rss_2.0Philosophy FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Philosophy Feed XXVII-th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE of INVENTICS "INVENTICA 2023. "<DIV align=justify><P>"INVENTICA 2023" provides an opportunity for all individuals passionate about creativity across all fields to discuss and exchange research ideas. "INVENTICA 2023" is a celebration event dedicated to inventors, creators in technique and art and also, a collaborative platform in a stimulating, innovational, cultural atmosphere, cultivated over the past 50 years by the School of Inventions in Iasi. </P> <P>It aims to showcase, disseminate and promote scientific research findings and cutting-edge technological advancements, while also identifying the progress and current state of the field of creativity. </P> <P>The "INVENTICA 2023" Conference encourages scientific investigation in invention, innovative and inventive products, and brings together researchers interested in the field of invention, innovation and creativity. The primary focus area of the "INVENTICA 2023" Conference include psycho-technical creation, technical creation methods, interdisciplinary research on optimizing human performance, creativity in engineering, the intersection of science and art, and intellectual property. </P> <P>The main purpose of the Conference as a study of creativity is to establish an academic forum for scientific innovation and creativity. The event also offers a valuable opportunity to communicate, network, and share research and innovation outcomes with a broad audience of the general public and users. </P> <P>The 27th Inventica International Conference is scheduled to be held on June 22nd – 23rd 2023 at the Aula Carmen Silva of Technical University “Gheorghe Asachi” in Iasi, Romania. The event is organized by the National Institute of Inventics Iasi at “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi and the Department of Digital Production Systems, Faculty of Machine Manufacturing and Industrial Management. </P> <P></P> <P>Contact: </P>BOOKtrue Worlds<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This work explores issues with the eliminativist formulation of ontic structural realism. An ontology that totally eliminates objects is found lacking by arguing, first, that the theoretical frameworks used to support the best arguments against an object-oriented ontology (quantum mechanics, relativity theory, quantum field theory) can be seen in every case as physical models of empty worlds, and therefore do not represent all the information that comes from science, and in particular from fundamental physics, which also includes information about local interactions between objects. Secondly, by giving a critical assessment of the role of symmetries in these fundamental physical theories; and, lastly, by warning about unfounded metaphysical assumptions. An argument is made for a moderate form of structural realism instead, one in which objects play the fundamental role of representing symmetries and bearing their conserved charges, and of participating in the network of interactions observed in the world.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and a Functional Equal Weight View<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>If a colleague of mine, whose opinion I respect, disagrees with me about some claim, this might give me pause regarding my position on the matter. The Equal Weight view proposes that in such cases of peer disagreement I ought to give my colleague’s opinion as much weight as my own, and decrease my certainty in the disputed claim. One prominent criticism of the Equal Weight view is that treating higher-order (indirect) evidence in this way invariably swamps first-order (direct) evidence. While the opinions of our peers matter in our deliberations, the Equal Weight view counter-intuitively requires that evidence of mere disagreement is more important than standard kinds of evidence. I offer a proposal for how we should idealize epistemic agents that identifies the variable feature of disagreements that accounts for the shifting significance of direct and indirect evidence in different disagreement contexts. Specifically, by idealizing epistemic agents as deriving functions that characterize the non-subjective relationship between a body of evidence and the reasonableness of believing the various propositions supported by that evidence, we can accommodate the intuition to compromise that motivates the Equal Weight view, without accepting the counter-intuitive results.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Constancy Mechanisms Draw the Limits of Intentionality?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>What are the minimal conditions for intentionality that a sensory state should satisfy for it to constitute a representational state? That is, what are the limits of intentionality? This is the problem of demarcation. The goal of this paper is to assess a specific demarcation proposal for the minimal conditions of intentionality—the constancy mechanism proposal. Accordingly, it is a minimal condition for the intentionality of a given state that the sensory system should employ a constancy mechanism in the production of this state. First of all, I introduce the problem of demarcation and show its relevance for the debate on the viability of naturalist theories of mental representation. After that, I present the explanatory role requirement for the positing of representational states by intentional explanations of behaviour and show how it constitutes a criterion for the assessment of demarcation proposals for the limits of intentionality. Finally, I assess the constancy mechanism proposal and show that its viability is seriously jeopardised by the minimal distance problem.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Information-Theoretic Account of Knowledge, Closure and the KK Thesis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One common objection to Dretske’s Information Theoretic Account of Knowledge (ITAK) is that it violates closure. I show that it does not, and that extant arguments attempting to establish that it does rely instead on the KK thesis. That thesis does fail for ITAK. I show moreover that an interesting consequence of ITAK obeying the closure principle after all is that on this view if skepticism is false, we can have a great deal of empirical knowledge, but it is in principle impossible to know that skepticism is false. In short, a proper understanding of how ITAK closes off the KK thesis shows that we can 1) take seriously the skeptic, we can 2) respond to her appropriately that we do have knowledge and we can 3) keep closure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and the Least Action Principle<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This work deals with obstacles hindering a metaphysics of laws of nature in terms of dispositions, i.e., of fundamental properties that are causal powers. A recent analysis of the principle of least action has put into question the viability of dispositionalism in the case of classical mechanics, generally seen as the physical theory most easily amenable to a dispositional ontology. Here, a proper consideration of the framework role played by the least action principle within the classical image of the world allows us to build a consistent metaphysics of dispositions as charges of interactions. In doing so we develop a general approach that opens the way towards an ontology of dispositions for fundamental physics also beyond classical mechanics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Public Finances of Spain and Poland in the Period 2020–2021: Historic and Economic Perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The conclusion emerging from the analysis on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on public finances in Spain and in Poland in the years 2020–2021 shows that the effects should be considered in the short-term and long-term perspectives. The short-term perspective is featured by deterioration of the budget condition and the public debt ratio of both countries in the first year of the pandemic, and an improvement of the situation in 2021. The effects of the pandemic for public finances were far more severe in Spain, which – viewed objectively – resulted from the fact that financing of the support programmes was to a larger extent based on funds from the state budget. In Poland the impact of these expenditures on the budget was relatively insignificant since the majority of the outlays were taken outside of the state budget, and even out of the sphere of public finances. As a consequence, the budget deficit remained at a moderate level and the debt of the public sector in relation to GDP was half that of Spain. Despite the fact that the condition of public finances was markedly worse there after two years of combating COVID-19, it was decisively more transparent. Admittedly, the model introduced in Poland ensured peace in the system of public finances on the formal side, but it meant future costs that were unavoidable and difficult to assess.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue COVID-19 Pandemic and Debudgetisation of Polish Public Finances<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the article is to analyse the provisions regulating the organisation and principles of financial management of the COVID-19 Counteracting Fund in the context of progressive debudgetisation of public finances. The first part presents the concept, sources and effects of debudgetisation of public finances, with emphasis on earmarked funds as the basic example of this process. The second part assesses the regulations concerning the organisation and tasks of the COVID-19 Counteracting Fund, and presents the sources of financing and the principles of financial management. Using methods according to contemporary legal, economic and financial principles (in particular, a critical review of the literature on the subject, legal acts, and analysis of statistical data), basic features determining the actual nature and role of the COVID-19 Counteracting Fund in the collection and spending of public money were verified. The hypothesis that this institution (despite not having the status of a state earmarked fund in the normative sense) is a kind of para-budget with typical functions of public finances was confirmed. The creation of the COVID-19 Counteracting Fund resulted in the exclusion of some finances of a public nature from the general pool, intended primarily for tasks related to health care during the COVID-19 pandemic. The adoption of such a solution is part of a trend of increasing deviations from the principle of completeness of the state budget noticeable in recent years, which has led to excessive debudgetisation of the state budget. This, in turn, is not conducive to maintaining transparency and rationality in the collection and spending of public funds, which are prescribed by the doctrine.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Some New Approaches to Knowledge Representation in Multidimensional Perspective: From Theory Through Experience to Scientific Practice<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This special issue offers a multidimensional perspective on the recent inquiries into knowledge representation. Multidimensionality exposes the complexity of knowledge representation and helps distinguish between different approaches and research tools. On the one hand, the presented research focuses on the theoretical and empirical aspects of knowledge representation (taking into account cognitive processes and capacities, including linguistic skills needed to generate and express knowledge); on the other, the articles included in the issue discuss the practical discourse, analyzing actions from the point of view of cognitively oriented semantics and the scientific practice broadly understood. The issue consists of five papers that show how certain ideas in the research area of knowledge representation inspired the authors to look for new approaches to modelling concepts and practical reasoning, constructing theory of signs using the tools of data science, and dealing with cognitive artifacts in scientific practice and its dynamics. What these approaches have in common is their attempt at capturing the multidimensionality of knowledge representation in such a way that integrates them. Our goal is to emphasize some innovative aspects of those approaches with respect to the dynamics of knowledge representation in both the cognitive system and scientific practice.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of COVID-19 Pandemic on Public Debt – International Perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A direct consequence of the pandemic was the widespread occur-rence, and in many OECD countries – a growing public finance imbalance. The paper presents the results of research on the dynamics and structure of public debt, its relation to GDP and to the net borrowing of the general government sector. The main purpose of the article is to show the impact of the pandemic on the size and structure of public debt in the largest EU economies, as well as in other selected OECD countries. An attempt was also made to identify factors that had a significant impact on the amount of public debt during the pandemic. The new debt was used primarily to finance net borrowing and, ultimately, to support the economy and selected social groups. However, as the article points out, the new debt to a significant extent financed the increase in liquidity in the public sector, and in some cases – a larger volume of loans granted by public sector entities and their equity investments.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Common Good from the COVID-19 Pandemic Perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, edited on the basis of a critical review of domestic and foreign literature, as well as authors’ own analyzes, previously presented in several articles (Słodowa-Hełpa 2015; Gorynia 2021 and 2022), mainly in two shorter texts published in popular magazines with a range of Poland (Gory-nia and Słodowa-Hełpa 2022a, 2022b), selected aspects of the concept of the common good from the perspective of the Covid-19 pandemic were presented.</p> <p>The authors’ conviction that in the process of searching for cures to overcome civilization turbulences, the common good cannot be eliminated from the social, political, economic and moral space, was the inspiration to take up this issue. Therefore, the search for answers to the following four questions was considered leading: Will pandemic experiences catalyze a better understanding of the common good? How can they reduce its deficit? To what extent can a return to the concept of the common good, offering real forms of participation and shared responsibility, help in overcoming the painful effects of the present and future threats to civilization? Can respecting the principles of the common good be considered an imperative in the process of overcoming problems of an increasingly global scope?</p> <p>In view of the ambiguity of the category of the common good and the related interpretation difficulties, it was deemed necessary to place the main part of the study in the background of the most general approach to the essence of the analyzed category and its status in philosophical and economic terms.</p> <p>The summary outlines conclusions and postulates concerning the conditions for the functioning of global common goods and the possibility of using them in international cooperation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Finance in Poland in a COVID Fog: A Look Through the Lens of Fiscal Transparency and Accountability<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Goal</bold> – The aim of the article is to identify dysfunctional phenomena (implementation of specific mechanisms/solutions and actions taken), generating increased opacity and limit the responsibility/accountability of public finance in Poland, exacerbated by the COVID-19 crisis.</p> <p><bold>Methods</bold> – descriptive analysis, comparative analysis and financial analysis methods were used.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold> – fiscal transparency and accountability in Poland is limited by: the marginalisation of the role of the state budget, the loosening of the stabilising expenditure rule, the creation of financial mechanisms based on special funds fed by repayable financing sources for the implementation of state tasks, inter alia, in the fight against the effects of the COVID-19 crisis, the use of national and EU methodologies for calculating the deficit and debt of the public sector in order to conceal part of them, the lack of a consolidated financial statement of the public finance sector.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Routines, Threads and Network Dynamics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper focuses on knowledge generation, a topic frequently overlooked in the traditional debates in epistemology and philosophy of science. We focus on investigation as the primary process generating knowledge and its products. Investigation is taken as a generalization of the research process that includes similar knowledge-generating practices in aboriginal communities. To characterize the complexity of investigation processes and their products we go beyond traditional epistemological characterization of knowledge in terms of mental states and turn to the concept of routine. Investigation processes share a common symbolic representation form which we call here a <italic>knowledge thread</italic>. The dynamics of the knowledge thread may be characterized by two intertwined tiers: cognitive and institutional. Using examples from our previous studies, especially on the recent discovery of microRNAs in molecular biology, we illustrate the dynamics of threads and claim that it is susceptible to the social network analysis which, however, requires insightful applications and sound interpretation of the results. Such an interpretation, as we suggest, may further be elaborated on the grounds of anthropological theories of distributed agency and distributed cognition.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Role of Source and Target Words’ Meanings in Metaphorical Conceptualizations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper argues that metaphorical expressions do more than just instantiate conceptual metaphors. The main aim is to emphasize the role source and target words’ meanings play in construing generic-level metaphors. The latter are taken to act as superordinate categories for other metaphors, occurring at various levels of schematicity. Identification of lower-level metaphors takes into account source words’ metaphorical senses, not the central meanings of the categories they represent. This method brings the issue of source words’ polysemy into play, and hence helps explain why metaphorical expressions relating to the same generic-level metaphor may activate different lower-level metaphors, which carry different metaphorical meanings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Categories: A Data Science Approach to Semiotics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Compared to existing classical approaches to semiotics which are <italic>dyadic</italic> (signifier/signified, F. de Saussure) and <italic>triadic</italic> (symbol/concept/object, Ch. S. Peirce), this theory can be characterized as <italic>tetradic</italic> ([sign/semion]//[object/noema]) and is the result of either doubling the dyadic approach along the semiotic/ordinary dimension or splitting the ‘concept’ of the triadic one into two (semiotic/ordinary). Other important features of this approach are (a) the distinction made between <italic>concepts</italic> (only functional pairs of extent and intent) and <italic>categories</italic> (as representations of expressions) and (b) the indication of the need for providing the mathematical passage from the <italic>duality between two sets (where one is a singleton) within systems of sets</italic> to <italic>category-theoretical monoids within systems of categories</italic> while waiting for the solution of this problem in the field of logic.</p> <p>Last but not least, human language expressions are the most representative physical instances of semiotic objects. Moreover, as computational experiments which are possible with linguistic objects present a high degree of systematicity (of oppositions), in general, it is relatively easy to elucidate their dependence on the concepts underlying signs. This new semiotic theory or rather this new research program emerged as the fruit of experimentation and reflection on the application of data science tools elaborated within the frameworks of Rough Set Theory (RST), Formal Context Analysis (FCA) and, though only theoretically, Distributed Information Logic (DIL).</p> <p>The semiotic objects (s-objects) of this theory can be described in tabular datasets. Nevertheless, at this stage of formalisation of the theory, lattices (not trees) can be used as working representation structures for characterizing the components of concept systems and graphs for categories of each layer.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Patents in Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Production in the Context of Passenger Car Fleet in the V4 Countries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The hydrogen market in the world today is capable ovule and empirical evidence on activity of patents in fuel cells and hydrogen production is limited so far. Patent applications in zero-emission mobility in the aspect of fuel cells include: DAFC/DMFC&amp;DMFC, PEMFC, SOFC, AFC, PAFC. As for the patents relating to the hydrogen production, they concern low carbon, electrolysis and inorganic. The purpose of the study was to investigate certain aspects of the activity of patents in fuel cells and hydrogen production in the context of passenger car fleet in the Visegrad group (V4) countries and to explore the relationship between patent registrations and GDP per capita in V4. The research area relates to the answer to the question of whether a country’s involvement in zero-emission patent activity (patents in fuel cells and hydrogen production) could contribute to the renewal of the country’s passenger car fleet. The theses were formulated as follows: 1) activity of patents in fuel cells and hydrogen production in the V4 countries doesn’t depend on the car fleet in these countries, 2) the level of GDP per capita in the V4 countries is not followed by the number of patents registrations in hydrogen technology, 3) the highest patent activity in fuel cells and hydrogen production doesn’t mean that the car fleet in these country will be zero-emission in coming years. The method used in this article is a comparative analysis, but also the relationships between patent registrations, GDP per capita and passenger car fleet in V4 are considered</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Asset and Liability Management (SALM): Perspective of Pandemic COVID-19 Outbreak in Oecd Countries, Including Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The COVID-19 pandemic is global and affects all countries in the world. The difference in the financial impact assessment of its outbreak concerns, inter alia, the state of preparation of the public sector in the previous period. The article assumes that countries which coordinated the structure of sovereign assets and liabilities before 2020 were less exposed to the negative effects of financial risks resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p>The study uses data and methodology of the International Monetary Fund and the authors’ measures dedicated to the public sector to assess the sovereign asset and liability management (SALM).</p> <p>As part of the results, the negative value of net worth and the national net welfare index for the studied countries, including Poland in the period before the pandemic crisis, were indicated. In addition, the level of the loans mismatch on the public balance sheet and the scale of the increase in financial risk in the first year of COVID-19 are presented. Conclusions of research make it possible to assess the impact of COVID-19 on Sovereign Asset and Liability Management.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Monetary Expansion: Are Business Profits to be Blamed for the Inflation in 2022?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Recent increases in inflation rates around the world has lead to many discussions on the causes of such rapid adjustments, some suggesting that higher profits are responsible driving force behind inflation. Here we will focus on the United States case and demonstrate why quantity theory of money is relevant to explain what has been going on with inflation after 2020 rather than profit based theory of inflation. First section introduces the argument. Second section restates quantity theory of money with relevance to the empirical literature. Third section shows why quantity theory despite some suggestions works to explain the current levels of inflation. Fourth section notices why increases in nominal profits during inflation are part of the natural adjustment path. Last section offers concluding comments.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue with Expectations About Causal Relations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Reasoning is not just following logical rules, but a large part of human reasoning depends on our expectations about the world. To some extent, non-monotonic logic has been developed to account for the role of expectations. In this article, the focus is on expectations based on actions and their consequences. The analysis is based on a two-vector model of events where an event is represented in terms of two main components – the force of an action that drives the event, and the result of its application. Actions are modelled in terms of the force domain and the results are modelled with the aid of different domains for locations or properties of objects. As a consequence, the assumption that reasoning about causal relations should be made in terms of propositional structures becomes very unnatural. Instead, the reasoning will be based on the geometric and topological properties of causes and effects modelled in conceptual spaces.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Determing the COVID-19 Fiscal Stimulus Packages. the Case of the Advanced and Emerging Economies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article discusses the determinants of fiscal policy in the times of COVID-19. Most economists share the opinion that fiscal packages are necessary to mitigate the health and economic costs of a pandemic. However, the scale of fiscal intervention and the types of fiscal policy instruments that should be used raise doubts.</p> <p>The aim of the article is to explore the factors determining the size and structure of fiscal packages which have been implemented globally in response to the crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, attention is drawn to the potential impact of fiscal intervention on public finance sustainability, bearing in mind that most governments have chosen to use fiscal support instruments to enhance consumption and investment following the COVID-19 hit, although the cross-country differences are evident both in the magnitude and composition of fiscal stimulus packages.</p> <p>A descriptive analysis was conducted along with a panel data analysis to examine the determinants of government fiscal support in response to the COVID-19 crisis. The empirical analysis is based on cross-sectional data from the International Monetary Fund, OECD and Eurostat. The sample consists of 40 countries representing advanced and emerging economies. Based on the panel analysis, it was found that the total fiscal stimulus packages depended mainly on the fiscal space. Fiscal intervention in countries with greater tax-collection capacity (such as Germany, United States, United Kingdom and Japan) was greater compared to others. A positive and statistically significant relationship between the average income level and the size of fiscal stimulus was also confirmed. Moreover, it turned out that countries with larger populations and higher fatality rates provided greater fiscal support for the COVID-19 pandemic.The empirical analysis expands the existing knowledge on the determinants of the fiscal policy implemented in response to the COVID-19 crisis under the conditions of low interest rates, when macroeconomic stabilization can only be ensured through fiscal stimulus programs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue