rss_2.0Social Sciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Social Sciences Sciences Feed freedom to be sustainable, from the past to the future<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to investigate the historical evolution of the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR), with a particular focus on the main theories and events that led it to no longer be a voluntary choice but a necessity for the company’s long-term survival. The article will first analyze the main definitions in the literature to determine the aspects that characterize it. Subsequently, using a theoretical approach, a literature review will be performed to describe its historical evolution, starting from its birth during the Industrial Revolution period (1760-1840) up to the present day. The analysis results show that, in the scientific debate, the CSR concept was initially focused on the workers’ well-being and, subsequently, it expanded its scope and significance to include all stakeholders’ categories. Furthermore, it emerged that CSR become a necessity for the companies’ long-term survival, especially in the post-pandemic period. For this reason, companies must develop new business models to face sustainability issues and meet social needs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Aged people and tourism<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The increase in the elderly population is a phenomenon of growing importance with various repercussions on the economic side, both in terms of costs that society has to bear from a social and health care point of view, and in terms of opportunities for the various economic sectors that can see the third age as a possible market. The change in attitudes towards ageing has led to an increase in the proportion of older people who are actively living in the third age. Travelling, visiting new places and/or spending time away from home, even abroad, are activities that are now part of the lives of older people, at least those with an adequate income level. Consequently, the elderly have become potential users of the tourism sector: this article attempts to outline the dimensions and characteristics of this phenomenon.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Life-Long Learning: intercultural education and communication Europe and beyond<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Life-Long Learning seems to be an all-sides studied model. Globalisation, work-market rapid change, and the free circulation of knowledge let researchers discover that there is a new way of designing the LLL process. The multicultural society is a drive of LLL process optimisation. After the Lisbon strategy and seeing the unstoppable path of lifelong learning stress, the requirements for a profound reflection on the role of citizen’s education. The article aims to analyse the intercultural aspect of LLL and how it can be stretched. Particular attention is dedicated to how the EU and RF reply to society and economic challenges through the implementation of the LLL process. The intercultural aspect will comprise a horizontal intercultural aspect and vertical ones. Will be examined the role of the European Commission as well as a promoter of the idea of an inclusive society and the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world. The intercultural approach will be stressed thanks to examining the Soviet Union and Russian Federation’s LLL process. The used methodology is a review of relevant intervention studies and Political Documents and Financing actions for examining the effectiveness of interventions.</p> <p>The analysis of two paths of the LLL process’s implementation and promotion; the analysis of two ways of LLL process organisation will permit an expansive view of the LLL process. Furthermore, the parallel analysis of the LLL process permits us to see how the two ways of social development can be reflected through different actions on LLL policy, starting from formal education and ultimate to third Age Education. In final, it permits us to learn more about how LLL can be a solution to avoid social welfare bankruptcy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Execution of sentences and community work: organizational dimension and role of the social worker of ministry of justice in italy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Article 27 of the Italian Constitution reads as follows: “Criminal responsibility is personal. The accused is not considered guilty until the final sentence. The penalties cannot consist of treatments contrary to the sense of humanity and must aim at the re-education of the offender. The death penalty is not allowed” (our translation).</p> <p>Fundamentally important is the international legislation on the rights of detained persons, which is based on the “Universal Declaration of Human Rights” (1948), stating in Article 5: “No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment”. This proposition is the cornerstone that affected all future directives concerning the protection of detained people.</p> <p>In Italy, the office for external penal execution, as a peripheral branch of the Ministry of Justice, is called to contribute, in addition to social security, to the reintegration and rehabilitation of sentenced persons. Obviously, this can only be possible through collaboration and sharing with the apparatuses and bodies of society, with particular reference to the role of the Third sector.</p> <p>Therefore, one of the main roles of the social workers of Italian Ministry of Justice is to guatantee the involvement of civil society, the promotion of a culture of solidarity and reintegration within the community to which the detainee belongs, reconstructing a sense of communityship and the broken citizen bond.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Russian internal migration in Kuban’. The case of Krasnodar.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Environmental migration owes its existence to pull factors, i.e. disastrous environmental factors that push people to migrate to other lands. In this article the definition of environmental migration is reversed, since in Russian internal migration towards the Kuban’ region and, in particular, towards the city of Krasnodar, pull factors are transformed into push factors, giving rise to migration in which the climate is an attractive pole, around which other migratory causes are placed. The migratory flows directed towards the city of Krasnodar are a great resource of demographic rebirth, the motor of regional and city life, the growing stimulus towards rapid urban development and the transformative and generative force of infinite territorial images, endlessly created by each migrant present on the territory under examination.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Relations between a Country and a Continent: China and Africa. A first and not a simple matter......<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Through this contribution of a geopolitical approach, the author intends to propose an updated and accurate framework on the relations between China and Africa as well as some critical reflections on various geopolitical and geo-economic aspects concerning the intense development of the diversified economic relations between China and the different African States.</p> <p>China’s foreign economic policy in Africa has laid solid foundations through the implementation of the various Sino-African Cooperation Forums that have taken place since 2000 and that have seen an increasing involvement of the Chinese government in the process.</p> <p>This paper intends to make a brief reflection on China’s visible economic and geopolitical interest in the African Continent as a whole. The analysis that follows traces the main stages in the history of relations between China and Africa, emphasizing the increased importance of the Sino-African forums that led to what is now known as Chinese neo-colonization. In addition, the case studies of the Silk Road and the Rare Lands are highlighted. Finally, some of the social impacts of the Chinese presence in Africa are also examined such as the construction of new cities for the Chinese migrant population and the teaching of the Chinese language (Mandarin) in schools in some African Countries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Techno-altruism. From cultural conflict to constructive and supportive use of online environments<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Even before the Covid-19 pandemic crisis, the massive use of the digital in everyday life, in the absence of intercultural - media skills, seemed to have fuelled violence, misinformation, ethnocentrisms, prejudices towards the Other (Urry 2000; Appadurai 2005; Couldry 2015; Ziccardi 2016; Europol 2016; SWG 2017, Vox 2018).</p> <p>However, social and digital technology can also be re-thought as a civic and moral space (Silverstone, 2009) able to overcome conflict and polarisation, as a strategic medium to improve social policies and the management of migration flows, actively involving host institutions and communities (Buoncompagni, D’Ambrosi 2020).</p> <p>The panorama of humanitarian aid, in particular, i.e. that typology of interventions aimed at helping populations affected by war events or natural disasters, is completely changing in the way of operating within the world of international migration precisely thanks to the digital infrastructure (IOM 2018). Apps, virtual itinerant maps and self-narratives via social networks, sharing GPS coordinates of the safest routes among migrants, increasing numbers of socially engaged indigenous citizens enrolled in online platforms, are just a few examples of how digital media are acquiring a fundamental role within the migration network in hospitality and aid actions (Brunwasser 2015; Buoncompagni 2021. Only by developing the art of solidarity and the ability to communicate and cooperate globally, opening up to the Other, can the “different” relate effectively and productively in digital society (Chen 2005; Bennet 2015).</p> <p>Pitirim A. Sorokin himself, a still prominent figure of 20th century sociology, stated that historical and techno-cultural changes have not always produced positive results within societies, but at times also negative (or more precisely ‘destructive’) ones: individualism, antagonism, excess of technology and rationality, and in particular the fall of the bonds of solidarity towards the different and the loss of the feeling of belonging (Cimagalli 2010; Marletti 2018; Perrotta 2016).</p> <p>But the sociologist also stressed how altruism could be one of the indispensable ingredients of social life. No society can exist without an “altruistic and creative love” that has as its aim the “altruisation” of individuals and social institutions: a complex process/project capable of encompassing the emotional, supra-rational and spiritual aspects of human relationships (including online), starting from the idea that all men can recognise themselves in certain moral principles, eternal and universal (Mangone, 2020).</p> <p>And such a condition could be re-created/supported also through digital tools and exist in online environments, thus trying to extend, on a theoretical level, Sorokin’s attempt to make sociology (also digital, in this case) a “science of altruism” in the post-pandemic era of global interconnectedness.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Sustainable and digital education during and beyond the Covid-19 crisis.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The pandemic crisis has coincided with a time of global economic crisis. The education system has suffered from this double impact: the simultaneous closure of schools and universities and a significant worsening of the business and productivity system. Digitalisation in the education process started in the far past, but it has become a priority with the pandemic. The use of digital tools in the educational process ensured that the latter did not come to a complete standstill during the pandemic. Although digitalisation is seen as a possible solution to the problems facing schools, it can also be seen as a factor in widening the gap between rich and developing countries. The article proposes a reflection about education during the pandemic and the digitalisation process of schools in all its facets and at alle education level.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00The Evolution of China’s Economic Engagement in Central and Eastern Europe<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Subject and purpose of work:</bold> The purpose of this study is to assess the economic partnership between China and Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). It evaluates the economic policy since the cooperation in the region began, as the 17+1 process. The study evaluates the success and failure of China’s economic engagement in the 17 CEE countries and the Balkan region. This article explores how the relationship was made stronger in CEE countries for economic development. It looks at diplomatic ties, trade knot and economic initiatives, and it examines China’s relations with other CEE countries. The article aims to examine the geographical distribution of China’s economic influence on the CEE countries.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods</bold>: Content analysis is widely used as a comparative technique by the press, media, think tanks and communication. There are official statistics from a wide range of institutions (The China Observers in Central and Eastern Europe (CHOICE), the IMF, the OECD, the European Commission, the European Union, Statistics CEE countries and the European External Action Service).</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: The latest result indicates that Chinese economic policy is not achieving more success than the expected objectives in CEE countries.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> China’s economic impact on CEE countries is relatively small. Central and Eastern European countries are highly dependent on trade and investment relations with developed states, mainly EU members, while China accounts for a minor share.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Funds of Local Government Units in Regional Operational Programmes 2007-2013 and 2014-2020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Subject and purpose of work:</bold> The article concerns own contribution of local government units involved in the Regional Operational Programmes. The aim of the research is to assess the amount of own funds in the projects implemented under the ROP.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods:</bold> The article analyses the secondary data obtained from the Local Data Bank, the data from the programme documents and available literature.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> As the study has shown, no significant differences were found in the disbursement of funds in different years. However, in the perspective 2014-2020, the amount of local governance units contribution is higher.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The regional distribution of the local government units resources in the particular regional programmes is strongly related to the total amount of the entire programme, but there is a noticeable variation between the perspectives. Still, local governance units own resources outweigh the national contribution.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Review of the Monograph By Sławomir Kalinowski, Łukasz Komorowski, Anna Rosa Titled “Koncepcja . Przykłady Z Polski”, Irwir Pan, Warszawa 2021, P. 154 in the Share of Consumption in GDP in Poland Between 2011 and 2020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Subject and purpose of work:</bold> Analysis of changes in the structure of consumption as a component of GDP in Poland for the period 2011-2020, comparative assessment of GDP and consumption per capita in Poland in comparison with EU countries-27 in 2011-2020.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods:</bold> For the empirical analysis EUROSTAT and CSO statistical data covering the values of the basic components of GDP and consumption/consumption levels per capita were used. Methods of dynamics and comparative analysis were applied in relation to consumption levels. The statistical structural analysis made it possible to measure the intensity and degree of differentiation of the components of GDP in Poland in dynamic terms. The index of inferential structural changes and the divergence coefficient of Clark structures were used.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Based on the collected empirical material, the level of consumption in Poland was assessed in comparison with all EU-27 member states for the period 2010-2020. Using a quantitative approach, the degree of diversification of the structure of basic components, including consumption in GDP in dynamic terms, was also compared.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The level of consumption in Poland in the last decade has been systematically increasing, in terms of growth rate it reached a value above the EU average. The research confirmed the occurrence of significant differences in consumption per capita in the EU-27 countries, both in the compared years and in static terms. These differences were particularly visible between the highly developed countries of Western Europe and Southern Europe. The values of measures of similarity of structures for the components of GDP indicate that in 2015-2020 there was a significant similarity of structures in the relations consumption/accumulation/foreign trade balance, while the differentiation of these structures differed more significantly at the beginning and end of the 2011-2020 decade.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Effectiveness of Investing in the Stocks of Renewable Energy Companies in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Subject and purpose of work:</bold> This study investigates the effectiveness of equity investment in renewable energy companies. The aim of the research is to compare the effectiveness of investing in the stocks of companies from the conventional and renewable energy sector on the Warsaw Stock Exchange.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods:</bold> The research material consisted of the stock prices of selected energy companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange’s Main Market and NewConnect. Representative investment portfolios were created and their average monthly logarithmic rates of return, standard deviations and Sharpe ratios for the period 2013–2020 were examined.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The portfolios of renewable energy companies were characterised by higher risk, but also higher average returns; as a result, they achieved higher risk-adjusted efficiency ratios than the portfolios of conventional energy companies.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Shares in renewable energy companies, despite a significant risk, can be an attractive form of investment, which is crucial for privately financing the energy transformation in Poland.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of Child Poverty in Rural Border Communities of South-Western and Central Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Subject and purpose of work:</bold> This study assessed child poverty in rural border communities of Nigeria.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods:</bold> Primary data were used: children (5–16 years old) were respondents of the questionnaire.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The study participants were 58% male and 42% female. Also, many of the children were in the age bracket of 11–15 years and more than half (53.9%) of them had no formal education and were engaged in farming. Most of the children (72.4%) earned between NGN 3,000 and NGN 10,000 as their monthly income. The results further revealed that in the three local government areas, the girls had experienced severe poverty more than the boys. The study also found that the children were severely deprived of safe drinking water, health care facilities, education and a sanitary environment – especially because there were no toilet facilities in these areas.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The study reveals the need for clean portable water, basic health care and well-equipped primary and secondary schools to be provided.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Farmers’ Perception of Causes and Consequences of their Indebtedness in Haryana, India<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Subject and purpose of work:</bold> The study aims to highlight the perception of farmers regarding the causes and consequences of their indebtedness.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods:</bold> The study was based on primary data collected (by field survey) from a sample of 600 farmers. With regards to the selection of farmers or respondents, the proportionate sampling technique was employed. Percentage technique was used for data analysis. The data were collected in the first quarter of 2021.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> It was found that 95.67% of the farmers (out of 600) reported low prices for agricultural output as being the main cause of their indebtedness, followed by crop failure (89.00%), the high cost of inputs (85.00%), high interest rates (61.17%) and small landholdings (58.83%). In addition, consequences reported by loanee farmers were deterioration in their social status (67.83%) and psychological stress (57.67%). However, positive changes experienced by farmers after repaying a loan were less than the negative experiences.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The main causes of farmers’ indebtedness were crop failure and the high cost of inputs compared to the price of their produce. Due to their indebtedness, their economic and social status deteriorated and they experienced the feeling of insecurity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Crisis Aspects of the Covid-19 Pandemic in the Social Sphere and Secondarily in Economic One<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Subject and purpose of work:</bold> The study focuses on the social and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic globally and regionally, particularly in Poland.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods:</bold> Based on the literature, the historic origins of various pandemics have been presented as evidence for their cyclicity.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> An analysis of current COVID-19 reports serves to verify the hypothesis that the economic outcomes are secondary to the social outcomes, which generally distinguishes the current crisis from other known economic and financial crises of the market origin. The recovery from the economic crisis leads to the strengthening of the private sector, but the public sector, especially health care and education, is of particular significance in the pandemic crisis.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The need to develop instruments of fighting the crisis has been indicated, with special emphasis on logistics. The pandemic may solidify many years of cultural, social and economic changes, so far rather modestly foreshadowed by various signs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Development Features of the Domestic Consumer Goods Market in Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Subject and purpose of work:</bold> The main purpose of the article is to assess the functioning of the domestic market for consumer products and to characterise its development. Trends in the development of the domestic consumer goods market are analysed in the following areas: consumption of main product groups; food supply through consumption funds; agricultural production in the context of crop and livestock production; the ratio of exports to imports of agricultural and food products; and economic accessibility of the population to foodstuffs. The paper also analyses the problems of developing trade infrastructure facilities.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods:</bold> The methods of scientific abstraction, systemic, structural and functional, synergetic approaches was statistical and comparative analysis to assess the state of development of the domestic market for consumer goods and the determinants of regulation of the internal consumer market were implemented. The open resources of the State Statistics Service of Ukraine were the main sources of data.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> It has been proved that trade infrastructure currently plays an important role at the present stage of development of the internal market for consumer goods in Ukraine. Certain trends are primarily due to the reduction in the total number of markets as a result of prohibition of informal markets, where food products were mainly traded, as well as the active development of supermarket chains, which today occupies an important place in the trade infrastructure.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The analysis revealed insufficient levels of actual and projected consumption of most basic types of food, compared to the recommended norms.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Society Register<P><STRONG><EM>Society Register</EM></STRONG> is an international peer reviewed journal that publishes, in English, empirical, conceptual, and theoretical articles that make substantial contributions to the field in all areas of social sciences including sociology, economics, political science, psychology, cultural studies, education, and social policy. </P> <P>The mission of the Society Register journal is to publish original works of interest to the disciplines of the social sciences in general, new theoretical approaches, empirical results of research that advance our understanding of fundamental social processes, and important methodological innovations. All areas of social sciences are welcome with special attention to sociology. ‘Registering’ societal change requires approaches that take into account the different research methodologies used by different social disciplines. That is why the Society Register focuses particularly on the critical dimension of research in the areas of sociology (society), economics (economy), political science (politics), pedagogy (education), and cultural studies (culture). </P> <P><STRONG>Archiving </STRONG></P> <P>Sciendo archives the contents of this journal in <A href="">Portico</A> - digital long-term preservation service of scholarly books, journals and collections. </P> <P><STRONG>Plagiarism Policy</STRONG> </P> <P>The editorial board is participating in a growing community of <A href="">Similarity Check System</A>'s users in order to ensure that the content published is original and trustworthy. Similarity Check is a medium that allows for comprehensive manuscripts screening, aimed to eliminate plagiarism and provide a high standard and quality peer-review process. </P> <P></P> JOURNAL2017-11-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Eat, Sleep, Work<P><STRONG><EM>The Eat, Sleep, Work</EM></STRONG> Journal, is an internationally-run, peer-reviewed journal that is specifically designed to provide experiential learning in publishing, reviewing and editing for emerging behavioural researchers. The journal has a wide scope and readership base, and supports research communication for a broad audience. The journal showcases high quality research by up-and-coming researchers in lifestyle sciences, not limited to, but focusing on the relationships between sleep, diet, exercise, work, health and the environment. Publication and subscription are free. Our only condition is that you become inspired by the research and cite the papers in this journal. Each citation helps the track record of an early career researcher in our field! </P> <P>We will publish work that makes a contribution to what we know about an area, as well as work that contributes to how we investigate and communicate this knowledge. Broad categories for submissions include: </P> <UL> <LI>New Scientists, New Science: work that makes an important contribution to knowledge </LI> <LI>Lessons in Methodology: work that highlights the strengths and/or limitations of particular approaches to research </LI> <LI>Analytic Techniques: Work that clearly demonstrates novel, commonly-used or rarely-used techniques in qualitative or quantitative analysis that may be of benefit to developing researchers </LI> <LI>State of the Art: review articles expressing a position in a particular area </LI> <LI>Calls to Arms: Work that highlights the need for research in particular areas </LI> <LI>Mentorship: scholarly reflections on researcher development from the perspective of mentees or mentors, targeted for an audience that includes both </LI></UL> <P>We will consider the following formats: </P> <UL> <LI>Journal articles </LI> <LI>Short Reports </LI> <LI>Review Articles </LI> <LI>Case Studies </LI> <LI>Letters to the Editor </LI> <LI>We are also very happy to publish PhD thesis abstracts with short student biographies - we want to let the field know about our colleagues transitioning into post-study roles. </LI></UL> <P><STRONG>Archiving</STRONG> </P> <P>Sciendo archives the contents of this journal in <A href="">Portico</A> - digital long-term preservation service of scholarly books, journals and collections. </P> <P><STRONG>Plagiarism Policy</STRONG> </P> <P>The editorial board is participating in a growing community of <A href="">Similarity Check System</A>'s users in order to ensure that the content published is original and trustworthy. Similarity Check is a medium that allows for comprehensive manuscripts screening, aimed to eliminate plagiarism and provide a high standard and quality peer-review process. </P> JOURNAL2016-01-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Reconsidering Resistance: Ainu Cultural Revival as Protest<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article aims to explore how different Ainu groups have resisted continual control and assimilation by the Japanese government in the late twentieth century. First, it provides a brief analysis of early resistance strategies of ethnic groups to colonial power, contrasting it with contemporary methods of protest in the post-war era. This is to show the different modes of resistance and to analyse why and how they changed over time. The article highlights the period between the 1970s and 1990s, during which violent resistance committed by Japanese progressive activists in the name of Ainu liberation was gradually succeeded by peaceful protest enacted by Ainu themselves, resulting in a movement using artwork in pursuing their political goals. The article argues that this latter kind of resistance represents the core of Ainu activism. I will analyse cultural resistance efforts such as literary publications, commemorative monuments, and educational programmes since the 1970s. Special attention will be given to three children’s books produced by prominent Ainu activist Kayano Shigeru to discuss how the author’s cultural activism during this period shaped Ainu methods of contesting authority through cultural pride and maintenance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1