rss_2.0Pharmacy FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Pharmacy Feed and attitudes towards addiction to psychoactive substances in professional groups of health care workers, teachers and the police in the Lubuskie Voivodeship<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Drug addiction is a common phenomenon that increases with the progress of the European integration process. Professional help to people addicted and under the influence of drugs or other psychoactive substances should be provided primarily by health care institutions. An important and interesting issue seems to be the assessment of how people who have the most frequent contact with addicts are prepared to provide help, what is their knowledge and attitude to the phenomenon of drug addiction and to people addicted to psychoactive substances. The material for the research was a questionnaire for people who have contact and / or work professionally with people addicted to psychoactive substances. A total number of 253 people who had professional contact with people addicted to psychoactive substances were examined, including 102 men and 151 women. The respondents most often acquired knowledge in the field of drug addiction through the mass media. The exception is the professional group of doctors, which was the only one to refer to professional literature. Contact with drug addicts was not worried by 68.6% of doctors, 68.4% of policemen, 45.9% of nurses and only 39.0% of teachers. Fear may be caused mainly by possible aggressive behavior, which is feared by 49.8% of the respondents, including 58.3% of women and 37.2% of men. When it comes to 90.1% of respondents, they believe that the cause of aggression is the lack of control over their emotions. The results of the work can be helpful in creating new, satisfying solutions to difficult situations and developing cooperation characterized by empathy and acceptance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00The development of the Metabolic-associated Fatty Liver Disease during pharmacotherapy of mental disorders - a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Metabolic-associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD) is a term for Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) that highlights its association with components of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). MAFLD is becoming a clinically significant problem due to its increasing role in the pathogenesis of cryptogenic cirrhosis of the liver.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods:</bold> The resulting work is a review of the most important information on the risk of MAFLD development in the context of the use of particular groups of psychotropic drugs. The study presents the epidemiology, with particular emphasis on the population of psychiatric patients, pathophysiology and scientific reports analyzing the effect of the psychotropic medications on MAFLD development.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The drugs that can have the greatest impact on the development of MAFLD are atypical antipsychotics, especially olanzapine, and mood stabilizers (MS) - valproic acid (VPA). Their effect is indirect, mainly through dysregulation of organism’s carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The population of psychiatric patients is particularly vulnerable to the development of MAFLD. At the root of this disorder lies the specificity of mental disorders, improper dietary habits, low level of physical activity and tendency to addictions. Also, the negative impact of the psychotropic drugs on the systemic metabolism indirectly contributes to the development of MAFLD. In order to prevent fatty liver disease, it is necessary to monitor metabolic and liver parameters regularly, and patients should be screened by ultrasound examination of the liver. There are also important preventive actions from the medical professionals, including education of patients and sensitizing to healthy lifestyle.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00„Streaming trap – the occurrence of the phenomenom of binge-watching and the mean world syndrome: a narrative review”<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> With the increase in popularity of VOD (Video on Demand) platforms, there has been an increase in binge-watching and associated processes, which may influence the development of ‘mean world syndrome’. The aim of this study is to analyse current knowledge of the above phenomena and their interrelationships.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods:</bold> A narrative review of the available literature was conducted by searching PubMed and Google Scholar databases using the following keywords: binge-watching, mean world syndrome, fear of missing out (FOMO), speed-watching from 2000 to 2021</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The most important motivations for the development of binge-watching are social aspects, fear of missing out (FOMO), hedonistic needs and escape from reality. The process is exacerbated by depressive-anxiety disorders, loneliness, pathological overeating and neglect of responsibilities. To save time, viewers often practice speed-watching. A positive correlation has been shown between the severity of binge-watching and mean-world syndrome in viewers who watch series such as: House of Cards, The Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt, Marco Polo, Bloodline and Daredevil, as well as the frequency of watching horror films and viewers’ belief that they are more likely to die. In contrast, no relationship was shown with fear for safety in one’s home. People, who watch reality shows with a competitive scenario, perceive the world to be more hypocritical and manipulated.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold>Compulsive viewing of violent programmes co-occurs with the phenomena of FOMO and speed-watching and can exacerbate the perception of the world as a dangerous place. In the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, both phenomena have increased, affecting the functioning of society.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADH-D) in an eleven-month-old infant with marked hypotonia and staring episodes: a case report<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <sec id="j_joepi-2022-0003_s_001"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADH), also known as 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria (OMIM #271980, 610045), is an ultra-rare neurometabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. It is usually characterised by a relatively nonprogressive encephalopathy in the first two years of life with hypotonia and developmental delay, associated with mild ataxia and hyporeflexia, as well as delays in language and speech development.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_joepi-2022-0003_s_002"> <title style='display:none'>Case report</title> <p>We report on a case of a four-year-old girl with SSADH deficiency who presented, at the age of 11 months old, with marked hypotonia, global neurodevelopmental delay and epilepsy. The diagnosis of “Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency” was indicated as there was a marked elevation of the levels of 4-hydroxy-butyric and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid caused by mutation at the gene ALDH5A1 in the homozygous state, identified with WES technique. Currently, she is four years old and has a severe global psychomotor delay, excessive hypotonia, hyperextensibility, and ataxia and is free of seizures.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_joepi-2022-0003_s_003"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>At the early stage of clinical presentation, the condition is difficult to differentiate from other encephalopathies. This case report suggests that analysis of urinary organic acids should be performed in all patients at risk to allow early diagnosis. DNA analysis with the WES technique can confirm the diagnosis.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-05T00:00:00.000+00:00How can we distinguish postictal Todd’s Paralysis from acute ischemic stroke in the prehospital and early hospital setting?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <sec id="j_joepi-2022-0002_s_001"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Acute Ischemic Stroke (AIS) is a medical emergency with focal neurological deficits. Todd’s paralysis (TP) is defined as a transient loss of motor ability and weakness that lasts hours to days and typically occurs after a focal seizure. Given the high prevalence of stroke and the rising availability of reperfusion therapies, timely detection of eligible patients is critical. Pre- and early-hospital differential diagnosis of various conditions with comparable clinical presentations is still difficult.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_joepi-2022-0002_s_002"> <title style='display:none'>Aim</title> <p>This review discusses Todd’s post-epileptic paralysis, one of the most common stroke mimics (SM), in pre- and early-hospital settings.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_joepi-2022-0002_s_003"> <title style='display:none'>Discussion and Conclusions</title> <p>The review covers the most critical findings on the TP and its emergency care as a common stroke mimic. Because TP is an excluding diagnosis, the most severe and curable illnesses must be recognised. Since thrombolysis is safe in SM, delaying or withholding medication may be improper when the advantages of treating a stroke mimic outweigh the dangers of treating a stroke mimic.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Study and determination of fructan-type polysaccharide content in L<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fructan-type polysaccharidescomes from natural sources and occur in a large variety of plants, where they play important biological roles as reserve carbohydrate. One of the most commonly distributed compound from this group – inulin has been part of human daily diet for hundreds of years, as it is found in many fruits and vegetables, among others, bananas, onions and wheat. The inulin-type fructans: inulin and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are considered to be functional food elements, the consumption of which brings about health benefits. Indeed, inulin can be consumed to increase the dietary fiber content. Fructan compounds, inulin and fructooligosaccharides have a strong bifidogenic effect, and have a positive action on the gut microbiota. In this work, we preformed gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of <italic>Erigeron annuus</italic> L. herb. The GC-MS analysis of carbohydrate composition confirmed the presence of free (arabinose, glucose, fructose 1, fructose 2) and fermented (arabinose, glucose, fructose 1, fructose 2, sucrose) carbohydrates at the quantity of 69.83 and 91.70 mg/g d.w., respectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Efficiency of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Anorexia Nervosa Treatment- Case Report<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation with considerable potential as a treatment for many CNS disorders. Individuals suffering from eating disorders have elevated rates of lifetime depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder, also affecting specific brain regions. More studies assess the effect of brain modulation in anorexia nervosa (AN). This study aimed to evaluate the effect, tolerability and safety of tDCS stimulation in the patient with an AN diagnosis.</p> <p><bold>Material and method:</bold> The therapy was implemented in an 18-year-old female hospitalized at the I Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Early Intervention Medical University of Lublin. The simulation was performed twice daily for 25 minutes for two weeks, 20 sessions. To assess a. anthropometric measures, bioelectrical impedance analysis was conducted; b. biological factors fasting venous blood was drawn; c. psychological aspects: Eating Attitudes Test, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, Body Esteem Scale, Perceived Stress Scale were used.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The patient responded well to stimulation - apart from a mild headache. After tDCS sessions, improvement in anthropometric measurements, mood, and body self-esteem was observed. No severe changes in blood parameters were observed after the intervention.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Described study case offer preliminary support for achieving meaningful clinical outcomes using transcranial stimulation. However, future clinical studies compared to the placebo group are necessary for proposing a new type of AN therapy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Can electrical interventions be helpful in treating mood disorders in patients diagnosed with personality disorders? Case report and literature review.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> The main indication for electrical interventions remains mood disorders. Depressive disorders have high comorbidity, which is one factor in poorer remission and higher suicide risk. Borderline personality disorder is characterized by a variety of psychopathology, in particular the presence of mood swings, impulsive behaviour, and difficulties in maintaining stable interpersonal relationships. An extremely serious clinical problem is the occurrence of episodes of self-harm and suicidal behaviour in these patients. Comorbidity in affective disorders increases the risk of suicide and also reduces the likelihood of achieving symptomatic remission.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods:</bold> A case report of a patient with a major depressive episode and suicidal tendencies with coexisting borderline personality disorder who received electrical treatments with good results is presented and literature from the last 10 years is reviewed using the keywords: borderline personality disorder, depression, electroconvulsive therapy, suicide.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The results of several studies indicate that electrical treatments are partially effective in patients suffering from depressive disorders and borderline personality disorder.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The case of the patient described, as well as data from the literature, suggest that further research is needed into the use of electrical interventions in patients with mood disorders and comorbidity, and their use may be considered in them as a potentially good therapeutic method. The use of ECT in a patient with comorbid personality disorder reflects an individualized treatment approach; however, there is a need for further research in this area, especially in the context of long-term treatment effects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00ECT on a world map - a narrative review of the use of electroconvulsive therapy and its frequency in the world<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Since implementation, electroconvulsive therapy has remained very effective treatment in psychiatry. The aim of this study is to present the differences in its use in medical practice around the world. The range of diseases in which ECT is most commonly used and the frequency of its use in different countries were compared with special attention to the differences between highly and poorly developed countries.</p> <p><bold>Material and method:</bold> Review of literature by searching PubMed and Google Scholar databases using the keywords: indications of ECT, frequency of ECT use for papers published from 1991 to 2021.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Among the diseases for which electroconvulsive therapy is used worldwide, major depression dominates, while in Asia and Africa this therapy is used in schizophrenia. In Latin America it is used primarily for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In Poland, it is used for depression, bipolar disorder, and fewer for schizophrenia. The highest rate of people treated with therapy per 100,000 population is found in countries such as the USA (51), Canada (23.2-25.6), Australia (37.85), Sweden (41), Finland (23), Slovakia (29.2), Estonia (27.8) and Belgium (47).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> There is a relationship between the range of diseases most frequently treated with ECT, the frequency of use and the level of country development. In the high developed countries, ECT is used mainly in major depression, in less developed countries more frequent treatment of schizophrenia may be determined by the high cost of medications and limited availability of hospital beds. The highest rates of use of this therapy are found in more developed countries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Anthocyanin-Rich Extract of Red Cabbage Attenuates Advanced Alcohol Hepatotoxicity in Rats in Association with Mitochondrial Activity Modulation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Aim</title> <p>The liver is the main target for alcohol-induced injury. The aims of this work were to carry out further research into the mechanisms of liver damage induced by long-term administration of high-dose ethanol to rats and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of red cabbage (<italic>Brassica oleracea</italic> var. <italic>capitata</italic> f. <italic>rubra</italic>) anthocyanins (RCE).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Material/Methods</title> <p>Male albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was the control. Groups 2 through 4 received ethanol (4 g/kg body weight, 8 weeks). Group 3 received 11 mg RCE/kg and Group 4 received 22 mg RCE/kg. Dry lyophilised RCE was prepared from fresh red cabbage and analysed. We then evaluated the liver histology, mitochondrial respiration, and biochemical and immunological parameters in these groups of rats.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The rat intoxication caused steatohepatitis characterised by macro- and microvesicular steatosis, ballooning and fatty liver dystrophies, lymphocytic infiltration, neutral lipid accumulation, and elevations of the serum activities of the liver injury marker enzymes. The treatment of alcohol-administered rats with RCE (mainly, cyanidin-3-diglucoside-5-glucoside, cyanidin-3-coumaroylrutinoside-5-hexoside, cyanidin-3-feruloylrutinoside-5-hexoside, delphinidin-3-feruloylrutinoside-hexoside) dose-dependently alleviated these pathological changes: The sizes of hepatocyte lipid vacuoles and the inflammatory signs were decreased, and the levels of the rat serum biochemical markers of liver injury, proinflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-6, and the adipokine leptin (and not TGFβ) were significantly reversed. The RCE administration during intoxication completely recovered the changed liver mitochondria respiration rates and the ADP/O coefficient, as well as the phagocytic index and neutrophil metabolic activity in the blood. In experiments in vitro, RCE (13.6 μg/ml) modulated the respiratory parameters of isolated rat liver mitochondria, dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential, and inhibited the Ca<sup>2+</sup>-induced mitochondrial permeability transition.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The red cabbage anthocyanins could be useful for treatment of alcoholic liver injury due to their Ca<sup>2+</sup>-ionophoric/protonophoric activity, influence on Ca<sup>2+</sup> homeostasis, and improving mitochondrial functions and inflammatory status.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Retrospective Assessment of the Use of Pharmacotherapeutic Agents in Pregnancy with Potential Impact on Neonatal Health<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study focuses on the role of a clinical pharmacist in the optimisation of pharmacotherapy in the case of patients during pregnancy and its importance within the hospital sector in Slovakia. Retrospective evaluation of pharmacotherapy in pregnant patients with a focus on teratogenicity and appropriate drug selection was used. The hospital data were collected during 24 months from 22 female patients. The main observed outcome was health condition of the newborn, and it was expressed as healthy newborn, illness of the newborn, any congenital defect or malformation, spontaneous abortion, or unspecified information about the newborn. Based on a foetal risk assessment of used therapeutic agents from the Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC), basal foetal and neonatal risk assessment (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_afpuc-2022-0015_ref_002">Briggs et al., 2017</xref>), and recommendations and related human past reports and supporting evidence studies, drugs were divided into two groups: confirmed foetal risk drugs and negative (nonconfirmed) foetal risk drugs. A total of 36.3% of the patients used two drugs. Patients most frequently used drugs during the first trimester (81.8%). During pregnancy, the most used drugs were for the nervous system (25.5%), anti-infective agents (23.6%), and respiratory therapeutic agents (14.5%). Of the 22 patients, 16 (73%) had healthy newborns, despite the use of therapeutic agents with different foetal-risk variations. In the group of therapeutic agents with confirmed risk, in some, negative effect on the newborn's health was clinically manifested. Spontaneous abortion was present after using norethisterone acetate and valproic acid; birth defect (unspecified) was present after usage of interferon β-1a and methylprednisolone sodium succinate. An illness (heart murmur) was present after the use of monohydrate sodium salt of metamizole. Another illness (Wilm's tumour) was present after the use of budesonide. Unspecified information about the newborn was observed in four cases after the use of prednisone, allopurinol, nadroparin, and fluvastatin.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00N-glycans Profiling in Pilocarpine Induced Status Epilepticus in Immature Rats<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Status epilepticus (SE) is a common neurological emergency in children and a well-known epileptogenic insult. Neonates are extremely susceptible to seizures in the neonatal period due to the higher vulnerability. Neonatal SE is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. There is an evident need for attention on neonatal SE in research due to the incredibly limited diagnostic and treatment options in current neonatology, and its serious long-term consequences. The aim of the present study was to characterize the glycoprofiles in the pilocarpine-induced SE model in immature rats to assess the overall N-glycans composition. To induce lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pilo) SE male Wistar rat pups were pretreated with lithium chloride (127 mg/kg, n=11) on the 11th postnatal day. After 24 hours, the lithium pre-treated pups were administered either with pilocarpine intraperitoneally (i.p.) (35 kg/g, n=6) or saline (n=5) in the control group (Control). On the 19th postnatal day, serum was collected and the analytical procedures were done by mass spectrometry (MS) analytics on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization in combination with a time-of-flight detector (MALDI-TOF/MS). Analyzed data were processed by FlexAnalysis (Bruker Daltonics) and GlycoWorkbench software. There were 21 N-glycans that were identified, appointed, and sorted with special emphasis on their structure. We have demonstrated the significant changes in terms of N-glycans sialylation in Li-Pilo compared to the Control. We also observed some other remodelation trends in different portions of relative intenstities of N-glycan clusters according to their glycan type. Our preliminary findings have laid the foundation for additional investigation into glycosylation alterations in the SE in immature rats.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of Organic Solvents and β-cyclodextrins on Capillary Zone Electrophoresis Separation of Five Biogenic Amines and Two B Vitamins<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The effects of organic modifiers—alcohols (methanol, isopropanol), acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran—and β-cyclodextrins in capillary zone electrophoresis were investigated using a test mixture containing five biogenic amines important from the human health point of view—serotonin, dopamine, adrenaline, noradrenaline, and tyramine—and two B vitamins—thiamine and pyridoxine. The simultaneous addition of tetrahydrofuran and isopropanol was found to improve the resolution of determined analytes and enable effective separation of analytes with very similar electromigration characteristics migrating as one peak (dopamine and serotonin). The developed and optimised separation method based on capillary zone electrophoresis and ultraviolet detection was capable to achieve detection limits at the concentration level in the range of 0.15 to 1.25 μg/mL<sup>−1</sup>. The developed method was also characterised by other favourable validation parameters, such as linearity (<italic>r</italic><sup>2</sup> &gt; 0.99), accuracy (82.9–117.8% for the intraday measurements, and 87.6–119.2% for the interday measurements), and precision (intraday relative standard deviation in the range of 0.4–15.5%, interday relative standard deviation in the range of 0.9–18.3%). The method was finally applied to investigate the stability of the analytes in model water matrix samples under various storage conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00The role of appetite-controlling hormones in the development of eating disorders in diabetic 2 patients<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) are common eating disorders (EDs) in individuals with diabetes type 2 (DT2). They worsen metabolic control, have a negative impact on physical and mental health and reduce quality of life. The roles of appetite-controlling hormones – leptin and ghrelin – is not clear enough in EDs and need to be investigated in order to establish new approaches and markers of EDs. Aim: To assess the difference in leptin and ghrelin levels in DT2 patients with and without EDs. 57 patients with DT2 were involved in the study. After physical examination and screening for EDs, blood samples for leptin and ghrelin measuring were obtained.</p> <p>Results: 19 participants (33.3%) were screened positively for ED (BE or NES). Leptin levels were higher in participants with ED (p&lt;0.05). Conversely, ghrelin levels were lower in those with BE or NES (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p>Leptin level is increased in DT2 individuals with BED and NES, whereas ghrelin is decreased. Leptin and ghrelin alterations maintain emotional eating, increase the frequency of binge and night eating episodes. In screening for EDs, assessing leptin and ghrelin levels will facilitate obesity reduction and improve metabolic control in diabetic patients.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Experimental study of the antiulcer effect of cryopreserved placenta extract on a model of acetylsalicylic acid-induced ulcerogenesis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> The gastrotoxicity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is a leading side effect that significantly limits their clinical use, among other types of their toxicity (nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, etc.). Cryopreserved placenta extract has drawn our attention as a potential modifier of the ulcerogenic action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.</p> <p><bold>Aim.</bold> To characterize the cytoprotective properties of cryopreserved placenta extract by the condition of the mucous membrane of the proximal (esophagus and stomach) and distal (small and large intestine) parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract on the model of ASA-induced ulcerogenesis.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> The study was performed using 28 male rats weighing 200-220 g. Subchronic ASA-induced ulcerogenesis of the digestive tract was reproduced by intragastrically administration to rats of ASA in a dose of 150 mg/kg. The effect of the studied drugs on the condition of the mucous membrane of the digestive tract was assessed macroscopically by the following criteria: edema, redness and hemorrhage on the surface of the mucous membrane. The ulcer index for each group of animals was calculated.</p> <p><bold>Results and discussion.</bold> Five doses of ASA 150 mg/kg cause damage to the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines in all of the rats. The use of the proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole has pronounced gastrocytoprotective properties, but does not affect the ulcerogenic effect in the small intestine, and in the colon, it enhances it. This is indicated by ulcerative lesions of the colon in 57.1% of all rats administered ASA and esomeprazole, as well as in the folding of the gastric mucosa. In contrast, mild hyperemia of the gastric mucosa was seen in 28.6% of all rats and moderate hemorrhage in 57.1% of all rats due to the combined use of ASA and cryoextract placenta.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> The use of cryopreserved placenta extract is statistically significantly (p &lt;0.05) inferior to the antiulcer activity of esomeprazole in the stomach. Thus, the ulcer index on the background of the use of ASA and cryopreserved placenta extract was 0.97, and on the background of the use of ASA and esomeprazole – 0.39. In the distal parts of the GI tract cryoextract placenta showed cytoprotective properties against the background of induced ASA ulcerogenesis, in contrast to esomeprazole.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Legal protection of the human genome – excessive or disproportionate?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Throughout the 20<sup>th</sup> century, life expectancy in developed countries considerably increased from 40 to 70 years. This stemmed mainly from the technological advancements in medicine that have been taking place since the end of the 19<sup>th</sup> century. Although the development of contemporary clinical medicine is undoubtedly beneficial to public health, it may also entail certain hazards. Hence, both in international and national law systems one can find legal regulations setting the limits of this development and taking into account the principles of public safety in its contemporary understanding. Both the human being as a whole and the human genome are protected <italic>de jure</italic>. The article attempts to answer the question whether the currently binding genome regulations are excessive or disproportionate. The authors use the dogmatic-legal and the theoretical-legal methods in the study. The article ends with conclusions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Thin-layer chromatography of DNS amino acids derivatives in systems with silica gel and silanized silica gel plates<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Investigations into separation selectivity of High-Performance Thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) of dansyl (DNS) derivatives of amino acids in silica gel (Silica gel 60 F<sub>254s</sub> plates) and silanized silica gel (RP-18 W plates) systems are presented. The results have been obtained for mobile phases containing different concentrations of acetonitrile (ACN) in formic acid (FA) water solution (final concentration of FA in the mobile phase was equal to 265 mmol/dm<sup>3</sup>). The data obtained show differences in separation selectivity of the solutes between employment of HPTLC silica gel and RP-18 W systems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-02T00:00:00.000+00:00The recent guidelines for pharmacotherapy of Parkinson’s Disease<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is one of the most frequent disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). PD is an age-related disease in that morbidity increases with age. The main symptoms of it are motor symptoms like bradykinesia, rigidity and resting tremor. These symptoms diminish the comfort of the patient’s life and may lead to immobility. Hence, rapid diagnosis and start of treatment are very important.</p> <p>The pharmacotherapy of PD is difficult. PD involves an imbalance between the dopaminergic and cholinergic systems. Therefore, the mechanisms of action of currently available drugs are highly connected with the pathology of PD, and follow dopaminergic or anticholinergic control strategies. However, long-term use of many PD medications comes with serious side effects. Therefore, the search for new, more effective drugs involving different strategies to that current and having different targets is still on-going.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-02T00:00:00.000+00:00The epidemiological situation in Ukraine in terms of the implementation of preventive vaccinations according to the Protective Vaccination Program<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The level of immunization of children and adolescents under the Protective Vaccination Program in Ukraine is lower than in Poland, and, due to the outbreak of the war in Ukraine, many people now live in conditions that are often unsanitary. Centers for refugees are also places of increased risk of outbreaks of infectious diseases. This risk is increased by the low percentage of the vaccinated, limited access to healthcare (including diagnostics) and overcrowding.</p> <p>The paper presents the state of vaccination in Ukraine against poliomyelitis, measles, diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, the most important problems in the field of infectious diseases, as well as the resulting risks and the need to prevent them.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluating the reasons for delays in treatment of oral cavity cancer patients<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The growing increase in oral cavity cancer (OSCC) incidence constitutes a severe diagnostic-therapeutic problem – and early diagnosis, as well as medical treatment remain important priorities of maxillofacial oncology. The aim of this paper was to determine the reasons for delays in the diagnostics and treatment of oral cavity cancer patients. The study focused on 248 patients (=56.1 years) post-surgery, in which delays in diagnostics and treatment were reported. As for the causes, most frequently, in 171 cases (69.0%), patient delays were reported, in 56 cases, physician delays were observed, and in 21 cases (8.5%), organizational reasons were to blame. The median time period between the onset of the symptoms and seeking medical attention was 143 days. Time interval between the first contact with a doctor and commencement of oncological treatment was 33.2 days approximately. The majority of the patients were not aware of the oral cavity cancer risk. Misdiagnosis of symptoms as inflammation, as well as prolonged antibiotic therapy and diagnostics constitute main reasons for physician and organization-al/health care system delays. Raising patients’ awareness of cancer risk, as well as educational and promotional programs for physicians are the principal goals of a strategy aiming to enhance oral cancer diagnosis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-02T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1