rss_2.0Pharmacy FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Pharmacy Feed, Caring, Learning - Thinking outside the box to solve care challenges in a rare blood disorder<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A specialist nurse for over 20 years, Sandra reflects on her experience of finding ways to deliver effective care for a young girl with a very rare clotting disorder. Symptoms of the girl’s disorder were evident from birth and through an emergency use request Sandra and the care team enabled her family to access a treatment that at the time was in clinical trial. Poor venous access meant there was a need to adapt how treatment was administered and she worked with the girl’s parents to ensure that she was treated effectively. Alongside educating the parents, Sandra highlights the importance of her role in educating co-workers and other hospital staff likely to come into contact with the girl, to ensure that she always had access to timely and appropriate care. She also reflects on other instances where thinking creatively enabled patients in her care access to treatments that may not otherwise have been accessible. Now retired, Sandra continues to be involved in advocacy for people with bleeding disorders.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue change in practice: A report from the EHC Think Tank workstreams on Registries and Patient Agency<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>System change addresses the fundamental causes of persistent, complex problems to achieve large-scale, sustainable solutions at multiple levels. Recognising the need for system change to ensure equitable access to healthcare for people with bleeding disorders and other rare diseases, the European Haemophilia Consortium (EHC) established a Think Tank to work alongside its traditional advocacy initiatives. The Think Tank has mobilised a broad range of healthcare stakeholders to identify challenges and co-create potential solutions through a series of thematic workstreams exploring specific aspects of the healthcare system. This paper reports on outcomes and learnings from the Registries and Patient Agency workstreams.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Methodology/Process</title> <p>During a series of online meetings and face-to-face discussions, workstream stakeholders contributed to a three-phase process: 1. Discovery; 2. Strategy; 3. Innovation. Having identified key challenges to system change for Registries and Patient Agency, stakeholders mapped the system in which they were working to refine the challenges, recognise enablers and constraints to progress, and use leverage points to co-create strategies for change.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The Registries workstream prioritised actions to address challenges around lack of common purpose and data quality, and agreed to move forward with developing a consensus statement to facilitate buy-in from key stakeholders, working on good governance for registries, hosting a network for registry owners, and creating a model for patient data input and feedback. A Registries Roadmap was completed for 2025 and 2030, and a project initiated to align registries in Europe. The Patient Agency workstream agreed actions should focus on challenges related to the role of the patient, recognising the need to elevate patient influence in all aspects of the healthcare system. Actions aimed to address the current stakeholder hierarchy and gaps in patient health literacy, and to optimise the potential of digital tools to enable patient contributions to patient-reported outcome and experience measures (PROMs and PREMs). Projects include developing a patient agency guidebook and a patient experience data (PED) dossier on von Willebrand disease, to provide a one-stop repository for regulators, researchers, clinicians and patients.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>There is a clear need for system change to ensure equitable access to healthcare for people with rare diseases such as bleeding disorders. Bringing together multiple stakeholders with different and complementary knowledge and approaches has facilitated the development of innovative strategies for system change in relation to Registries and Patient Agency. Work has started on pilot projects to move these strategies forward.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, Caring, Learning - Building family relationships in haemophilia care<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>With over 35 years’ experience of paediatric nursing, almost half of which she has spent in haemophilia care, Robyn reflects on the importance of taking a family-focused approach and engaging with parents and caregivers. She describes her experience of providing care for a family with two boys with severe haemophilia A and inhibitors, and how listening to and working closely with the parents enabled good outcomes. Robyn points to the central role of nursepatient relationship in haemophilia care but highlights the importance of ensuring that this close therapeutic relationship remains professional.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, Caring, Learning - Changing mindsets and enabling goals for people with haemophilia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In a nursing career spanning almost five decades, Anne Louise has spent over 30 years caring for people with haemophilia in South Africa. She reflects on the importance of prophylaxis and how tailoring treatment to meet individual needs not only helps to prevent bleeds but can make goals and aspirations attainable. Describing her experience of how she supported a young man with severe haemophilia in achieving his ambition to become a paramedic, Anne-Louise demonstrates the importance of the nurse-patient relationship and the role of the nurse in providing individualised care. She discusses advocating for prophylaxis and the need to change mindsets, and highlights the need for further change in access to treatments for haemophilia in South Africa. The patient also describes his journey to achieving the level of fitness he needed to undertake the entrance exam to train as paramedic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue study of food plants<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study is to investigate the phytochemistry of two food and herb plants that are commonly consumed. They are the beetroot and the celery, which are commercially known and have been grown for a long time in our country and in Europe. The beetroot (<italic>Beta vulgaris var. rubra</italic>) belongs taxonomically to the order Magnoliopsida, family Amaranthaceae, subfamily Chenopodiaceae, within which it is a member of the subgenus Beta. Celery (<italic>Apium graveolens var. dulce</italic>) is a plant of the order Magnoliopsida, Apiales, and of the family Apiaceae. Beetroot is one of the vegetables that owes its antioxidant activity partly to its phenolic components. The active substances include various vitamins, minerals, phenolic components, anthocyanins, fibers, carotenoids, ascorbic acid. Celery stalks contain phenolic components, furanocoumarins, and essential oils. The widespread use of celery stalk is due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antimicrobial, antifungal and serum lipid-lowering properties. It is also used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Beetroot and celery stalk were used to prepare methanolic, ethanolic (50%) and aqueous extracts. For the determination of total polyphenols, ethanol (50%) proved to be the better solvent for both beetroot and celery. The total polyphenol content of beetroot was significantly lower than that of celery. In the determination of flavonoids in celery, the highest concentrations were obtained in the aqueous extracts. When anthocyanin concentrations were determined in cooked and raw beetroot, almost identical but surprisingly low concentrations were obtained. In case of the ABTS method used for antioxidant measurements, ethanolic extracts (50%) are the best free radical scavengers for beetroot, while methanolic extract of frozen stem part is the most effective in case of celery.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of hospital length of stay and mortality with the osteoporotic hip-fracture type, treatment, the sociodemographic and hospital variables<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Introduction: Diseases related to the elderly, including osteoporosis and the resulting fractures have a high incidence and are characterized by a high risk of early death. Most hip fractures are treated surgically. Its cost projections vary widely depending on the region, the level of institutional care, and the surgical solutions used.</p> <p>Material and method: We performed a retrospective study using hospital data from 2018-2019. The study included patients whose main diagnosis was: S72.0 - femoral neck fracture, S72.1 - pertrochanteric fracture, S72.2 - subtrochanteric fracture. We used hospital data from seven Romanian counties, Arad, Arges, Bucharest, Szilágy, Temes, Tulcea and Vaslui.</p> <p>Results: Women were significantly more affected (68.3%) than men, however the risk of mortality was 1.7 times higher among men. The average age was 77.2 years, 86% of the patients were over 65 years old. Most patients (69.3% ) were urban residents, but they were also characterized by a higher LOS and mortality.</p> <p>Discussion: Fracture types, gender distribution and correlation with urbanization of the fractures are consistent with international epidemiological data. Regression analysis shows a significant correlation between the length of hospital stay and the following variables: gender, environment, age, diagnosis, type of hospital and death. Regarding the average time of hospital stay, the shortest duration of hospitalization was in Vaslui and Tulcea (9.59 and 9.79 days), while the longest (13.42 and 14.61 days) were in Arad and Arges counties.</p> <p>Conclusions: On average, the patient hospitalization time in the examined counties is higher (13 days) than the Romanian average (11 days). Mortality is significantly higher among men, urban residents and those who suffer subtrochanteric fractures. Regarding the costs per patient of fractures, it can be said that Arad is the most economical, while Salaj county is the least cost-effective.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and mycophilately<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Alexander Fleming, the Scottish bacteriologist, discovered penicillin 95 years ago, which has been an important drug used in the therapy of bacterial infections for eight decades. This event can be interpreted as one of the greatest scientific achievements of the 20th century. The significance of this life-saving medicine is often reflected in various artworks. The portrait of the discoverer as well as the illustration of Penicillium mould is frequently met on postage stamps.Mycophilately is a distinct area in the thematic collection of stamps, with increasing interest, encompassing the collection of stamps that illustrate fungi. Stamps with penicillin-related themes can be utilized as resources to study the cultural history of penicillin.The purpose of this paper is to present the illustration of this significant scientific discovery on postage stamps.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue body composition is associated with reduced steatosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Background: Based on cross-sectional studies, there is a link between body composition parameters and steatosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, whether long-term changes in different body composition parameters will result in NAFLD resolution is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to summarize the literature on longitudinal studies evaluating the association between NAFLD resolution and body composition change.</p> <p>Methods: Based on the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook, we performed a systematic search on September 26th, 2021, in four databases: Embase, MEDLINE (via PubMed), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Eligible studies reported on patients with NAFLD (liver fat &gt;5%) and examined the correlation between body composition improvement and a decrease in steatosis. We did not have pre-defined body composition or steatosis measurement criteria. Next, we calculated pooled correlation coefficient (r) with a 95% confidence interval (CI).</p> <p>Results: We identified 15 eligible studies, of which 5 five studies were included in our quantitative synthesis. Based on two studies with 85 patients, we found a pooled correlation coefficient of r=0.49 (CI: 0.22-0.69, Spearman’s correlation) between the change of visceral adipose tissue and liver steatosis. Similarly, based on three studies with 175 patients, the correlation was r=0.33 (CI: 0.19-0.46, Pearson’s correlation). On the other hand, based on two studies with 163 patients, the correlation between subcutaneous adipose tissue change and liver steatosis change was r=0.42 (CI: 0.29-0.54, Pearson’s correlation).</p> <p>Conclusion: Based on the included studies, body composition improvement is associated with a decrease in liver fat content in NAFLD.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Hungarian naturalists of Transylvanian origin: course of life of Vilmos Hankó – from Parajd to the Hungarian Academy of Sciences<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In our series, we have commemorated a number of Transylvanian-born scientists who have made a mark in the field of chemical and pharmaceutical sciences. One of them was Vilmos Hankó (1854-1923), born in Parajd, who had a unique career. He graduated as a chemistry teacher and received his doctorate from the University of Cluj-Napoca. His activities were extremely rich and varied. After Déva, he was a teacher and then director of one of the most famous high schools of Budapest for 36 years. In addition to his teaching activities, he has made significant contributions to the analysis and description of natural treasures (minerals, mineral waters) and to the modernization of science. He is the author of numerous books and has a very rich publication, textbook and editorial output. He was elected a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in recognition of his work. He died 100 years ago in Budapest.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Abstracts 51st Conference Synthesis and Analysis of Drugs (SAD 2023) Oral Presentations of Abstracts 51 Conference Synthesis and Analysis of Drugs (SAD 2023) Poster Session Acid in Underground Parts of Different Species<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Mints (<italic>Mentha</italic> L., Lamiaceae) are medicinal plants frequently used in pharmacy, cosmetics, and food industry. Among the secondary metabolites found in mint, rosmarinic acid is one of the most abundant in the whole plant. Rosmarinic acid is known as a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Aim</title> <p>There is much information about the use and profile of secondary metabolites of mint's aerial parts. On the contrary, less is known about the secondary metabolites in the rhizomes. So, this research intended to determine the content of rosmarinic acid in the underground parts of 10 species of the genus <italic>Mentha</italic>, section <italic>Mentha</italic>.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Method</title> <p>High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was used to identify and determine rosmarinic acid.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Rosmarinic acid was detected in all 10 species. The highest amount was found in <italic>Mentha × piperita</italic> L. “BULHARSKA 1” and <italic>Mentha rotundifolia</italic> (L.) Huds. The lowest content of rosmarinic acid was found in <italic>Mentha arvensis</italic> L., and a slightly higher content was measured in <italic>Mentha × piperita</italic> L.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The underground parts of mints seem to be an interesting source of natural antioxidants such as rosmarinic acid.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and longer-term goals for change – A report from the 2nd workshops of the EHC Think Tank Workstreams on Access Equity and Future Care Pathways<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>The second series of workshops for the EHC Think Tank Workstreams on Access Equity and Future Care Pathways involved working towards consensus on addressing challenges to progress around achieving equitable access to care and shaping rare disease care pathways that meet patient needs while remaining practicable and affordable to healthcare providers. This report summarises workshop outcomes from these two workstreams, in which stakeholder participants identified a ‘guiding star’ determining the direction of ongoing focus, defined achievable ‘near star’ milestones, and enablers and constraints to achieving these.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Guiding Stars</title> <p>The Access Equity Workstream proposed focusing on developing a healthcare system that enables patients to benefit from care and treatment fairly and impartially. The Future Care Pathways Workstream agreed that their focus would be on developing care pathways that provide the right intervention at the right time by the right healthcare professional in the right formats with a variety of delivery methods to suit the person.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Near Stars</title> <p>For the Access Equity Workstream, changes in narrative and behaviour were the achievable milestones that the group agreed to prioritise. Greater stakeholder collaboration and consistent data collection and use will be important enablers for change. Participants proposed greater emphasis on investment and value (instead of cost and return) and a change of mindset from ‘fixing the patient’ to achieving a healthy life through early intervention and preventing comorbidities. However, lack of clarity over what constitutes ‘value’ and around stakeholders' responsibilities, limited outcome measures and resistance to change may constrain progress. A near star for the Future Care Pathways workstream was the development of seamless, personalised care pathways with integrated digital and AI-based technologies to enable real-time measurement of pathway effectiveness. Participants felt that understanding and respecting patient behaviour and the nudges and incentives needed to promote pathway acceptance will be important. As in the Access Equity Workstream, they recognised the role of routine, standardised data collection for measuring outcomes, sharing information and informing decision-making. They predicted that building trust between stakeholder groups (including patients, healthcare providers, academic and life science companies) and using patient networks and advocates effectively would enable collaboration and ensure that patient needs and insights are acted upon. However, financial and legal aspects, inadequate implementation of technological infrastructure, limited systems integration, and lack of stakeholder time, effort and energy are all potential constraints that will need to be addressed.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue multidisciplinary approach to optimising the virtual management of haemophilia: a roundtable meeting of UK experts<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The necessity of a multidisciplinary team (MDT) approach in haemophilia care is well recognised globally, with international guidelines advocating this. Prior to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, virtual MDT haemophilia care was gaining support worldwide. However, the pandemic necessitated the rapid implementation of innovative virtual solutions to ensure continued access to multidisciplinary care. A multidisciplinary panel of healthcare professionals who specialise in haemophilia care in the United Kingdom gathered to discuss the following: the current landscape of haemophilia MDT care and best practices, the benefits, challenges, and opportunities for virtual MDT care, managing bleeds remotely, virtual paediatric care, and the future of virtual MDT care. The consensus was that virtual MDT care is widely used, however formats vary depending on the healthcare setting, available resources, MDT preferences, and local policy. Advisors agreed that virtual MDT care has several benefits, such as improved convenience/choice for their patients and wider patient reach. However, many patient-specific and logistical challenges exist. Hybrid care models may provide an opportunity to overcome these challenges. The decision on how bleeds are managed (virtually versus face-to-face) depends on provider preference, the patient-provider relationship, and the patient’s disease severity, history, and ability to self-manage. As such, this should be assessed on a case-by-case basis. Virtual tracking tools cannot be solely relied upon for MDT decisionmaking as patient accuracy cannot be ascertained. The MDT composition for paediatric care should be tailored to the patients’ and their parents’/caregivers’ needs. Lastly, hybridised care will likely be adopted for future haemophilia management and will facilitate the advancement of MDT care.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue liposomal hydrogel: a step forward for enhanced treatment of MRSA-related skin infections<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Azithromycin (AZT) encapsulated into various types of liposomes (AZT-liposomes) displayed pronounced <italic>in vitro</italic> activity against methicillin-resistant <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> (MRSA) (1). The present study represents a follow-up to this previous work, attempting to further explore the anti-MRSA potential of AZT-liposomes when incorporated into chitosan hydrogel (CHG). Incorporation of AZT-liposomes into CHG (liposomal CHGs) was intended to ensure proper viscosity and texture properties of the formulation, modification of antibiotic release, and enhanced antibacterial activity, aiming to upgrade the therapeutical potential of AZT-liposomes in localized treatment of MRSA-related skin infections. Four different liposomal CHGs were evaluated and compared on the grounds of antibacterial activity against MRSA, AZT release profiles, cytotoxicity, as well as texture, and rheological properties. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the potential of liposomal CHGs for the topical localized treatment of MRSA-related skin infections. CHG ensured proper viscoelastic and texture properties to achieve prolonged retention and prolonged release of AZT at the application site, which resulted in a boosted anti-MRSA effect of the entrapped AZT-liposomes. With respect to anti-MRSA activity and biocompatibility, formulation CATL-CHG (cationic liposomes in CHG) is considered to be the most promising formulation for the treatment of MRSA-related skin infections.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue impact of cryoprotectant exposure time on post-thaw viability of autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells and leukocyte subpopulations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Although the use of cryoprotectant dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is the gold standard in cryopreservation of hematopoietic stem cells, it is well known that it has a negative effect on cell viability. The aim of this prospective study was to examine how the length of post-thaw exposure to DMSO affects the cell viability and stability of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) samples. Additionally, the effects of donor type and pre-cryopreservation storage time on post-thaw viability during the stability study were evaluated. In 30 autologous and 30 allogeneic PBSC samples viable CD34+, CD14+, CD19+, CD16+/56+, and CD3+ cells were determined immediately after thawing, and one-and three-hours post-thaw.</p> <p>Analysis of the absolute count of viable cells in thawed samples showed a significant difference between all measurement points for CD34+ (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001), CD14+ (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001), and CD19+ cells (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001). No significant differences were observed for post-thaw stability of allogeneic samples analysed between products stored before cryopreservation ≥ 24 hours (N = 20), and those stored &lt; 24 hours (N = 10), except for viable CD3+/CD4+ cells after three hours post-thaw (<italic>p</italic> = 0.028). In conclusion, DMSO had different effects on leukocyte subpopulations in cryopre-served PBSC samples. The type of donors and the length of storage before cryopreservation did not affect the post-thaw stability of cryopreserved PBSC samples.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue about medicines’ association with endocrine therapy adherence in early breast cancer survivors in Croatia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This observational, cross-sectional study conducted at the University Hospital Centre Zagreb (UHC Zagreb) aimed to explore patients’ beliefs about adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) as well as their association with non-adherence and sociodemographic and clinical factors. Out of 420 early breast cancer (BC) patients included in the study, 79.5 % perceived AET necessary and important for their health, as measured by the Belief About Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ), with the mean necessity score (20.4 ± 3.68) significantly higher than the mean concerns score (13 ± 4.81) (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001). Based on the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS-5), 44.4 % (<italic>n</italic> = 182) of the participants were non-adherers, out of which 63.2 % (<italic>n</italic> = 115) were unintentional and 36.8 % (<italic>n</italic> = 67) intentional non-adherers. Significantly higher concern beliefs were found among patients that were younger (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001), employed (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001), intentionally non-adherent to AET (<italic>p</italic> = 0.006), had a lower body-mass index (<italic>p</italic> = 0.005) and a higher level of education (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001), were premenopausal at the time of diagnosis (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001), taking tamoxifen treatment (<italic>p</italic> = 0.05) and receiving ovarian suppression (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001). Younger patients should be recognized as being at risk of non-adherence as they hold greater concern beliefs about medicines.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue’s discovery of the periodic table and the first European Academy of Sciences to honour him<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The chemical science community will commemorate the 155<sup>th</sup> anniversary of Mendeleev’s groundbreaking discovery of the periodic table of elements in 2024. This paper aims to underscore the significance of Mendeleev’s honorary membership in the Academy of Sciences in Zagreb, Croatia, which occurred in 1882, making it the first scientific academy in Europe to extend this recognition. Additionally, we seek to explore the contextual circumstances that contributed to this noteworthy event within the broader European context. To provide insight into the specificities and variations in the influence and reception of the periodic table of elements within the educational process of select European countries (Russia, Germany, Czech Lands, Serbia), we conducted a comprehensive review, drawing comparisons to Croatia. Notably, upon its initial publication in 1869, the discovery of the periodic table did not gain immediate acceptance in Croatia, largely attributed to the absence of a well-established presence of chemical science within the country. About fifteen years passed from Mendeleev’s discovery of the periodic law to its reception and dissemination throughout Croatia. Despite an initial delay, Croatian chemical science followed the development of the periodic table through secondary and university education, while actively partaking it in.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue’ approval rate of pharmacist-initiated interventions to optimise patients’ clinical status of hypertension in the ambulatory care setting<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This perspective, pre- and post-intervention study with a one-year follow-up primarily aimed to ascertain prescribers’ approval rate of pharmacists’ interventions and clinical status of hypertension following comprehensive medication management (CMM) intervention in the ambulatory care clinic. Between January 2018 and January 2022 overall 100 patients with hypertension and other comorbidities were referred to the CMM services at the Health Centre Zagreb – Centar (HCZC). Out of 275 interventions directed to prescribers, 73.1 % of interventions were approved, 12.4 % were rejected and 14.5 % were not reviewed. The percentage of patients with a blood pressure goal increased from 45 % at the initial consultation to 82.5 % at the patients’ latest encounter (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001). The average number of drug therapy problems (DTPs) per patient totaled 3.53 ± 1.80, where 98 % of patients had one or more DTPs, 48 % had 4 or more DTPs, whereas 26 % had 5 or more DTPs. Sub-therapeutic dosage (32.6 %) and the need for additional drug therapy (30.9 %) were the two most commonly identified DTPs. These results reinforce the need to integrate pharmacy-led services in the primary care setting with the aim of improving patients’ health outcomes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of astaxanthin/zeaxanthin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers for enhanced bioavailability: Characterization-, stability-and permeability study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Astaxanthin (ASTA) and zeaxanthin (ZEA) are xanthophyll carotenoids showing a wide spectrum of health-promoting properties. However, their utilization is limited, mostly due to poor water solubility, limited bioavailability, and a tendency to oxidate, as well as photo- and thermal instability. The aim of this work was to develop ASTA- and ZEA-loaded nano-structured lipid carriers (NLCs) that would protect them against degradation and improve their intestinal stability/permeability. Obtained NLCs were characterized by an effective diameter of 294 nm for ASTA-NLC and 280 nm for ZEA-NLC; polydispersity index (<italic>PDI</italic>) lower than 0.2; and zeta potential of –29.4 mV and –29.0 mV, respectively. Interestingly, despite similar physicochemical characteristics, our investigation revealed differences in the encapsulation efficiency of ASTA-NLC and ZEA-NLC (58.0 % <italic>vs</italic>. 75.5 %, respectively). Obtained NLCs were stable during a 21 day-storage period in the dark at room temperature or at 4 °C. Investigation of gastrointestinal stability showed no change in effective diameter and <italic>PDI</italic> under gastric conditions while both parameters significantly changed under intestinal conditions. Our results showed for the first time that both ASTA- and ZEA-NLCs intestinal absorption investigated in the <italic>in vitro</italic> model is significantly increased (in relation to pure compounds) and is affected by the presence of mucus. This study provides useful data about the advantages of using NLC as a delivery system for ASTA and ZEA that might facilitate their applications in the food and pharmaceutical industry.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue