rss_2.0Sports and Recreation FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Sports and Recreation and Recreation Feed on Saturation Diving in Poland and its Implementation. Part I A. General Characteristics of Saturation Diving Research in Our Poland. Pioneer Times; 1967-1985<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article is the first in a series of articles on the research and implementation of saturation diving technology in our country which presents the specific Polish conditions and achievements against the background of economic and historical circumstances. In view of the fact that research and implementation has a history of more than half a century, selected key figures of this period are recalled, some of whom have disappeared in the fogs of history. In the specialized literature of the world, the Polish underwater habitats of Meduza are among top 6 countries that researched and implemented, this high technology of saturation diving. Regarded as the inspirer, pioneer and creator of the first saturation diving, he designed and developed the technique and decompression with the cooperation of a team of enthusiasts from clubs and professional divers, as well as engineering staff from the Tri-City enterprises. In the first part of the article the author characterizes the saturation dives in comparison with short dives with particular emphasis on decompression, which is the key to safe diving. The article also takes into account the technical conditions for the implementation of the first saturation dives. The author discusses the general methodology of validation and verification of the assumed decompression, referring to the Polish conditions. He describes how the medical, technical, and organizational problems of implementation of saturation diving were solved in the pioneering period against the background of world achievements. Furthermore, the author describes Polish habitat constructions of Meduza and Geonur types and their application to underwater work on the Polish shelf and coastal areas. Despite the great progress in the field of medicine and technology, as well as organization, the problems of saturation diving, despite the passage of time, remain relevant, as these are the most difficult dives from the point of view of organization, underwater physiology and safety technology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Gulyar: Vital Progress and Contribution to the Development of Underwater Physiology and Medicine Sciences<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Here we present a unique life path of Sergiy Gulyar, a world-known Ukrainian scientist who was overcoming extreme conditions studying them on himself. He has developed his determination and responsibility from his basic experiences as a surgeon and his desire to win from his involvement in sports. His research in underwater laboratories has shown a capacity to find untrodden pathways to understand and explain what others did not even suspect. His physiological studies on the role of sea depths, breathing mixtures, underwater exposures, and diving schemes marked the path to the aquanauts and undersea man. Reaching the hyper depths equivalent to 2,500 m revealed the physiological limits of human being and defined how to handle hyperbaric respiratory failure. Prof. S. Gulyar suggested a usage of natural physiological mechanisms to accelerate the re-adaptation process as a part of the high-mountain rehabilitation of hyperbaria-adapted people. Dissertations were defended, books and articles were written, a scientific school of followers was created. Unfortunately, during the Soviet period, Prof. S. Gulyar faced a set of organizational problems and obstacles from the Soviet regime. In particular, his works were classified or hushed up, his intellectual property was often used without mentioning the author and his scientific team was intimidated by criminal investigations. Main recognition during this period had come from professional societies in Europe and the United States. After the collapse of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Prof. S. Gulyar introduced a number of innovations and inventions in electromagnetic medicine and physiology. In particular, he has managed to account for main common features of physiological effects of light stimulation produced by Lasers, Light-Emitted Diodes and Bioptron light sources. By doing so, some mystical dogmas were filtered out and new paths to sensible light-induced treatments were developed. At the same time, Prof. S. Gulyar has preserved the legacy of many generations of medical professionals who used light in their treatments. He has shown in his physiological experiments that stimulation of biologically active zones including acupuncture points light stimulation has a wide spectrum of biological effects including alleviation of pain symptoms. Now mono- and polychromatic visual and transcutaneous light therapy of pain has been recognized scientifically and clinically, and its place in medicine has been firmly established. Prof. S. Gulyar described a new functional system of the organism that regulates the electromagnetic equilibrium. A step into the future was the first experimentally grounded technology for the use of fullerene-modified light. Positive changes have been proven with its percutaneous and ocular use. These first results open the door to complete analysis and future investigations. Prof. S. Gulyar has published 20 monographs, 470 papers and abstracts, and received 11 patents. Many of his inventions have been implemented, the others are still awaiting implementation. This article is based on the data obtained by the authors during many years of their personal cooperation, as well as from the memoirs of Prof. S. Gulyar and the materials he provided.