rss_2.0Pharmacy FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Pharmacy Feed opposite effect of convulsant drugs on neuronal and endothelial nitric oxide synthase – A possible explanation for the dual proconvulsive/anticonvulsive action of nitric oxide<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nitric oxide (NO) participates in processes such as endothelium-dependent vasodilation and neurotransmission/neuromodulation. The role of NO in epilepsy is controversial, attributing it to anticonvulsant but also proconvulsant properties. Clarification of this dual effect of NO might lead to the development of new antiepileptic drugs. Previous results in our laboratory indicated that this contradictory role of NO in seizures could depend on the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoform involved, which could play opposite roles in epileptogenesis, one of them being proconvulsant but the other anticonvulsant. The effect of convulsant drugs on neuronal NO (nNO) and endothelial NO (eNO) levels was investigated. Considering the distribution of neuronal and endothelial NOS in neurons and astrocytes, resp., primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes were used as a study model. The effects of convulsant drugs pentylenetetrazole, thiosemicarbazide, 4-aminopyridine and bicuculline on NO levels were studied, using a spectrophotometric method. Their effects on NO levels in neurons and astrocytes depend on the concentration and time of treatment. These convulsant drugs caused an increase in nNO, but a decrease in eNO was proportional to the duration of treatment in both cases. Apparently, nNO possesses convulsant properties mediated by its effect on the glutamatergic and GABAergic systems, probably through GABA<sub>A</sub> receptors. Anticonvulsant properties of eNO may be the consequence of its effect on endothelial vasodilation and its capability to induce angiogenesis. Described effects last as seizures do. Considering the limitations of these kinds of studies and the unexplored influence of inducible NO, further investigations are required.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue glycol monoethyl ether-mediated nanostructured lipid carriers enhance -ferulic acid delivery by Caco-2 cells superior to solid lipid nanoparticles<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This work aimed to compare the performance of <italic>trans</italic>-ferulic acid-encapsulated nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) for transport by Caco-2 cells. The NLC particles (diameter: 102.6 nm) composed of Compritol<sup>®</sup> 888 ATO, ethyl oleate, Cremophor<sup>®</sup> EL, and Transcutol<sup>®</sup> P were larger than the SLNs (diameter: 86.0 nm) formed without liquid lipid (ethyl oleate), and the former had a higher encapsulation efficiency for <italic>trans</italic>-ferulic acid (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05). <italic>In vitro</italic> cultured Caco-2 cell transport was used to simulate intestinal absorption, and the cellular uptake of NLCs was higher than that of SLNs (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05). Compared to SLNs, NLCs greatly enhanced <italic>trans</italic>-ferulic acid permeation through the Millicell<sup>TM</sup> membrane (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05). This work confirms that NLCs have better properties than SLNs in terms of increasing drug transport by Caco-2 cells. This helps to comprehend the approach by which NLC-mediated oral bioavailability of <italic>trans</italic>-ferulic acid is better than that mediated by SLNs, as shown in our previous report.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue anticancer effects of FS48 from salivary glands of on NCI-H460 cells its blockage of voltage-gated K channels<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Voltage-gated K<sup>+</sup> (K<sub>v</sub>) channels play a role in the cellular processes of various cancer cells, including lung cancer cells. We previously identified and reported a salivary protein from the <italic>Xenopsylla cheopis</italic>, FS48, which exhibited inhibitory activity against K<sub>v</sub>1.1-1.3 channels when assayed in HEK 293T cells. However, whether FS48 has an inhibitory effect on cancer cells expressing Kv channels is unclear. The present study aims to reveal the effects of FS48 on the K<sub>v</sub> channels and the NCI-H460 human lung cancer cells through patch clamp, MTT, wound healing, transwell, gelatinase zymography, qRT-PCR and WB assays. The results demonstrated that FS48 can be effective in suppressing the K<sub>v</sub> currents, migration, and invasion of NCI-H460 cells in a dose-dependent manner, despite the failure to inhibit the proliferation. Moreover, the expression of K<sub>v</sub>1.1 and K<sub>v</sub>1.3 mRNA and protein were found to be significantly reduced. Finally, FS48 decreases the mRNA level of MMP-9 while increasing TIMP-1 mRNA level. The present study highlights for the first time that blood-sucking arthropod saliva-derived protein can inhibit the physiological activities of tumour cells <italic>via</italic> the Kv channels. Furthermore, FS48 can be taken as a hit compound against the tumour cells expressing K<sub>v</sub> channels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue butyrate attenuate hyperglycemia-induced inflammatory response and renal injury in diabetic mice<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The activation of the monocyte-macrophage system and the damage to the renal and pancreatic tissue are common complications in patients with diabetes induced by hyper-glycemia. This study aimed to evaluate the effect and mechanism of butyrate (NaB), a metabolite of intestinal flora, on inhibiting the inflammatory response of human monocyte-macrophages (THP-1 cells) induced by high glucose and the damage of pancreatic and renal tissue in diabetic mice. The results showed that high concentration glucose significantly up-regulated the expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α, and NLRP3 in THP-1 cells and mouse spleen, and that NaB could inhibit the overexpression of those genes. The abundance of Beclin-1, LC3B and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in THP-1 cells is increased due to the high glucose concentration, and NaB can inhibit the genes responsible for upregulating the expression. In diabetic mice, vacuolar degeneration of renal tubules was observed. Then we observed that some of the epithelial cells of the renal tubules were exfoliated and some formed tubules. NaB could alleviate these pathological lesions, but NaB cannot alleviate pancreatic injury. Our results indicated that NaB could be used for the prevention and adjuvant treatment of diabetic kidney injury.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue critical care and management of asthmatic and smoker patients in COVID-19 infection<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This century’s most serious catastrophe, COVID-19, has been dubbed “the most life-threatening disaster ever”. Asthmatic persons are even more prone to COVID-19’s complex interplay with the underlying inflammatory condition. In order to protect themselves against COVID-19, asthmatic patients must be very vigilant in their usage of therapeutic techniques and drugs (<italic>e.g</italic>., bronchodilators, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors), which may be accessed to deal with mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 indications. People with asthma may have more severe COVID-19 symptoms, which may lead to a worsening of their condition. Several cytokines were found to be elevated in the bronchial tracts of patients with acute instances of COVID-19, suggesting that this ailment may aggravate asthma episodes by increasing inflammation. The intensity of COVID-19 symptoms is lessened in patients with asthma who have superior levels of T-cells. Several antibiotics, antivirals, antipyretics, and anti-inflammatory drugs have been suggested to suppress COVID-19 symptoms in asthmatic persons. Furthermore, smokers are more likely to have aggravated repercussions in COVID-19 infection. Being hospitalized to critical care due to COVID-19, needing mechanical breathing, and suffering from serious health repercussions, are all possible outcomes for someone who has previously smoked. Smoking damages airways and alveoli, which significantly raises the risk of COVID-19-related health complications. Patients with a previous record of smoking are predisposed to severe COVID-19 disease symptoms that essentially require a combination of bronchodilators, mucolytics, antivirals, and antimuscarinic drugs, to cope with the situation. The present review discusses the care and management of asthmatic and smoker patients in COVID-19 infection.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue approaches in the drug research and development of novel antimalarial drugs with new targets<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Malaria is a serious worldwide medical issue that results in substantial annual death and morbidity. The availability of treatment alternatives is limited, and the rise of resistant parasite types has posed a significant challenge to malaria treatment. To prevent a public health disaster, novel antimalarial agents with single-dosage therapies, extensive curative capability, and new mechanisms are urgently needed. There are several approaches to developing antimalarial drugs, ranging from alterations of current drugs to the creation of new compounds with specific targeting abilities. The availability of multiple genomic techniques, as well as recent advancements in parasite biology, provides a varied collection of possible targets for the development of novel treatments. A number of promising pharmacological interference targets have been uncovered in modern times. As a result, our review concentrates on the most current scientific and technical progress in the innovation of new antimalarial medications. The protein kinases, choline transport inhibitors, dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitors, isoprenoid biosynthesis inhibitors, and enzymes involved in the metabolism of lipids and replication of deoxyribonucleic acid, are among the most fascinating antimalarial target proteins presently being investigated. The new cellular targets and drugs which can inhibit malaria and their development techniques are summarised in this study.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of 3, 16-2-hydroxyethyl apovincaminate (HEAPO), donepezil and galantamine on learning and memory retention in naïve Wistar rats<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The effects of 3<italic>R</italic>,16<italic>S</italic>-2-hydroxyethyl apovincaminate (HEAPO, RGH-10885) compared with those of two cholinesterase inhibitors, donepezil and galantamine, were examined in naïve Wistar rats using standard active and passive avoidance tests. The active avoidance test (shuttle box) and two passive avoidance tests (step-through and step-down) were performed according to the experimental design. There were 10 groups of rats (<italic>n</italic> = 8) and the substances studied were applied orally before each testing session. In the active avoidance test, the number of conditioned stimuli (avoidances), unconditioned stimuli (escapes) and intertrial crossings were observed. In step-down and step-through passive avoidance tests, the latencies of reactions were observed. All the studied compounds showed positive effects in the learning and memory tests, compared to the controls. It was concluded that HEAPO, donepezil and galantamine had a memory-enhancing effect in active and passive avoidance tests.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue induces MDA-MB-231 cell cycle arrest through cyclin B1-mediated PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in women and it is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in the world. Ampelopsin (AMP) is a purified component from the root of <italic>Ampelopsis grossedentata</italic>. It is reported that AMP could significantly inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer cells. However, the antitumor mechanism against breast cancer has not yet been fully elucidated. The purpose of this work was to study the role of AMP against breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and to further investigate the underlying mechanism. PI3K/AKT/mTOR plays a very important role in tumor cell growth and proliferation and we hypothesize that AMP may inhibit this pathway. In the present work, the results showed that AMP could significantly inhibit the growth of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells <italic>in vitro</italic> and <italic>in vivo</italic>. In addition, treatment with AMP decreased the levels of PI3K, AKT and mTOR, as well as cyclin B1 expression, followed by p53/p21 pathway activation to arrest the cell cycle at G2/M. Moreover, it demonstrated a positive association between cyclin B1 and PI3K/AKT/mTOR levels. Importantly, this pathway was found to be regulated by cyclin B1 in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with AMP. Also, it was observed that cyclin B1 overexpression attenuated cell apoptosis and weakened the inhibitory effects of AMP on cell proliferation. Together, AMP could inhibit breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation <italic>in vitro</italic> and <italic>in vivo</italic>, due to cell cycle arrest at G2/M by inactivating PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway regulated by cyclin B1.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue characteristics and pharmacokinetics of orally disintegrating tablets containing coenzyme Q10 granules prepared by different methods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to elucidate the characteristics and pharmacokinetics of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) granules prepared by spray drying, hot-melting, and wet granulation. The hardness and disintegration times of CoQ10-ODTs containing 5 % crospovidone were 61.6–81.8 N and &lt; 30 s, respectively; these values indicate that the as-prepared ODTs were adequate for clinical use. The hardness and disintegration times of all ODTs did not change significantly after a 28-day storage period at 30 °C/10 % relative humidity (RH), but storage under high temperature and humidity affected their characteristics. The dissolution and pharmacokinetics of CoQ10-ODTs showed that ODTs prepared using the spray-drying method had the highest dissolution and absorbability among the CoQ10-ODTs tested. These results provide useful information for the preparation of ODTs using CoQ10.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of tranquilization therapy in elderly patients suffering from chronic non-communicable diseases: A meta-analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current meta-analysis searched the literature connected to different tranquilizers used to treat elderly people and assessed it in terms of dose, types of outcomes and adverse effects, to determine a safe and acceptable tranquilizer and its optimal dose. A systematic literature review was undertaken for randomized controlled trials, case-control, retrospective and prospective studies on the use of tranquilizers in elderly patients, using PubMed, Ebsco, SCOPUS and Web of Science. PICOS criteria were used to select studies, and pertinent event data was collected. This meta-analysis includes 16 randomized control trials spanning the years 2000 to 2022, using the data from 2224 patients. The trials that were included used various tranquilizers such as diazepam, alprazolam, temazepam and lorazepam, and indicated high treatment efficacy and low adverse effects. With a <italic>p</italic>-value of 0.853 for Egger’s test and 0.13 for Begg’s test, the current meta-analysis shows a minimal probability of publication bias. A recent meta-analysis supports the use of tranquilizers in older people to treat sleeplessness, epilepsy or anxiety, but only at modest doses, because large doses are harmful and produce numerous withdrawal symptoms.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue journey of gene therapy in haemophilia – putting the patient at the centre of the hub and spoke model<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As gene therapy for haemophilia is now licensed in Europe, and the hub and spoke approach is widely promoted for its delivery and follow-up, it is essential that people with haemophilia (PwH) who are eligible and opt to have this treatment are enabled to obtain the maximum benefit. Ensuring the pathway that makes up the patient gene therapy journey is effective is key to achieving this. EAHAD and the EHC have recommended that gene therapy is delivered through a hub and spoke model of care to ensure that the right expertise is available throughout the various stages of the haemophilia gene therapy journey. Effective communication between hub and spoke centres is essential, and the processes that make up the journey must be understood clearly by both PwH and the multidisciplinary teams delivering their care. The starting point for this is to take each step of the gene therapy journey in turn – through initial engagement, eligibility, detailed patient education, informed decision-making, dosing, and follow up in year 1, year 2 and beyond – and to consider and identify the roles and responsibilities of the patient, the hub centre and the spoke centre. It is important that the expectations of both health care practitioners (HCPs) and patients are aligned with the key challenges and goals associated with each step. Understanding these from the patient point of view will help to ensure that the individual PwH treading this path receive the information, guidance and support they need from hub and spoke HCPs throughout their journey, and that they, as the patient, remain the focus of care. Visualising the journey may help to explain the gene therapy clinical pathway to PwH and could provide a useful tool for HCPs in spoke centres. Visualisation may also serve as a tool for facilitating discussion, not only in terms of initial engagement and education, but throughout the haemophilia gene therapy journey.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue ATHN 7: Safety, effectiveness and practice of treatment of people with haemophilia in the United States through a natural history cohort study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>Haemophilia A and B are X-linked inherited bleeding disorders, resulting in the deficiency of clotting factor VIII and IX, respectively. Since the introduction of recombinant clotting factor concentrates in the early 1990s, the major safety concern for haemophilia therapy has been the development of inhibitory antibodies, or inhibitors. Over the recent past, new therapies for the treatment and prevention of bleeding have received regulatory approval or are under study.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title><p>‘ATHN 7: A Natural History Cohort Study of the Safety, Effectiveess, and Practice of Treatment for People with Hemophilia is designed to determine the safety of current haemophilia therapies when used for participants with haemophilia with or without inhibitors. Secondarily, ATHN 7 will describe the real-world effectiveness of current therapies by assessing bleeding rate and location, therapy utilisation, adherence, and patient-reported outcomes.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>This longitudinal, observational cohort study by the American Thrombosis and Hemostasis Network (ATHN) will follow participants with haemophilia with or without inhibitors for four years from the time of enrolment. Each participant is assessed every three months. All data are collected into ATHN Systems. The primary outcome measure is the incidence of safety events as defined by the European Haemophilia Safety Surveillance (EUHASS) programme. Effectiveness will be described based on annualised bleeding rate, therapy utilisation, adherence, and patient-reported outcomes.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>As the first product-agnostic, real-world study of haemophilia therapy in the United States, ATHN 7 collects data to determine current intervention safety and effectiveness. Based on this success, ATHN will continue to collect these data longitudinally through the ATHN Transcends study.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue protects against ischemia – reperfusion injury in the human heart muscle. A pilot study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The consequences of myocardial infarction (MI) are an increasing problem worldwide. Despite spectacular progress in the invasive treatment of ischemic heart disease, the ability to limit the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury remains largely unrealized. Recent studies have shown that stimulation of opioid receptors may confer a cardioprotective effect against I/R injury. Levosimendan, the inodilator, is indicated for the short-term treatment of acutely decompensated heart failure. We tested the hypothesis that levosimendan may provide cardioprotection in the opioid-like mechanism in the human myocardium.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of β-blocking receptor drugs in silica gel TLC systems with the mobile phase containing surfactant<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Eight drugs blocking beta-adrenergic receptors activity (acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, oxprenolol, labetalol, metoprolol, propranolol and sotalol) were investigated through the use of the thin-layer technique with its mobile phase containing surfactant. Assessment of the effect of surfactant presence and 1-propanol concentration in the mobile phase on the retention and separation of investigated solutes was then carried out wherein the effect of the surfactant concentration on the zone shape properties (asymmetry and tailing coefficient) was investigated. The method was applied for the quantitative analysis of the chosen solutes, and the LOD and LOQ values of chosen were determined. These were as follows: acebutolol – 1.11 and 3.36 μg/spot, metoprolol 1.45 μg/spot, 4.4 μg/spot. The chosen system is environmentally friendly due to using silica gel plates and only 5% of propanol in water.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue comparative review on High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) & High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) with current updates<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Any chosen analytical method should be subtle, precise, fast and exact to begin the guarantee that the material used in the manufacturing is free of unsolicited impurity, the existence of which may vary the safety and effectiveness of the drug product. The techniques of HPLC and UPLC have established their part in pharmaceutical cleaning validation. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is the main pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis approach utilized today because it generates highly efficient separations, and in most circumstances, it provides high detection sensitivity. Applying the HPLC method has several advantages compared to other methods, among others, specificity, rapidity, accuracy, precision, and the ease of automation. Due to the aforementioned, most drugs in a multi-component dosage form can be analyzed. Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) is a modern-day technique that gives a new track for liquid chromatography. UPLC provides the user with speed of application, resolution and sensitivity. The quantification and separation in UPLC are done under very high pressure (up to 100M Pa). High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) has improved and innovative separation efficacy and detection limits. It is a cultured and automated form of Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and is based on the use of an optimized silica gel 60 with a significantly smaller particle size than which is used for TLC. The previously stated analytical methods are employed for purity control of chemicals, steroids, pesticides, and water analysis, water-soluble food dyes, vitamins, pesticides in vegetables, fruits, and other foodstuffs. The current updates in the techniques allow us to understand the increased utilization of these methods in the current eras.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue analysis and evaluation of antibacterial activity of extracts against gram-negative bacteria: an and molecular docking studies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Moringa oleifera</italic> seed and leaf are used traditionally for the treatment of various health problems (among others, hypertension, scrapes, skin infection, diabetes, genitourinary illnesses), and to boost the immune system, as well as to act as a contraceptive. In this study, the antibacterial activity of seed and leaf <italic>M. oleifera</italic> extracts on three-gram negative bacteria was investigated, and phytochemical analysis for the association of antibacterial activity with the active constituents in the plant was determined. Moreover, understanding of the mechanism of action was achieved by applying the Auto Dock Vina technique. The phytochemical screening of <italic>M. oleifera</italic> seed and leaf extracts exhibited the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, cardioactive glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, steroids and terpenoids. In silico results revealed that compounds (4-O-caffeoyl quinic acid, 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxyl)-benzylisothiocyanate); (Isoquercitrin, 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy) benzyl glucosinolate); and (Astragalin, 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy) benzyl glucosinolate) from leaf and seed have the highest binding affinity and very good interactions with Transcriptional Activator Protein (LasR), <italic>Klebsiella pneumoniae</italic> carbapenemase (KPC), and Malonyl-CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase (FabD), respectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue protective effect of vitamin A on Concor induced structural changes of the liver and kidney in adult rats<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Concor is a beta-blocker drug used to treat high blood pressure, acute coronary syndrome, and to control the rapid pulse of the heart such as atrial fibrillation. Some of its adverse effects include hepatitis, increased triglycerides and liver enzymes. Monitoring liver and kidney functions in patients with hepatic or renal impairment who are taking concor is recommended.</p> <p>The current study was undertaken to define whether vitamin A could improve structural changes in the liver and kidneys. The 24 rats were grouped into the following. The first group was control. The second group was given Vitamin A (5000 IU). Group 3: given concor at a daily dose of 0.9 mg/kg B. wt. Group IV: received concor (0.9 mg/kg B. wt.) and Vitamin A (5000 IU) orally. After 4 weeks, the kidney of the treated group 3 exhibited degenerative alterations in the glomeruli, enlargement of Bowman’s space and the epithelium of the proximal kidney tubules showed vacuolar degeneration with necrosis. Liver sections showed degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes, congestion of the central vein, dilation of sinusoids and inflammatory cell infiltration. Group 4 showed mild degeneration in the glomeruli, expansion of Bowman’s space and mild degeneration of tubular epithelium, and normal architecture of the liver with increased Kupffer cells. From this study, we concluded that concor drug induces structural changes in the liver and kidney and these effects were improved by Vitamin A administration.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the influence of biologically active compounds on the antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of red raspberry ( l.) leaf extract<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>The aim of the study.</bold> To determine phenolic and organic acids compound profiles, and the antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of raspberry leaf extract.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods.</bold> The object of the study was red raspberry leaf extract. The quantity of phenolic compounds was determined by applying a spectrophotometric method of analysis, whereas organic acids content was assessed by means of the alkalimetric method, while the antioxidant activity of the obtained extract was evaluated by employing the potentiometric method, and antibacterial and antifungal activity was ascertained through the wells method, and anti-inflammatory activity was found via carrageenan – induced paw edema assay.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> The content of phenolic compounds was 18.45±0.37 mg/ml, catechins was 10.12±0.20 mg/ml, flavonoids was 3.32±0.07 mg/ml, hydroxycinnamic acids derivatives was 2.39±0.05 mg/ml and organic acids was 7.25±0.15 mg/ml. Moreover, the antioxidant activity was 76.11±1.48 mmol-equiv./mres dry, which was higher by 32.80% than the reference drug „Ascorutin”. Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was the most sensitive to the extract (25.00±0.00 mm), whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most resistant (21.67 ±0.66 mm). Treatment with red raspberry leaf extract at 1 ml/kg showed a significant edema reduction at 1, 2 and 3 h at 38.8, 41.8 and 48.8%, compared with the saline group.</p> <p><bold>Conclusian.</bold> The present study indicated that red raspberry leaf extract possesses antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Thus, red raspberry leaves are a promising source of bioactive substances that can be used for further developing medicines in the treatment and prevention of lifestyle diseases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue changes induced by Piroxicam on the hepatic and renal tissues of mice with and without administration of Peppermint oil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Piroxicam is a popular anti-inflammatory drug that displays palliative and antipyretic activity. Peppermint oil is a common flavoring used in foods and drinks. To investigate the defensive action of Peppermint oil against the hepatic and renal histological damage induced by Piroxicam in mice.</p> <p>Forty healthy adult Swiss albino mice of both sexes were categorized into 4 groups (10 mice in each group): Control group (I); Treatment group (II) – injected with Piroxicam 0.3 mg/kg/rat/day via intraperitoneal route for 28 days; Treatment group (III) – oral Peppermint oil 0.2 ml/kg/day by oral gavage 24 hours preceding each injection of Piroxicam; Treatment group (IV) oral Peppermint oil alone. Blood samples were withdrawn to estimate the hepatic and renal functions. Immediately after death, specimens of liver and kidney from the four groups were isolated and put in 10% concentration buffered formalin for 24 hours then prepared for light microscopic examination.</p> <p>There was a highly significant rise in the serum level of hepatic enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and total serum bilirubin) in the group treated with Piroxicam, as compared to the control group. These returned to near normal level in the group treated with Piroxicam and Peppermint oil. Liver samples of the treated mice showed ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes, small apoptotic hepatocytes and inflammatory cellular infiltration, whereas kidney sections revealed cystic dilatation of Bowman’s space, shrinkage of glomerular tuft and apoptosis of epithelial cells lining the tubules. In contrast, the addition of peppermint oil efficiently ameliorated the hepatic and renal tissue changes.</p> <p>Piroxicam induces hepatorenal toxicity as exhibited by histological, histochemical and biochemical findings. Peppermint oil shows ameliorative properties against the hepatorenal toxic effects induced by Piroxicam.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the ultrastructure of the skin of white rats 30 days after modeling of portal hypertension<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The problem of skin repair under the conditions of systemic increased pressure in microvessels has a great importance. This is due to the fact that each year the incidence of this pathology has seen an increase during different operations, including plastic surgery. As the compensatory and reparative mechanisms occurring in the skin affected by vascular hyperbaria are still unidentified, the aim of the study was to investigate the features of the ultrastructure of the skin of white rats 30 days after modeling of portal hypertension. Objects of the study were anterior abdominal wall biopsies for electron microscopy research.</p> <p>Our work demonstrated that the skin in intact animals (control group) was of typical structure before the beginning of the experiment and 30 days after a sham operation. Following 30 days modeling of portal hypertension, the ultrastructure of the epidermis was found to be intact, only slight thickening of the horny layer was revealed. However, in the basal epidermocytes, signs of crypts formation by cytolemma were revealed. Moreover, in the epidermocytes of the spinous and granular layers, the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum channels and ribosomes were almost non-evident. In addition, in the cytoplasm of the fibroblasts, a moderate amount of freely located ribosomes and a moderate number of polymorphic mitochondria were detected, while the lumens of the capillaries of the papillary layer of the dermis were narrowed. We also saw that the swelling of the cytoplasm in endothelial cells resulted in the narrowing of the microvessels lumen. What is more, the subendothelial zone was expanded – which is indicative of endothelial desquamation. Beyond the aforementioned, the nuclei of the endothelial cells were well contoured and had signs of chromatin condensation. Endothelial cells with signs of apoptosis were detected as well.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue