It was at that time that proposals for the creation of a new “national anthem” were made, while the Catholic circles considered the mediaeval sacred song Saint Wenceslas, which had had a representative function in the state from time immemorial, as a potential candidate. Late in 1918, the entire song <italic>Where Is My Home?</italic> “automatically” became the first of the two parts of the Czechoslovak national anthem, but critical voices could still be heard and alternative proposals were made. The debate was revived after the fall of Communism, and even now there are efforts to “modernise” the official music version. The present paper is an attempt to discover the causes of the controversy around the anthem <italic>Where Is My Home?</italic>. This will be done by focusing on its genesis (inspirations), analysing its content and psychological dimension, considering the critics’ reservations, competition, etc. An interpretation will also be attempted as to why <italic>Where Is My Home?</italic> has withstood all the attacks and remained the national and state anthem.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Editorialhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/prm-2021-0012ARTICLE2022-02-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Permanent Values and Variability in Janáček´s Opinions on National and Regional Identity in Relation to Musichttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/prm-2021-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Leoš Janáček (1854–1928) was one of those composers whose work was in many respects closely connected with current social events and yet it carried a deep and timeless ethical message. Janáček’s activity as an artist, teacher and organiser reflected changes in the political and cultural paradigm disseminated in the European countries in the course of more than six decades. He himself went through an interesting inner development resulting from his studies, artistic and life experience, as well as his empathy related not only to his narrow individual but also a wider collective space. His relative isolation from the official artistic establishment of Prague gave him an opportunity to formulate his original views on the European, national, and regional identity. In addition to various literary forms, music composition remained his fundamental means of expression. In this context, this paper will attempt to define the basic directions in Janáček´s dynamic evolution and the areas in which his key values and priorities remained constant.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-12T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1