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis of a Case of Decompression Sickness in a Diver<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents an accident of a diver in classic equipment. After several hours of hard work underwater, shortened instead of extended decompression was applied. The staff disregarded the symptoms of type I decompression sickness reported by the diver, and therefore the treatment was started with a significant delay. The use of recompression treatment - therapeutic decompression resulted in permanent and complete resolution of symptoms.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Self-Government Tasks in the Field of Social and Vocational Rehabilitation of Disabled People in the Lubelskie Voivodeship in 2008-2017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Disability is an interdisciplinary-medical, social and professional phenomenon. The goal of medical professionals is to treat a person and restore his or her fitness. The group of disabled people in Poland is characterized by a lower level of education than among non-disabled people and high unemployment. The purpose of vocational rehabilitation is to make it easier for a disabled person to obtain and maintain appropriate employment and career advancement. Social rehabilitation is defined as an activity aimed at enabling a disabled person to fully participate in social life. The tasks of the local government addressed to disabled people include conducting occupational therapy workshops (WTZ), occupational activity establishments (ZAZ), community self-help homes (ŚDS) and social welfare homes (DPS).</p> <p>The aim of the study was to analyze the implementation of self-government tasks in the field of social and vocational rehabilitation of disabled people, with particular emphasis on ZAZ in the Lubelskie Voivodeship in 2008-2017.</p> <p>The work uses data collected in 2008-2017 by the Regional Center for Social Policy (ROPS) in Lublin. In addition, in December 2017, they were sent by e-mail to ROPS and Marshal’s Offices in voivodship cities in Poland, inquiries about tasks and ways of implementing these tasks in the field of social and vocational rehabilitation of disabled people in 2008-2017. The available data on expenditure from the State Fund for Rehabilitation of the Disabled (PFRON) was collected. The research material was statistically developed using the IBM SPSS Statistics (v. 25) and Statistica (v. 13) statistical packages.</p> <p>In the years 2008-2017 in the Lubelskie Voivodeship, PLN 75,529,959 was allocated for vocational and social rehabilitation of people with disabilities, the most (PLN 9,158,243) in 2016. In the same year, the largest number of people used the ZAZ. In 2008-2017, the average annual amount of expenditure on social and vocational rehabilitation of disabled people in all Polish provinces was PLN 7 576 718.9. In the discussed period, the highest amounts from PFRON were allocated to the rehabilitation of disabled people in the Śląskie Voivodeship, and the lowest in Lubuskie, while Lubelskie received average amounts.</p> <p>In Poland, in the field of social and vocational rehabilitation and employment of disabled people, solutions similar to those already developed are applied in the countries of Western Europe. The costs of financing vocational rehabilitation, understood as financing the functioning of the ZAZ by voivodship self-governments, are constantly growing. The growing expenses incurred on the activities of the ZAZ do not significantly improve the situation related to vocational rehabilitation and employment of disabled people. Improving the operation of the system of vocational and social rehabilitation of people with disabilities should not only consist in increasing the funds spent under the current inefficient system, but should be preceded by a thorough analysis of the current state and the development of extensive organizational changes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Applications of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy-Narrative Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a method supporting the treatment of many diseases. Oxygen therapy treatments are conducted in hyperbaric chambers, in which patients breathe pure, 100% oxygen with higher than atmospheric pressure. This allows to increase the amount of oxygen supplied to all cells of the body many times over. The treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy enables the patient to recover faster and be fully active, and also reduces the costs of standard treatment.</p> <p>The aim of the study was to summarize the possible applications of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The available literature in the PUBMED database was reviewed in September 2022 with the use of the phrases ‘hyperbaric oxygen therapy’, ‘therapeutic applications’. The indications for therapy in a hyperbaric chamber are all kinds of diseases, both acute and chronic. The method supports the nourishment and regeneration of cells and tissues of the organism, and also slows down the aging process. However, due to the possible side effects of such therapy, patients should be qualified for its use after a careful analysis of their clinical condition and coexisting diseases. To sum up: hyperbaric oxygen therapy is most often used in the treatment of skin diseases and injuries, burns, and peripheral vascular diseases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Laser Imaging<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Attenuation of light in the ocean ranges widely depending on the environment and is especially significant in optical remote sensing. Absorption of light by ocean water limits the range light can travel before being extinguished. The complex interactions of scattering light and ocean water often lead to distortions of the signal as it propagates which degrades the quality and accuracy of underwater measurements. Consequently, underwater visibility (i.e. how well an object can be seen with definition at distance) can be less than 1 [m] in turbid and murky environments such as harbors. Advancements in laser imaging systems make highly accurate measurements at further ranges than has previously been possible through temporally filtering of a modulated laser signal at frequencies as high as 1 [GHz]. Here we overview the processes affecting underwater light propagation and visibility, laser imaging systems, recent advancements in the field of underwater optical imaging, and the application of such systems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of premodulated interferential current versus diadynamic current on the management of lateral elbow tendinopathy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To compare the effect of premodulated interferential current (PREMOD IFC) and diadynamic current (DD) with exercise training on the management of lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET).</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: One hundred and four patients with unilateral LET from both genders (55 females and 49 males) were randomly allocated into two groups. Group A received PREMOD IFC in addition to the exercises, and group B received DD with the same exercises. The outcomes were maximum grip strength assessed by the hand dynamometer, the pinch strength assessed by the pinch gauge dynamometer, and pain and functional disability of the forearm assessed by a patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaire. All participants received electrical stimulation, consisting of three sessions per week for six weeks.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The mean PRTEE score, and grip strength were significantly improved after six weeks in favour of group A, while there was no significant difference between the two groups in pinch strength. (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: The results revealed that the combination of PREMOD IFC with exercises could improve pain, functional disability, and grip strength compared to DD with exercises in LET patients without a significant difference between the two groups in pinch strength.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the effect of hitting strategies in baseball using counterfactual virtual simulation with deep learning<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In baseball, every play on the field is quantitatively evaluated and the statistics have an effect on individual and team strategies. The weighted on base average (wOBA) is well known as a measure of a batter’s hitting contribution. However, this measure ignores the game situation, such as the runners on base, which coaches and batters are known to consider when employing multiple hitting strategies, yet, the effectiveness of these strategies is unknown. This is probably because (1) we cannot obtain the batter’s strategy and (2) it is difficult to estimate the effect of the strategies. Here, we propose a new method for estimating the effect using counterfactual batting simulation. The entire framework consists of two phases: (i) generate a counter-factual batter’s ability based on their actual performances and (ii) simulate games with the batting simulator. To realize (i), we propose a deep learning model that transforms batting ability when batting strategy is changed. This method can estimate the effects of various strategies, which has been traditionally difficult with actual game data. We found that, when the switching cost of batting strategies can be ignored, the use of different strategies increased runs. When the switching cost is considered, the conditions for increasing runs were limited. Our results suggest that players and coaches should be careful when employing multiple batting strategies given the trade-offs thereof. We also discuss practical baseball use-cases to use this simulation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Relationship between Training Load and Recovery Status in Adult Soccer Players: a Machine Learning Approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Periods of intensified training may increase athletes’ fatigue and impair their recovery status. Therefore, understanding internal and external load markers-related to fatigue is crucial to optimize their weekly training loads. The current investigation aimed to adopt machine learning (ML) techniques to understand the impact of training load parameters on the recovery status of athletes. Twenty-six adult soccer players were monitored for six months, during which internal and external load parameters were daily collected. Players’ recovery status was assessed through the 10-point total quality recovery (TQR) scale. Then, different ML algorithms were employed to predict players’ recovery status in the subsequent training session (S-TQR). The goodness of the models was evaluated through the root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient (r). Random forest regression model produced the best performance (RMSE=1.32, MAE=1.04, r = 0.52). TQR, age of players, total decelerations, average speed, and S-RPE recorded in the previous training were recognized by the model as the most relevant features. Thus, ML techniques may help coaches and physical trainers to identify those factors connected to players’ recovery status and, consequently, driving them toward a correct management of the weekly training loads.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Impact of Blended Learning and Direct Video Feedback on Primary School Students’ Three-Step Ball Throwing Technique<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this study was to evaluate three distinct methods of teaching the three-step ball throw simulating the javelin throw technique to primary school students. The sample consisted of 131 primary school students of 5th and 6th grade (Mage = 11.4, SD = 0.47 years) randomly divided into three groups. The control group (CON) received typical instruction, the first experimental group (EXP) followed a blended learning intervention which included an interactive learning activity software and the second experimental group (EXPVF) followed the same blended learning method with an additional direct video feedback system. A pre/post-test design was implemented to evaluate students’ technique, using as criteria five selected technique elements of the three-step ball throw. Wilcoxon signed-rank test analysis showed that all three groups performed significantly better after the intervention in all five criteria. However, Kruskal-Wallis H test analysis with post-hoc test revealed that the results for EXPVF group were significantly better than the other two groups in all elements, while the EXP group showed significantly better results in three of the five elements compared with the CON group. In conclusion, students appeared to benefit more in their three-step ball throw technique through blended learning and direct video feedback.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Professional Soccer – Validation of a Dynamic Key Performance Indicator Combining Space Control and Ball Control within Goalscoring Opportunities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Typical performance indicators in professional quantitative soccer analysis simplify complex matters, resulting in loss of information. Hence, a novel approach to characterize the performance of soccer teams was investigated: Success-Scores, combining space control with ball control and the correlation between the two.</p> <p>Success-Score Profiles were calculated for 14 games from the German Bundesliga. The dataset was split into two groups: all data points above resp. below the 80<sup>th</sup> percentile of Success-Scores. Subsequently, the relative goalscoring frequency in those two groups was compared. All data points were sorted according to their Success-Score and split into equally sized eighths. These groups were tested for a rank order correlation with the number of scored goals. Finally, the Success-Scores of two teams with different success levels as well as their opponents’ Success-Scores were compared.</p> <p>Results indicated significantly higher goalscoring frequencies above the 80th percentile for Success-Scores and a statistically significant rank order correlation between the Success-Scores and the number of scored goals, r<sub>s</sub>(6) = 0.73, p = .04. The more successful team showed significantly higher Success-Scores.</p> <p>This novel performance indicator shows significant connections to success defined as scoring goals and final ranking in elite soccer and therefore shows potential in reconizing underlying performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Series Data Mining for Sport Data: a Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Time series data mining deals with extracting useful and meaningful information from time series data. Recently, the increasing use of temporal data, in particular time series data, has received much attention in the literature. Since most of sports data contain time information, it is natural to consider the temporal dimension in form of time series. However, in sports, the effective use of time series data mining techniques is still under development. The main goal of this paper is therefore to serve as an introduction to time series data mining and a glossary for interested researchers from the sports community. The paper gives an overview about current data mining tasks and tries to identify their potential research direction for further investigation. Furthermore, we want to draw more attention with respect to the importance of mining approaches with sport data and their particular challenges beyond usual time series data mining tasks.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue asymmetry of the lateral abdominal muscles in response to neurodevelopmental traction technique in children with pelvic asymmetry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The aim of the study was to evaluate asymmetry of activation of lateral abdominal muscles (LAM) in response to neurodevelopmental traction technique in children with pelvic asymmetry.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Measurements of LAM activation asymmetry were performed during traction with the force of 5% body weight in two experimental conditions: 1) in neutral position, 2) in 20° posterior trunk inclination. Twenty-three healthy children with pelvic asymmetry participated in the study. To evaluate LAM activation asymmetry ultrasound technology was employed (two Mindray DP660 devices (Mindray, Shenzhen, China)). Activation asymmetry indices for each individual LAM were calculated.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The magnitude of LAM activation asymmetry indexes formed a gradient, with the most profound transversus abdominis (TrA) showing the greatest asymmetry, and the most superficial obliquus externus – the smallest. The inter-muscle differences were most pronounced between the TrA and the two more superficial oblique muscles. There were no correlation between the magnitude of pelvic asymmetry and LAM activation asymmetry.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: During the neurodevelopmental traction technique there is a difference in individual LAM activation symmetry, with deeper muscles showing greater asymmetry. The activation asymmetry of the LAM does not seem to be associated with the pelvic asymmetry. Results are similar to those recorded in earlier studies in samples where no pelvic asymmetry were subjected to analysis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of eight-week aerobic exercises combined with resistance training on cardiovascular risk factors in women<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: Main purpose of this study is to examine the effects of moderate-intensity exercises for eight weeks, combined with cardio and resistance exercises, on the cardiovascular risk factors for women.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>:Atotal of 30 volunteer females between the ages of 40 and 65 participated in the study. The volunteers were divided into two groups as exercise and control. The exercise group was given exercises three days aweek. Height, weight, body mass index, waist, hip, waist-to-hip ratio, resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, glucose levels were collected before and after the exercise program.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: There was asignificant decrease in weight, body mass index, hip circumference levels after the exercise program (p &lt; 0.05), while no significant difference was detected for waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratios p &gt; 0.05). While asignificant decrease in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides levels of the exercise group was observed after the exercise program (p &lt; 0.05), no significant change was found in glucose, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, and low density lipoprotein levels (p &gt; 0.05).</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: It was observed that moderate intensity exercises combined with cardio and resistance exercises resulted with positive effects on cardiovascular risk factors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Front and Back Squat Record Scores in Long-Term Training of Young Weightlifters<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction.</bold></italic> Front and back squats are multi-joint exercises used in sports to develop strength, power and muscle mass. Due to their movement structure and involvement of the main muscle groups, they are training measures that are used in strength training in various sports. A long-term training process leading to sports mastery requires the correct selection of loads as well as objective control of the training effects to date, both short-term and long-term. The aim of this study was to create a statistical model and to determine with it the character of the changes in the record scores in the front and back squat of young weight-lifters over a two-year training cycle.</p> <p><italic><bold>Material and Methods.</bold></italic> The study included 17 young athletes training in competitive weightlifting. Recorded scores in the front squat and back squat were measured seven times (every three months over a two-year training cycle). The progression method was used to determine the maximum load, and the repetition with the highest load (1RM) was used in the calculations.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results.</bold></italic> The subjects performed better in the back squat, but the difference between the results for both squats was approximately constant over the two-year training cycle. The time courses of both squats were similar over the analysed period. Systematic increases in maximum results were observed. The first statistically non-significant differences between the mean record values in successive measurements were found between the sixth and seventh measurements for both squats.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions.</bold></italic> Determining the relationship between front and back squat record scores can contribute to the optimisation of training loads in sports using strength training. Obtaining an analytical form of the course of record scores over time for both squats helps to assess the skill level of athletes and predict their performance in the next training macro-cycle.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Tourists – A Study of Hotel Online Reviews in the Times of Covid-19<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction.</bold></italic> Tourists traveling in the times of crisis have a higher tolerance for risk and can be called ‘crisis-resistant’. The fact that they are ready to travel even if it is burdened with additional stress and obstacles makes them a valuable market segment for hoteliers, which is worth striving for particularly in the current pandemic situation. The research aims at better understanding of contemporary ‘crisis-resistant’ tourists through in-depth analysis of electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM).</p> <p><italic><bold>Material and methods.</bold></italic> A web scrapping method was applied to acquire eWOM content posted by tourists traveling in the times of Covid-19. A total of 1239 reviews from 455 hotels were analyzed. Six hypotheses were tested with the use of T Test and Chi Square test.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results.</bold></italic> The type of travel and the month of travel did not influence the frequency of coronavirus mentions. Similarly, reviews relating to COVID-19 did not vary in score nor in frequency of managerial replies. However, mention of coronavirus influenced the length of the review and its helpfulness.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions.</bold></italic> Crisis-resistant tourists treat issues related to the pandemic (including some in-hotel regulations and restrictions) as any other aspects of the hotel performance and accept them. Interestingly, those aspects do not negatively influence the total evaluation of the hotel, which may suggest that such tourists have already adapted to all the pandemic-induced burdens. At the same time, hotel managers fail to respond timely and adequately to negative comments, which seems to be of the key importance in such a situation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Component Analysis in the Study of the Structure of Decathlon at Different Stages of Sports Career<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction.</bold></italic> Due to the complexity of decathlon resulting from the number and diversity of the component events as well as difficult and time-consuming training required of athletes, high sports performance in this combined form of competition may depend on several factors.</p> <p><italic><bold>Material and Methods.</bold></italic> The objective of the paper was to subject the careers of the world’s top decathletes competing between 1985 and 2018 to the principal component analysis (PCA) in order to explore and define interdependencies between the component events and the final result in decathlon at four stages of sports career development (from U20 – junior, through U23 and athletic excellence stage to decline in athletic performance).</p> <p><italic><bold>Results.</bold></italic> The results made it possible to define the majority of the principal components determining high performance in decathlon.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions.</bold></italic> The analysis has shown that each sports ontogenesis stage has shared elements and a specific arrangement of events for every age category.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic Threat on Purchase Decisions of Travel Agency Customers in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction.</bold></italic> The dynamic increase in world tourism demand was interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The package holidays market is one of the tourism branches affected by the crisis the most. The study aimed at identifying the direction of changes in purchase behaviors regarding package holidays caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><italic><bold>Material and methods.</bold></italic> The research on tourists purchasing package holidays during the COVID-19 pandemic was quantitative and covered a nationwide online panel of respondents characterized by a representative distribution for the general population of Poles (n = 1502). At the data analysis stage, logit models of buyers’ behaviors were used. In the estimation process, GLM in R (R Core Team 2022) was applied.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results.</bold></italic> The situation related to the COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected how tourists traveled. The conducted analysis made it possible to distinguish four segments of buyers during the pandemic and to identify factors determining the choice of one of the purchase patterns. Compared to the pre-pandemic period, a significant increase in the number of tourists who needed personal contact with sellers at brick-and-mortar travel offices was observed.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions.</bold></italic> The study presented a meaningful contribution to understanding purchase behaviors of tourists who prefer package holidays. It is one of the few studies that compared behavior patterns of holiday package buyers in the period before and during the pandemic. The knowledge of changes in package holiday purchase behaviors is essential for travel agencies to design effective marketing strategies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Fall Risk Predictors from Different Groups of Variables<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction.</bold></italic> Risk factors associated with falling in the elderly are numerous. Most existing tools use a combination of functional assessment and risk scoring based on known risk factors. The aim of the study was to verify which parameters could be used to predict fall risk (FR) in older women.</p> <p><italic><bold>Material and Methods.</bold></italic> The study involved 56 inactive females aged 71.77 ± 7.43(SD). Backward stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine which independent variables predict FR in older women.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results.</bold></italic> Significant predictors of FR were: in model 1 – age and body mass (in 32%); in model 2 – knee extensor strength of the right lower limb (KEs R) (in 20%); in model 3 – the Timed up and Go test (TUG) (in 25.5%); and in model 4 – medial-lateral stability index with eyes open (MLSI EO) (in 35%). By means of backward stepwise regression analysis using the above models, the variables that significantly influence FR in seniors were body mass, MLSI EO, KEs, and age. The above analysis shows that these indicators (model 5) may predict FR in older women in 59% of cases.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions.</bold></italic> It was determined that variables that significantly influence FR in seniors were body mass, age, KEs, and MLSI EO. Research should be continued to identify more predictors and define norms that indicate FR.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Between Physical Fitness and Wrestling – Specific Fitness in Freestyle Wrestlers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction.</bold></italic> The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between the parameters of conditioning preparation and specific fitness of freestyle wrestlers.</p> <p><italic><bold>Material and Methods.</bold></italic> Seventy-four subjects were selected from freestyle wrestlers. All subjects were assessed for height, weight and body mass index. Agility, dynamic strength and strength endurance were assessed using standing broad jump, push-ups, wall bar hanging leg raises, pull-ups and a zigzag run. Wrestling-specific fitness was assessed using standing gymnastic bridge with return, wrestling carousel, front kip up, while special endurance was assessed with suplex throws of the mannequin.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results.</bold></italic> For initial data analysis, one-way ANOVA was used. Further data analysis was performed with multiple regression. Suplex throws of the mannequin had the biggest impact on achieving high sports results. These findings suggest that specific fitness tests which simulate sports effort are the most reliable measures.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions.</bold></italic> Owing to special fitness tests, training can be monitored more effectively. The movements made during a sports fight should be taken into account while preparing a given test.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue