rss_2.0Sports and Recreation FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Sports and Recreationhttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/SRhttps://www.sciendo.comSports and Recreation Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/Sports_&_Recreation.jpg700700The Acute Effects of Different Warm-Up Protocols on Some Performance Parameters in U11-16 Soccer Playershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Purpose:</bold> The purpose of the study is to examine the acute effects of different warm-up protocols on some physical performance parameters in the Under 11-16 (U11-16) category soccer players.</p> <p><bold>Material and Methods:</bold> The participant group of the study consisted of seventy-two male soccer players who regularly train in the U11-16 category. Soccer players randomly and counterbalanced participated in the one of the warm-up protocols of FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee, Dynamic warm-up, or Mixed warm-up on non-consecutive days. After participants performed one of the protocols, their flexibility, vertical jump, 30m sprint, and agility performances were measured. Repeated measures in the ANOVA test were used to determine intra-group differences (U11-U12-U13-U14-U15-U16) and Bonferroni test was used to decide which protocol caused a significant difference.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> In all underage categories, FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee, and dynamic warm-up caused a significant difference in flexibility, vertical jump, 30 m sprint, and agility compared to Mixed warm-up (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0. 05).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> As a result of the study, it was shown that FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee, and dynamic warm-up protocols acutely caused a positive influence in flexibility, vertical jump, 30 m sprint, and agility in all underage categories. These three warm-up protocols may be used to prevent athletes from warm-up uniformity and monotony and support multidirectional development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Explosive Power of Lower Limbs of Acrobatic Rock and Roll Dancershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Acrobatic rock and roll is dynamic sport dance where explosive power is very important ability.</p> <p><bold>Aim.</bold> The aim of the thesis was to determine and compare the level of explosive power of the lower limbs of acrobatic rock and roll dancers. We assume that dancers from couple categories will reach a significantly higher level of explosive power of the lower limbs than dancers from ladies formations.</p> <p><bold>Methods.</bold> The research sample consisted of 22 acrobatic rock and roll female dancers. To determine the level of explosive power of the lower limbs, we used a 10 s test on a jump ergometer. We used the non-parametric statistical method Mann Whitney U-test for independent files.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>. The female dancers from couple categories achieved better results in all parameters than dancers from ladies formations. The first examined parameter was the power in the active phase of the take off where the dancers from couples achieved 46.08 ± 5.32 W.kg<sup>−1</sup>, the dancers from ladies formations reached 38.13 ± 3.63 W.kg<sup>−1</sup> (p ≤ 0.01, r = 0.64). The second examined parameter was the height of the jump, where dancers from couples achieved 28.91 ± 2.49 cm, dancers from ladies formations reached 25.92 ± 3.21 cm (p ≤ 0.05, r = 0.48). The last examined parameter was the rebound efficiency, where dancers from couples achieved 177.41 ± 25.62 cm.s<sup>−1</sup>, dancers from ladies formations reached 138.48 ± 15.96 cm.s<sup>−1</sup> (p ≤ 0.01, r = 0.65).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> In addition to differences in the explosive power of the lower limbs, the results also pointed to the importance of development in all categories. We recommend dancers to include plyometric exercises and repeated rope skipping jumps in the pre-competition and competition period, after completing strength training.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Self-Perceived Fatigue After Motor Abilities Testing in Adolescent Elite Tennis Playershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The objective of the study was to determine self-perceived fatigue (S-PF) after motor abilities testing (MAT) in adolescent male and female elite tennis players. The research sample comprised of 17 male (mean age of 13.00 ± 1.54 years) and 20 female (mean age of 13.15 ± 1.42 years) adolescent elite tennis players who underwent testing of selected motor abilities in tennis. The level of fatigue in adolescent elite tennis players was measured with the Training Distress Scale (TDS). Both groups of elite tennis players declared the lowest, zero level of S-PF by TDS symptoms as inability to remember things and loose bowels or diarrhoea and significant S-PF during 48 hours after MAT was in both genders felt by lack of energy, feeling of heavy arms and legs, joint stiffness of soreness, and muscle soreness. Boys versus girls experienced significantly higher S-PF in the symptoms as difficulty falling asleep, being unusually tired during the day, joint stiffness of soreness, and ordinary tasks require extra effort. No significant differences were found in overall TDS between males and females adolescent elite tennis players.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Psychical Health and Social Relationships Among University Studentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>We have never faced such a global pandemic as COVID-19 in modern history. It´s important for us to find out how it can affect mental health and social relationships of students. This pandemic has brought us not only the risk of dying from a viral infection, but also brought the enormous psychological pressure on people. Purpose of this study was to determine the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and social relationships of university students.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> The research group consisted of 95 students of the Faculty of Sports of the University of Prešov in Prešov (men: n = 62, women: n = 33) with an average age of 22 +/- 6 years. As a method of data collection we used the standardized questionnaire of the World Health Organization - WHOQOL-BREF. Our modified WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire represents a selection of 9 items, six of them represent mental health: (1) Positive feeling (2) Self-esteem (3) Thinking, learning, memory and concentration (4) Bodily image and appearance, (5) Satisfy with you, (6) Negative feelings, and three represent social relationships (7) Personal relationships, (8) Sexual activity, (9) Social support. Due to the extraordinary pandemic situation an online survey was conducted to the students. Students had time to complete the questionnaire from 17.11.2021 to 19.11.2021.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Statistical significant difference between periods before and during COVID-19 pandemic was determined using the Wilcoxon paired t test. There were statistically significant differences in the psychological experience and social relationships of university students before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> We recommend monitoring the mental health of university students and raising awareness of various media platforms about psychological problems during a pandemic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Intraindividual Evaluation of Reaction Time At the Men’s World Athletics Championships 1999 - 2019https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The aim of the article was the intraindividual evaluation of reaction time at the Men’s World Athletics Championships from 1999 to 2019. We generated the rating of sprinters from the age point of view with comparison of two periods with different false start rules. In the result section, we analysed the sprinters that took part at WCH at least 3 times and appeared in the final. We assessed the reaction speed from the aging point of view, or more different false start judging conditions. The results shows that the stricter start judging rules in sprint disciplines did not have a significant influence on the reaction time. We also confirmed a research that the sprinters over 30 years old sprinters can achieve very low reaction time at the start. Reaction abilities can be improved by regular and systematic training, so it is necessary to pay attention to them in the training process and focus on their monitoring and subsequent improvement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of the Professional Competency Indicators of University Physical Trainer Studentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The main purpose of this study was to analyse the indicators of the professional Competency of University physical Trainer students, and to explore the importance of these professional indicators. By referring to the two international physical fitness education institutions and literature reviews, three important perspectives of professional Competences are: Professional knowledge, Professional skills, Professional attitude, Furthermore, the result of this research was concluded after three integration of opinions.</p> <p><bold>Method</bold> : Delphi technique was used to integrate the opinions of fifty-two experts and scholars, and the research results were obtained after three integrations. Among the 52 indicators at the three levels.</p> <p><bold>Result</bold>: experts agree that professional attitude is the most important. followed by professional skills, and then professional knowledge. the professional attitude level, “maintaining a positive and enthusiastic professional attitude” was the most important indicator. In the professional skills level, it was noted that “physical fitness training cycle plan design ability”, “physical fitness action correction ability”, “emergency intervention” Ability to adapt” and “ability to use and demonstrate sports equipment” are the most important indicators. In terms of professional knowledge, “customer sports curriculum design” is the most important.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion</bold>: this research can provide references for the university in future development of physical trainer’s training program and establish regulations; fitness club hiring process; self-growth in the industry; future researches and studies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00COVID-19, Public Health Strategies and Post Pandemic AAS/Androgen Use: A Commentary/Short Communicationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>In this commentary/short communication we summarize many recent developments related to public health strategies for COVID-19. At this time, there are a wide range of emerging themes post various lockdown measures that have been reported, such as increased exercise, increased drug use, and various associated declines in mental health and other deleterious effects on eating behaviour patterns. Aligned to this, AAS/Androgen use has increased during and post-lockdowns and we posit, in the context of the aforementioned additional risks that have been reported, that future public health strategies need to demonstrate awareness of increased risk that they (AAS/Androgens) present at this time.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Post-Pandemic Policy Priorities for Financing Sport and Physical Activity in the EUhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The most sport-relevant points in a resolution adopted by the European Parliament with regard to the use of post-Covid-19 relief funds from the general budget of the European Union (EU) are highlighted. Members of Parliament (MEPs) have indicated unambiguous preferences for part of the EU funding to be directed towards the need of youth and sport, the latter in particular at grassroots level, and the resolution represents a piece of soft law which should be drawn upon to interpret relevant legal acts such as the relevant financial instrument(s). The article goes on to discuss the implications in relation to traditional sport policies, as opposed to more participation-driven policies following the health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) paradigm.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Does L. affect hormonal responses following high-intensity resistance exercise?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bhk-2022-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To investigate the effect of a 2-week supplementation with <italic>Tribulus terrestris</italic> L. (<italic>TT</italic>) on the responses of testosterone, cortisol, and thyroid hormones including triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) following an intensive session of resistance exercise (RE).</p> <p><italic>Materials and methods</italic>: Twenty-two healthy non-athlete men (23.8 ± 3.1 years) participated in this study were divided into two groups and were randomly assigned to receive either <italic>TT</italic> supplementation (n = 11) or a placebo (n = 11). They consumed two 250-mg capsules with <italic>TT</italic> or placebo (maltodextrin) per day and performed six REs with the intensity 80-90% of 1RM on the fifteen day of the experiment. Venous blood samples were drawn before supplementation, and before and after the RE session.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The mean values of post-exercise testosterone and cortisol in both groups were significantly higher than pre-exercise and baseline (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01); however, there were no significant differences between the groups (<italic>p</italic> &gt; 0.05). Likewise, despite a trend toward different levels of the responses of thyroid hormones with <italic>TT</italic> supplementation, there were no significant differences either in different time points or the groups (<italic>p</italic> &gt; 0.05).</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Short-term supplementation with <italic>TT</italic> appears to be ineffective in changing the hormonal responses measured in this study following a session of high-intensity RE.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-06T00:00:00.000+00:00The Problematic Institutional Context of Greek Football and the Role of FIFA and UEFAhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2022-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Greek football is on the periphery of European football and it frequently faces scandals and corruption issues. Also, there appears to be a correlation between the wider social and political context and football. Additionally, FIFA and UEFA arguably have contributed to the fate of Greek football. For example, in the past when the Greek government tried to intervene in football, FIFA prevented them several times with the threat of a ban. During the previous years, FIFA and UEFA decided to cooperate with the Greek government and play a more active role in Greek football. However, little has changed in the governance of Greek football. This study has examined the context, critical incidents and the role of actors in Greek football. By using the Institutional Theory approach, our analysis indicates that the institutional context is highly problematic, as the big clubs dominate the institutional mechanisms of football. Corruption appears to be deeply embedded in the structures and operations of football, while the Hellenic Football Federation is controlled by the big clubs. In parallel, there is no plan for the overall development of football, from the grassroots to the elite level. The study concludes with a recommendation for the reformation of Greek football.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Negative Focus, Self-Doubt, and Issues of ‘Tool Proficiency’: Beginner-Coaches’ Reflections on Reflective Practicehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2022-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the field of sports coaching education and learning, reflective practice is considered central to transforming experience and knowledge into expertise, and many governing bodies execute this through professional development and specific guidelines (Vallance, 2019). However, whilst the general consensus within academia and the vocational sector of coaching continue to espouse this approach, there is a lack of evidence to suggest how this is useful for beginner-coaches (defined as emerging-new, with less than three years of experience) as studies generally focus on expert coaches and oftentimes sit within the context of performance and/or elite sport. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the benefits and limitations of reflective practice, and to identify aspects of ideal learning for in-situ, practice-based context as perceived by beginner-coaches who operate more within recreational (although still competitive) sport fields. Situated within the UK context, the methodology comprised of semi-structured interviews conducted with six beginner-coaches. The findings demonstrated that whilst there were tangible benefits to the use of reflective practice (such as perceived additional competency and critical thinking), there were also limitations centred on time constraints, and an over-focus on negative emotions with a subsequent adverse impact on self-confidence and anxiety. The implications, including recommendations and thoughts for the future, are outlined within the paper.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Evidence‐Based Recovery in Soccer – Low‐Effort Approaches for Practitionershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hukin-2022-0082<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Strategies to improve recovery are widely used among soccer players at both amateur and professional levels. Sometimes, however, recovery strategies are ineffective, improperly timed or even harmful to players. This highlights the need to educate practitioners and athletes about the scientific evidence of recovery strategies as well as to provide practical approaches to address this issue. Therefore, recent surveys among soccer athletes and practitioners were reviewed to identify the recovery modalities currently in use. Each strategy was then outlined with its rationale, its physiological mechanisms and the scientific evidence followed by practical approaches to implement the modality. For each intervention, practical and particularly low-effort strategies are provided to ensure that practitioners at all levels are able to implement them. We identified numerous interventions regularly used in soccer, i.e., sleep, rehydration, nutrition, psychological recovery, active recovery, foam-rolling/massage, stretching, cold-water immersion, and compression garments. Nutrition and rehydration were classified with the best evidence, while cold-water immersion, compression garments, foam-rolling/massage and sleep were rated with moderate evidence to enhance recovery. The remaining strategies (active recovery, psychological recovery, stretching) should be applied on an individual basis due to weak evidence observed. Finally, a guide is provided, helping practitioners to decide which intervention to implement. Here, practitioners should rely on the evidence, but also on their own experience and preference of the players.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00A Study Comparing Gait and Lower Limb Muscle Activity During Aquatic Treadmill Running With Different Water Depth and Land Treadmill Runninghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hukin-2022-0030<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Aquatic treadmill running is a partial weight-bearing exercise for rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the surface electromyography activities of the rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, biceps femoris and medial head of gastrocnemius, and gait kinematics during aquatic treadmill running in water levels at waist, mid-thigh and mid-shin and on land. Seventeen healthy subjects (9 males and 8 females) were recruited by convenience sampling. Participants performed 2-min aquatic treadmill running at a specific speed for each water depth. The test speed was selected based upon the speed that elicited 110 steps per min. The surface electromyography data of lower limb muscles and the joint angles at three different water depths and on land were collected to evaluate the muscle activity and gait kinematics using a waterproofed surface electromyography system and inertial measurement unit for each muscle. Results showed that rectus femoris electromyography was different between depths during the swing and stance phases. Likewise, biceps femoris and tibialis anterior electromyography were different between depths for the swing phase. However, it was not the case for gastrocnemius electromyography. Peak flexion angles in both left and right hips were different between depths. A significant increase in a stance/swing ratio was observed with rising water depths. Water depth influenced muscle activity as well as kinematics. Aquatic treadmill running in the mid-thigh level should be further evaluated for its effectiveness, training value and applicability.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of Postactivation Performance Enhancement on the Vertical Jump in High-Level Volleyball Athleteshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hukin-2022-0041<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a training session with and without an intervention of postactivation performance enhancement (PAPE) on countermovement jump (CMJ) height, perceived recovery status (PRS), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs), followed by a specific volleyball training session. The sample consisted of sixteen professional male volleyball players, with an average age of 26.8±6.1 years and average height of 195.9±6.7 cm, randomly divided into a group with PAPE intervention (GPAPE) (n=8), and a control group (CTRL) without PAPE intervention (n=8). The control group carried out the training session with plyometric exercises, and the GPAPE added conditioning protocols for PAPE to plyometric training, followed by a technical tactical volleyball session. At the end of the training session, there was an increase of 16.3% in the height of the CMJ in the GPAPE, while the CTRL showed a decrease of 5% in the height of the CMJ. PRS and RPE variables did not differ between the groups. It was concluded that PAPE had a positive effect on the height of the vertical jump after plyometric training, which was maintained until the end of the technical and tactical volleyball session.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00The Pre-Exhaustion Method Does Not Increase Muscle Activity in Target Muscle During Strength Training in Untrained Individualshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hukin-2022-0027<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigated the effects of the pre-exhaustion method on electromyographic activity (root mean square and median frequency) at different interval sets. Twenty adults with little or no experience in strength training performed the seated row exercise until muscular failure, with or without completing a previous pre-exhaustion set in a pullover exercise. Surface electrodes were placed over the latissimus dorsi, teres major, biceps brachii, and posterior deltoid muscles of the dominant side. The results showed no effect of pre-exhaustion on EMG activity of latissimus dorsi target muscle for any interval sets. Regarding median frequency, our results showed a consistent decrease throughout the sets (p&gt;0.05). Also, our results revealed a decrease in posterior deltoid median frequency with pre-exhaustion (p=0.001). We conclude that the pre-exhaustion method seems ineffective in increasing the EMG activity of the desired muscle throughout all repetitions of strength training. Furthermore, pre-exhaustion seems to be a good way to increase fatigue in the posterior deltoid muscle.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Validity and Reliability of the Smart Groin Trainer for Measuring Hip Adduction Strengthhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hukin-2022-0029<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We analyzed the Smart Groin Trainer device's validity and reliability to measure the isometric hip adduction strength during the adductor squeeze strength test. Fifteen professional soccer players (25.33±4.06 years) and fifteen university students (21.60±1.76 years) participated in this study. All participants performed the squeeze strength test using two portable dynamometers: Smart Groin Trainer and Globus Ergometer. Three maximal isometric hip adduction contractions lasting 5s, interspersed by 3min rest intervals, were performed. Reliability was analyzed with intraclass correlation coefficients, standard error of measurements, and minimal detectable change. The absolute percent error and inter-device accuracy were also analyzed. Correlation analysis assessed the inter-device concurrent validity. The results found no significant differences (p&gt;0.05) between devices in the squeeze strength test values in soccer players and university students. Inter-device comparisons revealed excellent levels of reliability and accuracy in soccer players. Concurrent validity measures revealed strong inter-device relationships in soccer players (r=0.89) and very strong relationships in university students (r=0.99). Intra-device analysis using the Smart Groin Trainer showed excellent relative and absolute reliability in tested soccer players. Our data demonstrated excellent levels of agreement between both dynamometers during the squeeze strength test, suggesting the Smart Groin Trainer as a valid, reliable, and accurate device to measure isometric hip adduction strength.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessing the Sprint Force-Velocity Profile in International Football Players with Cerebral Palsy: Validity, Reliability and Sport Class’ Profileshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hukin-2022-0065<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study assessed and described the Sprint Force-velocity (SFv) profile, and its validity and reliability in international cerebral palsy (CP) football players. Twenty international male CP football players (age: 26.9±7.4) performed a 30-m sprint, a vertical jump (CMJ), a change of direction (MAT), a dribbling and an intermittent endurance (Yo-YoIR1) test. The SFv profile and physical performance variables were shown according to the players’ sport class with the estimation of the effect sizes between classes. The SFv showed high reliability (ICC=0.77 to 0.99; SEM=0.89 to 8.66%). Validity for the SFv was provided by its positive correlation with the players’ sport class (r=0.53 to 0.75; p=.02 to &lt;.01) and the rest of the physical performance tests (r=0.45 to 0.99; p=.04 to &lt;.01). The RFmax was the main SFv profile variable that explained players’ performance in the rest of the tests (β=0.77 to 1.0; p&lt;.05; R2=0.59 to 0.99). The SFv profile seems to be an efficient test to assess international CP football players’ physical performance. This provides information about the players’ individual sprint mechanical characteristics and their sprint strengths and weaknesses, allowing coaches and conditioning trainers to individualize their training interventions to optimize sprint performance.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Prevalence of Dehydration and the Relationship with Fluid Intake and Self‐Assessment of Hydration Status in Czech First League Soccer Playershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hukin-2022-0035<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the hydration status of Czech First League soccer players, and to compare the reported fluid intake, perceived fluid intake and thirst sensation of euhydrated (EU) and dehydrated (DE) players. The study involved 124 Czech male professional soccer players (age 25.2±5.0 years) participating in annual winter, pre-season laboratory testing. Hydration status was assessed based on urine specific gravity (USG), euhydration was set at USG≤1.020. Fluid intake and thirst perception were evaluated by a questionnaire. The sample mean for USG was 1.021±0.008, 56% of players were dehydrated. Reported daily fluid intake was significantly (p&lt;0.001, d=0.95, large effect) higher in EU compared to DE players. Daily fluid intake negatively correlated with USG (rS=-0.46, p&lt;0.001, medium effect). The fluid intake perception score was significantly (p=0.005, d=0.54, medium effect) better in EU compared to DE players. Reported intake perception scores negatively correlated with USG (rS=-0.32, p&lt;0.001, medium effect). However, there was no correlation (rS=-0.09, p=0.34, trivial effect) between thirst perception scores and USG. Thirst perception scores were not significantly different between EU and DE players (p=0.35, d=0.18, trivial effect). Our results indicated that self-assessment of both daily fluid intake and perceived fluid intake matched with objective hydration status, while self-assessment of thirst perception was not an appropriate indicator of hydration status in elite soccer players.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Cognitive Factors in Elite Handball: Do Players’ Positions Determine their Cognitive Processes?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hukin-2022-0063<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For an athlete to be successful at the professional level, he or she should be characterized by extraordinary preparation in four areas: physical, technical, cognitive (related to game strategy, perception, and decision-making), and emotional (coping, emotional control). This study aimed to determine the level of selected cognitive traits in handball players while considering their sports level and assigned position on the court. Fifty handball players participated in the study. Participants consisted of 35 national team players, six first-division players, and nine second-division players. There were no significant differences between players from the elite (national team) and the sub-elite (I and II divisions) group. The results identified major differences in selective attention and short-term memory between handball players assigned to different positions (goalkeepers, compared to players in other positions, had lower attention and short-term memory). Thus, it is possible to develop a more effective psychological training program. However, it must be remembered that the results showed great variability among handball players. With this in mind, individual differences should be taken into account when planning psychological interventions.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Post-Activation Performance Enhancement in Sprinters: Effects of Hard Versus Sand Surfaceshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/hukin-2022-0062<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to compare the post-activation performance enhancement induced by successive drop-jumps performed on hard and sand surfaces in sprint and jump performance of top-level sprinters. Athletes were tested on two occasions. On each visit they were allocated to one of the experimental protocols, which consisted of performing 2x5 drop-jumps from a box with the height of 60-cm on hard or sand surfaces in randomized order, seven days apart. Prior to and 7 and 15-min after executing drop-jumps, sprinters performed countermovement jumps and 60-m sprint tests. Differences between sprinting splits and surfaces were assessed using a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. No significant differences in jump height or sprint time were observed (p&gt;0.05), regardless of the surface used (i.e., hard or sand) during the conditioning activity (effect sizes [95% confidence intervals] ranging from 0.01 [-0.84;0.84] to 0.44 [-0.42;1.27]). Performing drop-jumps on sand or hard surfaces immediately before maximum sprinting bouts does not provide any advantage or disadvantage to top-level sprinters. Sprint coaches may prescribe short-plyometric training activities on sand surfaces even close to competitions, bearing in mind that this strategy will not compromise sprint-specific performance.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1